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Diagnostic characters | Morphology and terminology | Notes on famalies

1. Wings shortened, not reaching apex of gaster

2

-. Wings fully developed, reaching past apex of gaster

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2. Segments 1 and 2 of metasoma cylindrical, slender, forming a 2-segmented petiole (Fig. 1); head with frontal and posterior surfaces separated by a pleated membrane dorsally which has a bellows-appearance when expanded; body length less than 1mm [1 species known, New Zealand]

MYMAROMMATIDAE

Fig. 1

Fig. 1

-. Petiole, if visible, one-segmented; head not with bellows-like structure; body length variable and often more than 1mm

3

3. Eyes absent or vestigial, much less than one-quarter as long as the distance between them (Figs 2-4); head prognathous and frequently with massive mandibles which may be more than half as long as head (Figs 2,3); fore and mid legs often conspicuously more robust than mid legs (Fig. 4); wings usually completely absent (Figs 1,2,4); tarsi varying from 1- to 5-segmented; gaster frequently elongate and recurved below thorax (Fig. 5); body colour yellow or orange, never metallic; associated with fruit of figs

AGAONIDAE

Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

-. Eyes almost always distinct and more than one-third as long as the distance between them; head almost always hypognathous and usually with small or normal-sized mandibles which are much less than one-quarter as long as head; all legs of similar proportions; wings almost always present; tarsi varying from 3- to 5-segmented; gaster never elongate and recurved below thorax; body colour often dark brown, black or metallic; not associated with fruit of fig

4

4. Frons with a straight, transverse suture a little above toruli which connects with vertical sutures adjacent to each orbit, thus forming an "H" (Fig. 6)

MYMARIDAE

Fig. 6

Fig. 6

-. Frons normally without a transverse suture above toruli but if present and straight, not V-shaped, then never with vertical sutures which run adjacent to inner orbits

5

5. Tarsi 3- or 4-segmented

6

-. Tarsi 5-segmented

9

6. Gaster sessile, broadly attached to propodeum

7

-. Gaster with a distinct constriction between gaster and propodeum

8

7. Tarsi 3-segmented; funicle at most 2-segmented

TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE

-. Tarsi 4-segmented; funicle at least 3-segmented

APHELINIDAE

8. Clava and funicle each 6-segmented

ROTOITIDAE

-. Clava at most 3-segmented; funicle with not more than 5 segments

EULOPHIDAE

9. Mesopleuron undivided, relatively enlarged and longer than high (Figs 7,8)

10

Fig. 7

Fig. 7

Fig. 8

Fig. 8

-. Mesopleuron not unduly enlarged, mostly higher than long and divided into mesepisternum and mesepimeron, the two parts often with different sculpture

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10. Thorax in profile with mid coxa inserted about level with middle of mesopleuron or even slightly anterior to this (Figs 7,8)

ENCYRTIDAE

-. Thorax in profile with mid coxa inserted about level with posterior margin of mesopleuron

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11. Antennal flagellum with not more than six segments; gaster sessile; mesoscutum at least slightly convex with notauli always present and straight, although sometimes strongly displaced laterally and not obvious; body normally not metallic, varying from yellow to dark brown or black, rarely metallic green; length normally less than 1.5mm

APHELINIDAE

- Antennal flagellum 8- or 10-segmented; gaster always with a distinct petiole; mesoscutum either impressed or convex with notauli very inconspicuous or strongly curved; body mostly at least partly metallic, usually dark green, brown or black; length almost always greaterthan1.5mm

EUPELMIDAE

12. Pronotum, in dorsal view, with a clearly defined subrectangular area (or collar), which is clearly separate from the gradually tapering neck of the pronotum and is about as wide as the mesoscutum; the length of the collar at least about two-thirds as long as mesoscutum; antenna with not more than six funicle segments; head and dorsum of thorax mostly with numerous, conspicuous piliferous punctures which normally give rise to a very coarse sculpture

EURYTOMIDAE

-. Pronotum without a distinct large and subrectangular collar; antenna frequently with seven funicular segments; sculpture of head and thorax mostly shallow

13

13. Gaster broadly sessile; notaular lines always present and straight, not curved; funicle in females rarely with more than three or four segments, in males usually with five; mid tibia normally with a relatively strong apical spur

APHELINIDAE

-. Gaster always clearly constricted at junction with propodeum, never broadly sessile and often distinctly petiolate; notaular lines, if present, distinctly curved; antenna frequently with more than five funicle segments, in female almost always with more than four

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14. Cercal plates slightly raised and papillar in form, not flat; female with ovipositor clearly exserted with exserted part at least one-quarter as long as gaster (very few species will run here)

TORYMIDAE

-. Cercal plates flat, not papillar in form; female with ovipositor variable but often hardly exserted and less than one-quarter as long as gaster

PTEROMALIDAE

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Last updated 07-Jun-2004 Dr B R Pitkin