Dr Tim Littlewood

Littlewood
  • Head of Life Sciences Department
  • Life Sciences department
  • Department Operations Team
Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road
London
SW7 5BD

Biography

Present Position

Individual Merit Researcher, Parasitic Worms Group

Education & Qualifications

2004                 D.Sc., University of Manchester, UK
1988                 Ph.D. Zoology, University of the West Indies
1982                 B.Sc. (Hons) Zoology, University of Manchester, UK

Professional

Positions held

2005-present               Individual Merit Researcher, NHM
2004-2005                   Researcher, NHM
2001-2005                   Wellcome Senior Research Fellow in Basic Biomedical Sciences, NHM
1996-2001                   Wellcome Senior Research Fellow in Biodiversity, King’s College & NHM
1996-1999                   Honorary Lecturer, King’s College Univ. London
1995                             Post-doctoral Research Fellow, King's College Univ. London
1991-1994                   NERC Post-doctoral Research Associate, NHM
1988-1991                   Post-doctoral Research Associate, Rutgers University, USA

Current Editorial Board Appointments

2008-present              Folia Parasitologica
2008-present              Systematic Parasitology
2007-present              Journal of Zoology
2007-present              Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
2003-present              Acta Parasitologica
2000-present              International Journal for Parasitology

Other Current Appointments

2010-present              Royal Society International Networking Panel
2003-present              Taxonomic advisor (Platyhelminthes); NCBI GenBank

Scholarships, Fellowships & Awards

2009                            British Society for Parasitology C.A. Wright Memorial Medal
2001-2005                  Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship in Basic Biomedical Sciences
1996-2000                  Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship in Biodiversity Research
1982-1985                  British Council Study & Serve Scholar                  

 

Grants Awarded (selected)

  • 2010 BBSRC Tools & Resources Fund. DTJL (PI), Peter Foster (Co-PI). A platform for massive parallel sequencing of longPCR amplicons. 18 months
  • 2010 ARC Linkage Grant. Robin Gasser (PI), Aaron Jex (Co-PI), DTJL (Co-PI). Mitogenomics using a massively parallel reactor platform - from barcoding to diagnostic tools for pathogens of major socioeconomic importance. 3 years
  • 2008 NSF (PB&I). Janine Caira (PI), Kirsten Jensen (PI), DTJL (Co-PI), Jean Mariaux (Co-PI). A survey of the tapeworms (Cestoda: Platyhelminthes) from the vertebrate bowels of the earth. 5+1 years
  • 2007 NERC. DTJL (PI), Paul Taylor (Co-PI), Jo Porter (Co-PI). Rates, patterns and divergence times among the Bryozoa: integrating fossil, molecular and morphological data. 3 years
  • 2004 NERC. DTJL (PI), Rod Bray (Co-PI). Origins and radiation of parasite life history strategies: resolving patterns and processes in tapeworm evolution. 3 years
  • 2002 ARC. David Blair (PI), DTJL (Co-PI). The nature of an ancient symbiosis in Australian freshwaters investigated using molecules, morphology and biogeography. 3 years
  • 2001 Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship in Basic Biomedical Sciences. Evolution from genes and evolution of genes among the parasitic Platyhelminthes. 5 years
  • 2001 NERC. Andrew Smith (PI), DTJL (Co-PI). The geological history of deep-sea colonization by irregular echinoids. 3 years
  • 2000 NERC. David Reid (PI), DTJL (Co-PI), The enigma of the marine biodiversity focus in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean: competing models assessed by the molecular phylogeny of a species-rich molluscan clade. 3 years
  • 1996 Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship in Biodiversity Research. Evolution of parasitism among the Platyhelminthes: a combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic approach. 5 years.

 

Research

Research interests include:

  • systematics of platyhelminths (flatworms), and other phyla, particularly with a view to revealing evolutionary patterns associated with parasitism
  • development and application of molecular tools for species diagnosis, life cycle completion and biodiversity assessment
  • mitogenomics and phylogenomics pursued by means of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies
  • metazoan phylogenetics and assembling the Tree of Life

Recent projects / activities

  • Multiplexed sequencing of longPCRs - funded by the BBSRC, Peter Foster (NHM) and I are testing, developing and optimizing methods for high throughput sequencing of multiple longPCR amplicons using next generation sequencing (NGS). Andrea Waeschenbach is the PDRA dealing with generating the amplicons and tags. Maria Stalteri is the bioinformatician handling data analysis and workflow design for future applications; see also Mitogenomics and NGS below.
  • Evolution of parasitism in parasitic worms – originally funded through the Wellcome Trust (but also NERC, the Royal Society and NHM funding), I have a long interest in the phylogenetics and systematics of parasitic worms. The main focus has been on parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes), but through collaborations with colleagues at the University of Melbourne I have also become interested in nematode phylogenetics. I collaborate with numerous colleagues on this topic.
  • Cestode diversity – I am a currently partner (Co-PI) on an NSF PB&I grant headed by Janine Caira (Univ Connecticut) and Kirsten Jensen (Univ Kansas), with Jean Mariaux (Geneva Nat Hist Mus), entitled: A survey of the tapeworms (Cestoda: Platyhelminthes) from the vertebrate bowels of the earth. Preliminary molecular work has been undertaken by Jitka Aldhoun (NHM) as part of our remit  to provide molecular systematic information and phylogenetic insight into tapeworm diversity. Numerous cestodologists worldwide are involved. Project website :   https://web2.uconn.edu/tapeworm/
  • Mitogenomics – In order to pursue new molecular systematics markers and to optimise the (phylogenetic/diagnostic) information content of complete mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs), I have been interested in comparative mitogenomics of a diversity of taxa, although concentrating on flatworms and nematodes. The overarching theme has been to investigate mtDNAs as a toolbox for systematics and diagnostics. I collaborate with numerous colleagues on this topic.
  • Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) – as means of developing additional molecular systematic markers for metazoan-level and flatworm phylogenetics I am interested in using NGS for high-throughput mitogenomics (with Robin Gasser and Aaron Jex, Univ Melbourne; ARC funded), transcriptomics and its application to museum/archival specimens (NHM colleagues and Stephan Schuster; various funding).
  • Bryozoa – Together with Paul Taylor, Andrea Waeschenbach (NHM) and Jo Porter (Heriot Watt University), we are calibrating molecular phylogenies of bryozoans, through a NERC funded project entitled: Rates, patterns and divergence times among the Bryozoa: integrating fossil, molecular and morphological data.

webpage image - creative commons license - www.dragonartz.net

Publications

Publications - most available as PDFs upon request
2014
  • Bray, R.A., Cribb, T.H., Waeschenbach, A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2014 ) Molecular evidence that the genus Cadenatella Dollfus, 1946 (Digenea; Plagiorchiida) belongs in the superfamily Haploporoidea Nicoll, 1914. Systematic Parasitology 89 : 15-21 . 10.1007/s11230-014-9504-5
  • Bray, R.A., Waeschenbach, A., Dyal, P., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Morand, S. ( 2014 ) New digeneans (Opecoelidae) from hydrothermal vent fishes in the south eastern Pacific Ocean, including one new genus and three new species. Zootaxa 3768 : 073-087 .
  • Caira, J.N., Jensen, K., Waeschenbach, A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2014 ) An enigmatic new tapeworm, Litobothrium aenigmaticum, sp. nov. (Platyhelminthes : Cestoda : Litobothriidea), from the pelagic thresher shark with comments on development of known Litobothrium species. Invertebrate Systematics 28 : 231-243 . 10.1071/IS13047
  • Caira, J.N., Jensen, K., Waeschenbach, A., Olson, P.D. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2014 ) Caira, J.N., Jensen, K., Waeschenbach, A., Olson, P.D. & Littlewood, D.T.J. International Journal for Parasitology 44 : 55-73 .
  • Cappellini, E., Gentry, A., Palkopoulou, E., Ishida, Y., Cram, D., Roos, A-M., Watson, M., Johansson, U.S., Fernholm, B., Agnelli, P., Barbagli, F., Littlewood, D.T.J., Kelstrup, C., Olsen, J.V., Lister, A.M., Roca, A.L., Dalén, L. & Gilbert, M.T.P. ( 2014 ) Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 170 : 222-232 .
  • Mohandas, N., Jabbar, A., Podolska, M., Zhu, X-Q, Littlewood, D.T.J., Jex, A.R. & Gasser, R.B. ( 2014 ) Mitochondrial genomes of Anisakis simplex and Contracaecum osculatum (sensu stricto) – comparisons with selected nematodes. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 21 : 452-462 .
  • Williams, S., Foster, P.G. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2014 ) The complete mitochondrial genome of a turbinid vetigastropod from MiSeq Illumina sequencing of genomic DNA and steps towards a resolved gastropod phylogeny Gene 533 : 38-47 .
2013
  • Caira, J.N. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2013 ) Worms, Platyhelminthes. In Levin, S. (ed.), Second Edition, In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity . Academic Press : Waltham MA , 437-469 .
  • Jabbar, A., Beveridge, I., Mohandas, N., Chilton, N.B., Littlewood, D.T.J., Jex, A.R. & Gasser, R.B. ( 2013 ) Analyses of mitochondrial amino acid sequence datasets support the proposal that specimens of Hypodontus macropi from three species of macropodid hosts represent distinct species BMC Evolutionary Biology 13 : 259 . BMC Evolutionary Biology
  • Jabbar, A., Jex, A.R., Mohandas, N., Hall, R.S., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Gasser, R.B. ( 2013 ) The mitochondrial genome of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus - diagnostic, epidemiological and systematic implications Gene 516 : 294-300 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2012.10.072
  • Scholz, T., De Chambrier, A., Kuchta, R., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Waeschenbach, A. ( 2013 ) Macrobothriotaenia ficta (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of sunbeam snake (Xenopeltis unicolor): example of convergent evolution Zootaxa 3640 : 485-499 .
  • Unwin, S., Chantrey, J., Chatterton, J., Aldhoun, J.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2013 ) Renal trematode infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in zoo housed Columbiformes and a red bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea rubra) International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 2 : 32-41 .
  • Vanhove, M.P.M., Tessens, B., Schoelinck, C., Jondelius, U., Littlewood, D.T.J., Artois, T., & Huyse, T. ( 2013 ) Problematic barcoding flatworms: a case-study on monogeneans and rhabdocoels (Platyhelminthes). Zookeys 365 : 355-379 . Zookeys
2012
  • Aldhoun, J.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2012 ) Orientobilharzia Dutt & Srivastava, 1955 (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae), a junior synonym of Schistosoma Weinland, 1858 Systematic Parasitology 82 : 81-88 . doi:10.1007/s11230-012-9349-8
  • Bray, R.A., Cribb, T.H. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2012 ) Sasala nolani gen. n., sp. n. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the body-cavity of the guineafowl puffer fish Arothron meleagris (Lacepède) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) from off Moorea, French Polynesia Zootaxa 3334 : 29-41 .
  • Bray, R.A., Foster, G.N., Waeschenbach, A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2012 ) The discovery of progenetic Allocreadium neotenicum Peters, 1957 (Digenea: Allocreadiidae) in water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Great Britain Zootaxa 3577 : 58-70 .
  • Gasser, R.B., Jabbar, A., Mohandas, N., Hogland, J., Hall, R.S., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Jex, A.R. ( 2012 ) Assessment of the genetic relationship between Dictyocaulus species from Bos taurus and Cervus elaphus using complete mitochondrial genomic datasets Parasites & Vectors 5 : 241 . doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-241
  • Gasser, R.B., Jabbar, A., Mohandas, N., Schnyder, M., Deplazes, P., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Jex, A.R. ( 2012 ) Mitochondrial genome of Angiostrongylus vasorum: comparison with congeners and implications for studying the population genetics and epidemiology of this parasite Infection, Genetics and Evolution 12 : 1884-1891 . doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2012.07.022
  • Jia, W-Z., Yan, H.B., Lou, Z-Z., Ni, X-W., Dyachenko, V., Li, H.M. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2012 ) Mitochondrial genes and genomes support a cryptic species of tapeworm within Taenia taeniaeformis Acta Tropica 123 : 154-163 . doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2012.04.006
  • Lloyd, R.E., Foster, P.G., Guille, M. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2012 ) Next generation sequencing and analysis of Xenopus mitogenomes BMC Genomics 13 : 496 . doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-496
  • Waeschenbach, A., Taylor, P.D. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2012 ) A molecular phylogeny of the Bryozoa Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 : 718-735 . doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.11.011
  • Waeschenbach, A., Webster, B.L. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2012 ) Adding resolution to ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with large fragments of mtDNA Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63 : 834-847 . doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.02.020
  • Webster, B.L. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2012 ) Mitochondrial gene order change in Schistosoma (Platyhelminthes: Digenea: Schistosomatidae) International Journal for Parasitology 42 : 313-321 . doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2012.02.001
2011
  • Fehlauer-Ale, K.H. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2011 ) Molecular phylogeny of Potamotrygnocotyle (Monogenea:Monocotylidae) challenges the validity of some of its species Zoologica Scripta 40 : 638-658 . doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00496.x
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2011 ) Systematics as a cornerstone of parasitology Parasitology 138 : 1633-1637 . doi:10.1017/S0031182011001533
  • Philippe, H., Brinkmann, H., Lavrov, D.V., Littlewood, D.T.J., Manuel, M., Wörheide, G., Baurain, D. ( 2011 ) Resolving difficult phylogenetic questions: why more sequences are not enough PLoS Biology 9(3) : e1000602 . PLoS Biology | doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000602
  • Schärer, L., Littlewood, D.T.J., Waeschenbach, A., Yoshida, W. & Vizoso, D.B.

    ( 2011 ) Mating behaviour and the evolution of sperm design Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108 : 1490-1495 . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA | 10.1073/pnas.1013892108
2010
  • Curini-Galletti, M., Webster, B.L., Huyse, T., Casu, M., Schockaert, E.R., Artois, T.J. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2010 ) New insights on the phylogenetic relationships of the Proseriata (Platyhelminthes), with proposal of a new genus of the family Coelogynoporidae Zootaxa 2537 : 1-18 . Zootaxa
  • Jex, A.R., Hall, R., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Gasser, R.B. ( 2010 ) An integrated pipeline for next-generation sequencing and annotation of mitochondrial genome Nucleic Acids Research 38 : 522-533 . doi:10.1093/nar/gkp883
  • Jex, A.R., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Gasser, R.B. ( 2010 ) Toward next-generation sequencing of mitochondrial genomes - focus on parasitic worms of animals and biotechnological implications Biotechnology Advances 28 : 151-159 . doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2009.11.002
  • Jia, W-Z., Yan, H-B., Guo, A-J., Zhu, X-Q., Wang, Y-C., Shi, W-G., Chen, H-T., Zhan, F., Zhang, S-H., Fu, B-Q., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Cai, X-P. ( 2010 ) Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance BMC Genomics 11 : 447 . BMC Genomics
  • Mwinyi, A., Bailly, X., Bourlat, S., Jondelius, U., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Podsiadlowski, L. ( 2010 ) The phylogenetic position of Acoela as revealed by the complete mitochondrial genome of Symsagittifera roscoffensis BMC Evolutionary Biology 10 : 309 . BMC Evolutionary Biology | doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-309
  • Timmermans, M.J.T.N., Dodsworth, S., Culverwell, C.L., Bocak, L., Ahrens, D., Littlewood, D.T.J., Pons, J. & Vogler, A.P.

    ( 2010 ) Why barcode? High throughput multiplex sequencing of mitochondrial genomes for molecular systematics Nucleic Acids Research 38 : e197 . Nucleic Acids Research | doi:10.1093/nar/gkq807
  • Zhao, Q.P., Jiang, M-S. Littlewood, D.T.J. & Nie, P. ( 2010 ) Distinct genetic diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China as revealed by ITS sequences PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4(3) : e611 . doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000611
2009
  • Bray, R.A., Waeschenbach, A., Cribb, T.H., Weedall, G.D., Dyal, P., & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2009 ) The phylogeny of the Lepocreadiidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial genes: implications for their systematics and evolution. Acta Parasitologica 54 : 310-329 . doi:10.2478/s11686-009-0045-z
  • Healy, C.J., Caira, J.N., Jensen, K., Webster, B.L. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2009 ) Proposal for the new tapeworm order Rhinebothriidea International Journal for Parasitology 39 : 497-511 . 10.1016/j.ijpara.2008.09.002
  • Jenner, R.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2009 ) Invertebrate Problematica: kinds, causes, and solutions. In Telford, M.J. and Littlewood, D.T.J. (eds.), In: Animal Evolution – Genomes, Fossils and Trees . Oxford University Press : Oxford , 107-126 . Animal Evolution – Genomes, Fossils and Trees
  • Jex, A.R., Waeschenbach, A., Hu, M., van Wyk, J.A., Beveridge, I., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Gasser, R.B. ( 2009 ) The mitochondrial genomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Bunostomum phlebotomum – two hookworms of animal health importance BMC Genomics 10 : 79 . 10.1186/1471-2164-10-79
  • Lefebvre, F., Georgiev, B.B., Bray, R.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2009 ) Developing a dedicated cestode life cycle database: lessons from the hymenolepidids Helminthologia 46 : 21-27 . 10.2478/s11687-009-0004-0
  • Palm, H.W., Waeschenbach, A., Olson, P.D. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2009 ) Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52 : 351-367 . doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.01.019
  • Telford, M.J. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2009 ) Reassembling animal evolution: a four dimensional puzzle. In Telford, M.J. and Littlewood, D.T.J. (eds.), In: Animal Evolution – Genomes, Fossils and Trees . Oxford University Press : Oxford , 192-196 . Animal Evolution – Genomes, Fossils and Trees
  • Telford, M.J., Littlewood, D.T.J. (eds) ( 2009 ) Animal Evolution – Genomes, Fossils and Trees . Oxford University Press : Oxford , 18 Chapters . Animal Evolution – Genomes, Fossils and Trees
  • Waeschenbach, A., Cox, C.J., Littlewood, D.T.J., Porter, J.S. & Taylor, P.D. ( 2009 ) First molecular estimate of cyclostome bryozoan phylogeny confirms extensive homoplasy among skeletal characters used in traditional taxonomy.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52 : 241-251 . 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.02.002
2008
  • Huyse, T., Buchmann, K. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2008 ) The mitochondrial genome of Gyrodactylus derjavinoides (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) – a mitogenomic approach for Gyrodactylus species and strain identification Gene 417 : 27-34 . 10.1016/j.gene.2008.03.008
  • Jenner, R.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2008 ) Problematica old and new Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363 : 1503-1512 . 10.1098/rstb.2007.2240
  • Jex, A.R., Hu, M., Littlewood, D.T.J., Waeschenbach, A. & Gasser, R.B. ( 2008 ) Using 454 technology for long-PCR based sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome from single Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda) BMC Genomics 9 : 11 . 10.1186/1471-2164-9-11
  • Jex, A.R., Waeschenbach, A., Littlewood, D.T.J., Hu, M., & Gasser, R.B. ( 2008 ) The mitochondrial genome of Toxocara canis PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2(8) : e273 . 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000273
  • Jones, H.D., Webster, B.L., Littlewood, D.T.J. & McDonald, J.C. ( 2008 ) Molecular and morphological evidence for two new species of terrestrial planarians of the genus Microplana (Platyhelminthes; Turbellaria; Tricladida; Terricola) from Europe Zootaxa 1945 : 1-38 . Zootaxa
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2008 ) Platyhelminth systematics and the emergence of new characters Parasite 15 : 333-341 . Parasite
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Waeschenbach, A. & Nikolov, P.N. ( 2008 ) In search of mitochondrial markers for resolving the phylogeny of cyclophyllidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) – a test study with Davaineidae Parasitologica 53 : 133-144 . 10.2478/s11686-008-0029-4
  • Olson, P.D., Poddubnaya, L.G., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Scholz, T. ( 2008 ) On the position of Archigetes and its bearing on the early evolution of the tapeworms Journal of Parasitology 94 : 898-904 . Journal of Parasitology
  • Plaisance, L., Rousset, V., Morand, S., & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2008 ) Colonization of oceanic islands by parasites of low dispersal abilities: Phylogeography of two monogenean species parasitizing butterflyfishes in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean Journal of Biogeography 35 : 76-87 . 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2007.01794.x
  • Telford, M.J. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2008 ) The evolution of the Animals – introduction to a Linnean Tercentenary celebration Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363 : 1421-1424 . 10.1098/rstb.2007.2231
  • Telford, M.J., Littlewood, D.T.J. (eds) ( 2008 ) Evolution of the Animals – a Linnean Tercentenary Celebration Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 363 : 1496 .
2007
  • Aznar, F.J., Agustí, C., Littlewood, D.T.J., Raga, J.A., & Olson, P.D. ( 2007 ) The role of cetaceans in the life cycle of the tetraphyllideans (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda): molecular and ecological evidence from the western Mediterranean International Journal for Parasitology 37 : 243-255 . 10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.10.010
  • Bray, R.A., Cribb, T.H., Waeschenbach, A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2007 ) A new species of Stephanostomum Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae) with a bizarre oral sucker: S. adlardi n. sp. from the leopard coralgrouper Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède, 1802) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Acta Parasitologica 52 : 206-212 . 10.2478/s11686-007-0025-0
  • Huyse, T., Plaisance, L., Webster, B.L., Mo, T.A., Bakke, T.A., Bachmann, L. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2007 ) The mitochondrial genome of Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea), a pathogen of Atlantic salmon Parasitology 134 : 739-747 . 10.1017/S0031182006002010
  • Huyse. T. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2007 ) Parasite species and speciation – tackling a host of problems International Journal for Parasitology 37 : 825-828 . International Journal for Parasitology
  • Palm, H.W., Waeschenbach, A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2007 ) Genetic diversity in the trypanorhynch cestode Tentacularia coryphaenae (Bosc 1797): evidence for a cosmopolitan distribution and low host specificity in the teleost intermediate host Parasitology Research 101 : 153-159 . 10.1007/s00436-006-0435-1
  • Park, J-K, Kim, K-H., Kang, S-H., Jeon, H-K., Kim, J-H., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Eom, K.S. ( 2007 ) The complete mitochondrial genome of Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) – implications for the phylogeny of eucestodes Parasitology 134 : 749-759 . Parasitology
  • Park, J-K., Kim, K-H., Kang, S-H., Kim, J-H., Eom, K.S. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2007 ) A common origin of complex life cycles in parasitic flatworms: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome of Microcotyle sebastis. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7 : 11 . BMC Evolutionary Biology
  • Plaisance, L., Huyse, T., Littlewood, D.T.J., Bakke, T.A., & Bachmann, L. ( 2007 ) The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the monogenean Gyrodactylus thymalli, a parasite of grayling (Thymallus thymallus) Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 154 : 190-194 . 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2007.04.012
  • Rudolfová, J., Littlewood, D.T.J., Sitko, J. & Horák, P. ( 2007 ) Bird schistosomes of wildfowl in Central Europe Folia Parasitologica 54 : 88–93 . Folia Parasitologica
  • Waeschenbach, A., Webster, B.L., Bray, R.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2007 ) Added resolution among ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with complete small and large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA genes Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45 : 311-325 . Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
  • Webster, B.L., Mackenzie-Dodds, J.A., Telford, M.J. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2007 ) The mitochondrial genome of Priapulus caudatus Lamarck (Priapulida: Priapulidae) Gene 389 : 96-105 . 10.1016/j.gene.2006.10.005
  • Webster, B.L., Rudolfová, J., Horák, P. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2007 ) The complete mitochondrial genome of the schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti (Platyhelminthes: Digenea), causative agent of cercarial dermatitis Journal of Parasitology 93 : 553-561 . 10.1645/GE-1072R.1
  • Zarowiecki, M.Z., Huyse, T. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2007 ) Making the most of mitochondrial genomes – markers for phylogeny, molecular ecology and barcodes in Schistosoma (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) International Journal for Parasitology 47 : 1401-1418 . International Journal for Parasitology
2006
  • Georgiev, B.B., Bray, R.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2006 ) Cestodes of small mammals: taxonomy and life cycles. In Morand, S., Krasnov, B. & Poulin, R. (eds.), In: Micromammals and macroparasites: from evolutionary ecology to management . Springer : Berlin , 29-62 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2006 ) The evolution of parasitism in flatworms. In Maule, A.G. and Marks, N.J. (eds.), In: Parasitic Flatworms: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Immunology and Physiology . CAB International : Wallingford , 1-36 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Lockyer, A.E., Webster, B.L., Johnston, D.A. & Le, T.H. ( 2006 ) The complete mitochondrial genomes of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale and the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genome changes among parasitic flatworms Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 : 452-467 . 10.1016/j.ympev.2005.12.012
  • Pankov, P., Webster, B.L., Blasco, M.I., Gibson, D.I., Littlewood, D.T.J., & Kostadinova, A. ( 2006 ) Robinia aurata n. g., n. sp. (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Liza aurata (Perciformes: Mugilidae) in the western Mediterranean described from morphology and molecules Parasitology 133 : 217-227 . 10.1017/S0031182006000126
  • Reid, D.G., Lal, K., MacKenzie-Dodds, J., Kaligis, F., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Williams, S.T. ( 2006 ) Comparative phylogeography and species boundaries in Echinolittorina snails in the central Indo-West Pacific Journal of Biogeography 33 : 990–1006 . 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01469.x
  • Smith, A.B., Pisane, D., Mackenzie-Dodds, J.A., Stockley, B., Webster, B.L. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2006 ) Testing the molecular clock: molecular and paleontological estimates of divergence times in the Echinoidea (Echinodermata) Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 : 1832-1851 . 10.1093/molbev/msl039
  • Todaro, M.A., Lockyer, A.E., Telford, M.J. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2006 ) Interrelationships of the Gastrotricha and their place among the Metazoa inferred from 18S rDNA Zoologica Scripta 35 : 251-259 . 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00228.x
  • Waeschenbach, A., Telford, M.J., Porter, J.S., & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2006 ) The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida and the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa among the Metazoa Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 : 195-207 . 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.03.007
  • Webster, B.L., Copley, R.R., Jenner, R.A., Mackenzie-Dodds, J.A., Bourlat, S.J., Rota-Stabelli, O., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Telford, M.J. ( 2006 ) Mitogenomics and phylogenomics reveal priapulid worms as extant models of the ancestral ecdysozoan Evolution & Development 8 : 502-510 . 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2006.00123.x
  • Webster, B.L., Southgate, V.L. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2006 ) A revision of the interrelationships of Schistosoma including the recently described Schistosoma guineensis. International Journal for Parasitology 36 : 947-955 . International Journal for Parasitology
  • Willems, W.R., Wallberg, A., Jondelius, U., Littlewood, D.T.J., Backeljau, T., Schockaert, E.R. & Artois, T.J ( 2006 ) Filling a gap in the phylogeny of flatworms: relationships within the Rhabdocoela (Platyhelminthes), inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences Zoologica Scripta 35 : 1-17 . Zoologica Scripta
  • Willems, W.R., Wallberg, A., Jondelius, U., Littlewood, D.T.J., Backeljau, T., Schockaert, E.R. & Artois, T.J. ( 2006 ) Filling a gap in the phylogeny of flatworms: relationships within the Rhabdocoela (Platyhelminthes), inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences Zoologica Scripta 35 : 1-17 . Zoologica Scripta
2005
  • Agustí, C., Aznar, F.J., Olson, P.D., Littlewood, D.T.J. Kostadinova, A. & Raga, J.A. ( 2005 ) Morphological and molecular characterization of tetraphyllidean merocercoids (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Western Mediterranean Parasitology 130 : 461-474 . 10.1017/S0031182004006754
  • Bray, R.A., Webster, B.L., Bartoli, P. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2005 ) A molecular phylogenetic study of the Acanthocolpidae (Digenea) Acta Parasitologica 50 : 281-291 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2005 ) Marine parasites and the tree of life. In Rohde, K. (ed.), In: Marine Parasites . CSIRO Publishing 6-10 .
  • McClymont, H.E., Dunn, A.M., Terry, R.S., Rollinson, D., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Smith, J.E. ( 2005 ) Molecular data suggests that microsporidian parasites in freshwater snails are diverse International Journal for Parasitology 35 : 1071-1078 . 10.1016/j.ijpara.2005.05.008
  • Plaisance, L., Littlewood, D.T.J., Olson, P.D. & Morand, S. ( 2005 ) Molecular phylogeny of gill monogeneans (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) and colonisation of Indo-West Pacific butterflyfish hosts (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) Zoologica Scripta 34 : 425-436 . 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2005.00191.x
  • Rudolfová, J., Hampl, V., Bayssade-Dufour, C., Lockyer, A.E., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Horák, P. ( 2005 ) Validity reassessment of Trichobilharzia species using Lymnaea stagnalis as the intermediate host. Parasitology Research 95 : 79-89 . Parasitology Research
  • Stockley, B., Smith, A.B., Littlewood, T., MacKenzie-Dodds, J.A. & Lessios, H.A. ( 2005 ) Phylogenetic relationships of spatangoid sea urchins (Echinoidea): taxon sampling density and congruence between morphological and molecular estimates. Zoologica Scripta 34 : 447-468 . 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2005.00201.x
2004
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., McDonald, S.M., Gill, A.C., & Cribb, T.H. ( 2004 ) Molecular phylogenetics of Chaetodon and the Chaetodontidae (Pisces: Perciformes) with reference to morphology Zootaxa 779 : 1-20 . Zootaxa
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Telford, M.J. & Bray, R.A. ( 2004 ) Protostomes and Platyhelminthes – the worm’s turn. In Cracraft, J. & Donoghue, M.J. (eds), In: Assembling the Tree of Life . Oxford University Press : New York , 209-234 .
  • Smith, A.B., Peterson, K.J., Wray, G. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2004 ) From bilateral symmetry to pentaradiality: the phylogeny of hemichordates and echinoderms. In Cracraft, J. & Donoghue, M.J. (eds.), In: Assembling the Tree of Life . Oxford University Press : New York , 365-383 .
  • Terry, R.S. Smith, J.E., Sharpe, R.G., Rigaud, T., Littlewood, D.T.J., Ironside, J.E., Rollinson, D., Bouchon, D., MacNeil, C., Dick, J.T.A. & Dunn, A.M. ( 2004 ) Vertical transmission and sex ratio distortion by eukaryotic parasites Proceedings of the Royal Society 271B : 1783-1789 .
2003
  • Bourlat, S.J., Nielsen, C., Lockyer, A.E., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Telford, M.J. ( 2003 ) The diet of worms: Xenoturbella is a deuterostome that eats molluscs Nature 424 : 925-928 . 10.1038/nature01851
  • Cribb, T.H., Bray, R.A., Olson, P.D. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2003 ) Life cycle evolution in the Digenea: a new perspective from phylogeny Advances in Parasitology 54 : 197-254 . Advances in Parasitology
  • Jeffery, C.H., Emlet, R.B. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2003 ) Phylogeny and evolution of development in temnopleurid echinoids Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28 : 99-118 . 10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00030-7
  • Kane, R.A., Southgate, V.R., Rollinson, D., Littlewood, D.T.J., Lockyer, A.E., Pagès, J.R., Tchuem Tchuenté, L.A. & Jourdane, J. ( 2003 ) A phylogeny based on three mitochondrial genes supports the division of Schistosoma intercalatum into two separate species Parasitology 127 : 131-137 . 10.1017/S0031182003003421
  • Kostadinova, A. Herniou, E.A., Barrett, J. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2003 ) Phylogenetic relationships of Echinostoma Rudolphi, 1809 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and related genera re-assessed via DNA and morphological analyses Systematic Parasitology 54 : 159-176 . 10.1023/A:1022681123340
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. (ed.) ( 2003 ) The evolution of parasitism – a phylogenetic approach Advances in Parasitology 54 : .
  • Lockyer, A.E., Olson, P.D. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2003 ) Utility of complete large and small subunit rRNA genes in resolving the phylogeny of the Neodermata (Platyhelminthes): implications and a review of the cercomer theory Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 78 : 155-173 . 10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00141.x
  • Lockyer, A.E., Olson, P.D., Østergaard, P., Rollinson, D., Johnston, D.A., Attwood, S.W., Southgate, V.R., Horak, P., Snyder, S.D., Le, T.H., Agatsuma, T., McManus, D., Carmichael, A.C., Naem, S. and Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2003 ) The phylogeny of the Schistosomatidae based on three genes with emphasis on the interrelationships of Schistosoma Weinland, 1858 Parasitology 126 : 203-224 . 10.1017/S0031182002002792
  • Matejusová, I., Gelnar, M., Verneau, O., Cunningham, C.O. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2003 ) Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Gyrodactylus inferred from rDNA ITS region: subgenera versus species groups Parasitology 127 : 603-611 . 10.1017/S0031182003004098
  • McInerney, J.O., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Creevey, C.J. ( 2003 ) Detecting adaptive molecular evolution: additional tools for the parasitologist Advances in Parasitology 54 : 359-379 . Advances in Parasitology
  • Olson, P.D., Cribb, T.H., Tkach, V.V., Bray, R.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2003 ) Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) International Journal for Parasitology 33 : 733-755 . 10.1016/S0020-7519(03)00049-3
  • Telford, M.J., Lockyer, A.E., Cartwright-Finch, C. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2003 ) Combined large and small subunit ribosomal RNA phylogenies support a basal position of the acoelomorph flatworms Proceedings of the Royal Society 270 : 1077-1083 . 10.1098/rspb.2003.2342
  • Tkach, V.T., Littlewood, D.T.J., Olson, P.D., Kinsella, M.J. & Swiderski, Z. ( 2003 ) Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Microphalloidea Morozov, 1955 (Trematoda: Digenea): a bigger data set resolves fewer genera Systematic Parasitology 56 : 1-15 . 10.1023/A:1025546001611
  • Todaro, M.A., Littlewood, D.T.J., Balsamo, M., Herniou, E.A., Cassanelli, S., Manicardi, G., Wirz, A. & Tongiorgi, P. ( 2003 ) The interrelationships of the Gastrotricha using partial nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA gene and an interpretation based on morphology Zoologischer Anzeiger 242 : 145-156 .
  • Williams, S.T., Reid, D.G. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2003 ) A molecular phylogeny of the Littorininae (Gastropoda: Littorinidae): unequal evolutionary rates, morphological parallelism and biogeography of the Southern Ocean Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28 : 60-86 . 10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00038-1
2002
  • Olson, P.D. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2002 ) Phylogenetics of the Monogenea – evidence from a medley of molecules International Journal for Parasitology 32 : 233-244 . 10.1016/S0020-7519(01)00328-9
  • Olson, P.D., Littlewood, D.T.J., Griffiths, D, Kennedy, C.R. & Arme, C. ( 2002 ) Evidence for the co-existence of separate strains or species of Ligula (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) in Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland Journal of Helminthology 76 : 1-5 . 10.1079/JOH2002101
2001
  • Brickle, P., Olson, P.D., Littlewood, D.T.J., Bishop, A. & Arkhipkin, A. ( 2001 ) Parasites of Loligo gahi from waters off the Falkland Islands with a molecular-based identification of their cestode larvae Canadian Journal of Zoology 79 : 2289-2296 . 10.1139/cjz-79-12-2289
  • Caira, J.N. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2001 ) Diversity of Platyhelminthes. In Levin, S.A. (ed), In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Vol 5 . Academic Press : New York , 863-899 .
  • Cribb, T.H., Bray, R.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2001 ) The nature and evolution of the association between digeneans, molluscs and fishes International Journal for Parasitology 39 : 997-1011 . International Journal for Parasitology
  • Cribb, T.H., Bray, R.A., Littlewood, D.T.J., Pichelin, S. & Herniou, E.A ( 2001 ) Relationships of the Digenea – evidence from molecules and morphology. In: Littlewood, D.T.J. and Bray, R.A. (eds), In: Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes . Taylor & Francis : London , 168-185 .
  • Le, T.H., Humair, P-F., Blair, D., Agatsuma, T., Littlewood, D.T.J. & McManus, D. ( 2001 ) Mitochondrial gene content, arrangement and composition compared in African and Asian schistosomes Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 117 : 61-71 . 10.1016/S0166-6851(01)00330-9
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. & Bray, R.A. (eds). ( 2001 ) Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes . Taylor & Francis : London , 27 Chapters .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. & Olson, P.D. ( 2001 ) SSU rDNA and the Platyhelminthes: signal, noise, conflict and compromise. In: Littlewood, D.T.J. and Bray, R.A. (eds), In: Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes . Taylor & Francis : London , 262-278 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Cribb, T.H., Olson, P.D. & Bray, R.A. ( 2001 ) Platyhelminth phylogenetics – a key to understanding parasitism? Belgian Journal of Zoology 131 : 35-46 . Belgian Journal of Zoology
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Herniou, E.A., Olson, P.D., Telford, M.J. & Riutort, M. ( 2001 ) Elongation factor 1-alpha sequences alone do not assist in resolving the position of the Acoela within the Metazoa Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 : 437-442 . Molecular Biology and Evolution
  • Olson, P.D., Littlewood, D.T.J., Bray, R.A. & Mariaux, J. ( 2001 ) Interrelationships and evolution of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19 : 443-467 . 10.1006/mpev.2001.0930
  • Wilkinson, M., Thorley, J.L., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Bray, R.A. ( 2001 ) Towards a phylogenetic supertree of Platyhelminthes? In: Littlewood, D.T.J. and Bray, R.A. (eds), In: Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes . Taylor & Francis : London , 292-301 .
2000
  • Le, T.H., Blair, D., Agatsuma, T., Humair, P.F., Campbell, N.J.H., Iwagami, N., Littlewood, D.T.J., Peacock, B., Johnston, D.A., Bartley, J., Rollinson, D., Herniou, E.A., Zarlenga, D.S. & McManus, D.P. ( 2000 ) Phylogenies inferred from mitochondrial gene orders - a cautionary tale from the parasitic flatworms Molecular Biology and Evolution 17 : 1123-1125 . Molecular Biology and Evolution
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2000 ) Perkinsus cf marinus found in Crassostrea rhizophorae in Jamaica Caribbean Journal of Science 36 : 153-154 . Caribbean Journal of Science
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Curini-Galletti, M. & Herniou, E.A. ( 2000 ) The interrelationships of Proseriata (Platyhelminthes: Seriata) tested with molecules and morphology Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 16 : 449-466 . 10.1006/mpev.2000.0802
  • Telford, M.J., Herniou, E.A., Russell, R.B. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 2000 ) Changes in mitochondrial genetic codes as phylogenetic characters: two examples from the flatworms Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97 : 11359-11364 . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
1999
  • Bray, R.A., Littlewood, D.T.J., Herniou, E.A., Williams, B. & Henderson, R.E. ( 1999 ) Digenean parasites of deep-sea teleosts: a review and case studies of intrageneric phylogenies. Parasitology 119 : S125-S144 . Parasitology
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Rohde, K. & Clough, K.A. ( 1999 ) Interrelationships of all major groups of Platyhelminthes - phylogenetic evidence from morphology and molecules Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66 : 75-114 . 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1999.tb01918.x
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Rohde, K., Bray, R.A. & Herniou, E.A. ( 1999 ) Phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes and the evolution of parasitism Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68 : 257-287 . 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1999.tb01169.x
  • Ruiz-Trillo, I., Riutort, M., Littlewood, D.T.J., Herniou, E.A., & Baguñà, J. ( 1999 ) Acoel flatworms: earliest extant bilaterian metazoans, not members of the Platyhelminthes Science 283 : 1919-1923 . 10.1126/science.283.5409.1919
1998
  • Bray, R.A., Cribb, T.H. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1998 ) A phylogenetic study of Lepidapedoides Yamaguti, 1970 (Digenea) with a key and descriptions of two new species from Western Australia Systematic Parasitology 39 : 183-197 . Systematic Parasitology
  • Carranza, S., Littlewood, D.T.J., Clough, K.A., Ruiz-Trillo, I., Baguñà, J. & Riutort, M ( 1998 ) A robust molecular phylogeny of the Tricladida (Platyhelminthes, Seriata) and a reassessment of morphological synapomorphies Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265 : 631-640 . Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B
  • Carranza, S., Ruiz-Trillo, I., Littlewood, D.T.J., Riutort, M. & Baguñà, J. ( 1998 ) A reappraisal of the phylogenetic and taxonomic position of land planarians (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences Pedobiologia 42 : 433-440 .
  • Donovan, S.K., Paul, C.R.C. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1998 ) A brief review of the benthic Mollusca of the Bowden shell bed, southeast Jamaica. In: Donovan, S.K. (ed.). The Pliocene Bowden shell bed, southeast Jamaica. Contributions to Tertiary and Quaternary Geology, 35(1-4): 85-93 .
  • Fernandez, M., Littlewood, D.T.J., Latorre, A., Raga, J.A. & Rollinson, D. ( 1998 ) Phylogenetic relationships of the family Campulidae (Trematoda) based on 18S rRNA sequences Parasitology 117 : 383-391 . 10.1017/S0031182098003126
  • Herniou, E., Pearce, A.C. and Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1998 ) Vintage helminths yield valuable molecules Parasitology Today 14 : 289-292 . 10.1016/S0169-4758(98)01266-6
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Bray, R.A. & Clough, K.A. ( 1998 ) A phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes: towards a total-evidence solution. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium of the Biology of the Turbellaria Hydrobiologia 383 : 155-160 . 10.1023/A:1003436821134
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Rohde, K. & Clough, K.A. ( 1998 ) The phylogenetic position of Udonella (Platyhelminthes) International Journal for Parasitology 28 : 1241-1250 . International Journal for Parasitology
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Smith, A.B., Clough, K.A. & Emson, R.H. ( 1998 ) Five classes of echinoderm and one school of thought. In: Mooi, R., Telford, M. (eds), In: Proceedings of the 9th International Echinoderm Conference, San Francisco, 1996 . A.A. Balkema : Rotterdam , 47-50 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Telford, M.J., Clough, K.A. & Rohde, K. ( 1998 ) Gnathostomulida - an enigmatic metazoan phylum from both morphological and molecular perspectives Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9 : 72-79 . 10.1006/mpev.1997.0448
1997
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Rohde, K. Clough, K.A. ( 1997 ) Parasite speciation within or between host species? - phylogenetic evidence from site-specific polystome monogeneans International Journal for Parasitology 27 : 1289-1297 . 10.1016/S0020-7519(97)00086-6
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Smith, A.B., Clough, K.A. & Emson, R.H. ( 1997 ) The interrelationships of the echinoderm classes: morphological and molecular evidence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 61 : 409-438 . 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1997.tb01799.x
  • Smith, A.B. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1997 ) Molecular and morphological evolution during the post-Palaeozoic diversification of echinoids. In: Givnish, T.J. and Sytsma, K.J. (eds), In: Molecular Evolution and Adaptive Radiation . Cambridge University Press : Cambridge , 559-583 .
1996
  • Forey, P., Littlewood, D.T.J., Meyer, A. & Ritchie, P. ( 1996 ) Interrelationships of elopomorph fishes. In: Stiassny, M.L.J., Parenti, L.R. and Johnson, G.D. (eds), In: Interrelationships of Fishes . Academic Press : New York , 175-191 .
  • Gardiner, B.G., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Maisey, J. ( 1996 ) Interrelationships of Basal Neopterygians In: Stiassny, M.L.J., Parenti, L.R. and Johnson, G.D. (eds), In: Interrelationships of Fishes . Academic Press : New York , 117-146 .
  • Smith, A.B., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Wray, G.A. ( 1996 ) Comparative evolution of larval and adult life history stages and small subunit ribosomal RNA amongst post-Palaeozoic echinoids. In: Harvey, P.H., Leigh Brown A.J., Maynard Smith, J. and Nee, S. (eds), In: New uses for new phylogenies . Oxford University Press : Oxford , 235-254 .
1995
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1995 ) Echinoderm class relationships revisited. In: Emson, R.H., Smith, A.B. and Campbell, A.C. (eds), In: Echinoderm Research . A.A. Balkema : Rotterdam , 19-28 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. & Smith, A.B. ( 1995 ) A combined morphological and molecular phylogeny for sea urchins (Echinoidea: Echinodermata) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 347B : 213-234 . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., & Johnston, D.A. ( 1995 ) Molecular phylogenetics of the four Schistosoma species groups determined with partial 28S rRNA gene sequences Parasitology 111 : 167-175 . 10.1017/S003118200006491X
  • Smith, A.B., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Wray, G.A. ( 1995 ) Comparing patterns of evolution: larval and adult life-history stages and small subunit ribosomal RNA amongst post-Palaeozoic echinoids Transactions of the Royal Society of London 349B : 11-18 . Transactions of the Royal Society of London
1994
  • Donovan, S.K. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1994 ) Late Cenozoic reef mollusk faunas from Jamaica Rocks and Minerals 68 : 226-231 .
  • Donovan, S.K., Dixon, H.L., Littlewood, D.T.J., Milsom, C.V. & Norman, Y.J.C. ( 1994 ) The clypeasteroid echinoid Encope homala Arnold and Clark, 1934, in the Cenozoic of Jamaica Caribbean Journal of Science 30 : 171-180 . Caribbean Journal of Science
  • Fong, D., Rodriguez, R., Koo, K., Sun, J., Sogin, M.L., Bushek, D., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Ford, S.E. ( 1994 ) Small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence of the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus Marine Biology and Biotechnology 2 : 346-350 . Marine Biology and Biotechnology
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1994 ) Molecular phylogenetics of cupped oysters based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 3 : 221-229 . 10.1006/mpev.1994.1024
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1994 ) Mortality and predation of raft grown mangrove oysters Caribbean Journal of Science 30 : 206-213 . Caribbean Journal of Science
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. & Young, R.E. ( 1994 ) The effect of air-gaping behaviour on extrapallial fluid pH in the tropical oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 107A : 1-6 .
  • Smith, A.B. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1994 ) Palaeontological data and molecular phylogenetic analysis Paleobiology 20 : 259-273 .
1993
  • Fong, D., Chan, M. M-Y., Rodriguez, R., Chen, C-C., Liang, Y., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Ford, S.E. ( 1993 ) Small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence of the parasitic protozoan Haplosporidium nelsoni provides a molecular probe for the oyster MSX disease Molecular Biochemistry and Parasitology 62 : 139-142 . 10.1016/0166-6851(93)90190-9
  • Ford, S.E., Kanaley, S.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1993 ) Cellular responses of oysters infected with Haplosporidium nelsoni: changes in circulating and tissue-infiltrating hemocytes Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 61 : 49-57 . 10.1006/jipa.1993.1009
1992
  • Donovan, S.K. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1992 ) The benthic mollusk fauna of two contrasting reef paleosubenvironments: Falmouth Formation (late Pleistocene, last interglacial), Jamaica The Nautilus 107 : 33-42 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Wargo, R.N., Kraeuter, J.N. & Watson, R.H ( 1992 ) The influence of intertidal height on growth, mortality and Haplosporidium nelsoni infection in MSX mortality resistant Crassostrea virginica Journal of Shellfish Research 11 : 57-62 . Journal of Shellfish Research
1991
  • Barber, B.J., Ford, S.E. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1991 ) A physiological comparison of resistant and susceptible oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), exposed to the endoparasite, Haplosporidium nelsoni (Haskin, Stauber & Mackin Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 146 : 101-112 . 10.1016/0022-0981(91)90256-V
  • Gustafson, R.G., Littlewood, D.T.J. & Lutz, R.A. ( 1991 ) Gastropod egg capsules and their contents from hydrothermal vents Biological Bulletin 180 : 34-55 . Biological Bulletin
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1991 ) Pest and predators of cultivated mangrove oysters. In: G.F. Newkirk and B.A. Fields (eds.), Oyster Culture in the Caribbean. Proceedings of a Workshop, 19-22 November, 1990, at Kingston, Jamaica. Mollusc Culture Network, IDRC, Halifax, Canada. pp.109-146. .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J., Ford, S.E. & Fong, D. ( 1991 ) Small subunit rRNA gene sequence of Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) and a comparison with similar sequences from other bivalve molluscs Nucleic Acids Research 16 : 6048 . Nucleic Acids Research
1990
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. & Ford, S.E. ( 1990 ) Physiological responses to acute temperature elevation in oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), parasitized by Haplosporidium nelsoni (Haskin, Stauber & Mackin, 1966) Journal of Shellfish Research 9 : 159-163 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. & Marsbe, L.A. ( 1990 ) Predation of cultivated Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding) by the polyclad turbellarian Stylochus (Stylochus) frontalis Verrill Aquaculture 88 : 145 150 .
1989
  • Donovan, S.K. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1989 ) A Late Pleistocene scaphopod from Jamaica. Journal of Conchology (Lond). 33:185 .
  • Donovan, S.K., Jackson, T.A. & Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1989 ) Report of a field meeting to the Round Hill region, southern Clarendon, April 9, 1988. Journal of the geological Society of Jamaica 25: 44-47 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1989 ) Aquatic and aerial respiration of Crassostrea rhizophorae Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 93A : 773- 775 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1989 ) Thermal tolerance and the effects of elevated aerial temperature on air-gaping in Crassostrea rhizophorae Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 93A : 395-397 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1989 ) Predation on cultivated Crassostrea rhizophorae (Guilding) by the gastropod Cymatium pileare (Linnaeus) Journal of Molluscan Studies 55 : 125-127 . Journal of Molluscan Studies
1988
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1988 ) A bibliography of literature on the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae Journal of Shellfish Research 7 : 389-393 . Journal of Shellfish Research
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1988 ) Cymatium muricinum predates cultivated Crassostrea rhizophorae Journal of Conchology (Lond) 33 : 107 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1988 ) Subtidal versus intertidal cultivation of Crassostrea rhizophorae Aquaculture 72 : 59-71 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. ( 1988 ) Identification of cultivated oysters Aquaculture 40 : 359-361 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. & Donovan, S.K. ( 1988 ) Variation of Recent and fossil Crassostrea in Jamaica Palaeontology 31 : 1013-1028 .
  • Littlewood, D.T.J. & Gordon, C.M. ( 1988 ) Sex ratio, condition and glycogen content of raft cultivated mangrove oysters Journal of Shellfish Research 7 : 395-399 . Journal of Shellfish Research