Barbary macaques are diurnal. They are both aroreal and terrestrial, foraging both in the trees and on the ground. Locomotion is quadrupedal.

Barbary macaques live in multimale-multifemale groups with matrilineal hierarchies, which represent the core of the social group (Thierry 2007). The size of natural groups varies from seven to 88 individuals, with an average of 27 individuals (Fooden 2007). Large groups may fission into smaller groups, with matrilines remaining together. Neighbouring groups have overlapping home ranges

Barbary macaques sleep in clusters of 2-3 animals. Adult females sleep with their infants and juvenile daughters, whereas juvenile males sleep in clusters together or with adult males (Ansorge et al 1992).

Communication and maintenance of social bonds involves grooming, mating and the use of diverse facial and visual expressions. The vocal repertoire of Barbary macaques incorporates screams, shrill barks, geckers, low-frequency pants and grunts, with gradation within and between call types (Fischer and Hammerschmidt, 2002).