Dr Ronald Jenner

Ronald Jenner
  • Researcher, Head of Division
  • Life Sciences department
  • Invertebrates
Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road


Employment history

2009 - present    Researcher, Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, UK

2005 - 2008        Postdoctoral researcher, Dept. Biology & Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK

2002 - 2004        Marie Curie postdoctoral fellow, Dept. Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK


2002        PhD in systematic biology, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

1997        MSc in biology, Utrecht University, Netherlands

Professional Roles

Honorary position

Honorary Senior Lecturer, Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London (2012-)


  • Council member of the Systematics Association (2002-2012)
  • Editor of The Systematist (2005-2012)
  • Council member and Secretary of the European Society of Evolutionary Developmental Biology
  • Advisory board member of the International Society for Invertebrate Morphology

Editorial boards

  • Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
  • Journal of Zoology

Invited speaker

  • February 2013, BioSyst.EU 2013, Vienna, Austria
  • October 2012, University College London, Department of Genetics, Evolution & Environment, lecture on crustaceans for 2nd year undergraduate students, London, UK
  • March 2012, University of Leipzig, Institute of Biology, Masters course on venomics and evolution, Leipzig, Germany
  • February 2012, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, teach an 8 hour PhD course in phylogenetics, Naples, Italy
  • October 2011, invited keynote lecture at Deep Metazoan Phylogeny 2011, Munich, Germany
  • September 2011, Summer School in evolutionary developmental biology, Instituto Veneto di Scienze Lettere ed Arti, Venice
  • (July 2011, invited lecture at meeting of International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA)
  • (June 2011, invited lecture at Second International Congress on Invertebrate Morphology, Harvard University, USA)
  • May 2011, invited lecture in Spring School in Instituto Veneto di Scienze Lettere ed Arti, Venice
  • February 2011, invited keynote lecture at first annual meeting of Norwegian-Swedish Research School in Biosystematics, Bergen Science Centre, Norway
  • February 2011, invited lecture at Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Norway
  • February 2011, invited lecture at BioSystematics Berlin 2011, Germany
  • February 2011, invited lecture at Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, Bergen, Norway
  • September 2010, PhD course in Marine Macrofauna of Sweden, Systematics and Taxonomy, Lovén Centre for Marine Science, Tjärnö, Sweden
  • July 2010, European Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology, Paris
  • October 2009, Institute for Animal Ecology and Cell Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover
  • September 2009, Summer School on evolutionary developmental biology, Instituto Veneto di Scienze Lettere ed Arti, Venice
  • June 2009: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol
  • March 2009, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Hull
  • November 2008, 50th anniversary Phylogenetic Symposium, University of Hamburg, Germany
  • October 2008, keynote speaker, International Symposium on Crustacean Phylogeny, Rostock, Germany
  • September 2008, The Natural History Museum, London, UK
  • July 2008, Department of Zoology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
  • March 2008, School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Scotland
  • December 2007, Departament de Genetica, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain (in graduate course)
  • October 2007, Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, Universite´ de la Méditerranée, Marseilles, France
  • September 2007, British Association for the Advancement of Science, University of York, York, UK
  • June 2007, Royal Society Scientific Discussion Meeting Evolution of the animals – a Linnean Tercentenary Celebration, London, UK
  • June 2007, Novartis Foundation Meeting on Animal evolution, London, UK
  • April 2007, Ecology and Evolution Seminar Series, Imperial College London, UK
  • January 2007, Equipe Evolution et Developpement, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI), France
  • August 2006, first meeting of European Society of Evolutionary Developmental Biology, Prague, Czech Republic
  • June 2006, University of Jena, Germany
  • May 2006, workshop on Evolutionary Developmental Biology – the European Agenda, University of Padova, Venice, Italy
  • April 2006, University of Bristol, UK
  • September 2005, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
  • July 2005, keynote speaker at International Crustacean Congress, Glasgow, Scotland
  • June 2005, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK
  • May 2005, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, USA
  • April 2005, Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany
  • March 2005, Department of Integrative Biology and Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, USA
  • January 2005, symposium on The New Microscopy: Toward a Phylogenetic Synthesis at annual meeting of the American Microscopical Society, San Diego, USA
  • November 2003, Zoological Museum, University of Zürich, Switzerland
  • May 2003, Institute of Biology, Free University of Berlin, Germany
  • May 2003, Institute for Biology/Comparative Zoology, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Germany
  • August 2002, symposium on Current advances in metazoan evolution: new taxa, new characters, new genes at Willi Hennig Society Meeting, Helsinki, Finland
  • April 2002, Institute for Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, Netherlands
  • March 2002, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
  • January 2002, symposium on The Cambrian explosion: putting the pieces together at annual meeting of Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Anaheim, USA
  • July 2001, Institute for Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, Netherlands
  • July 2001, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, England
  • June 2001, Department of Genetics, University of Barcelona, Spain

Venom evolution


  • Evolution of centipede venoms
  • Evolution of polychaete venoms
  • Venom in remipede crustaceans

Evolution of centipede venoms

This is a NERC funded project (Comparative venom transcriptomics of centipedes: evolutionary diversification of a key ecological adaptation: NE/I001530/1) in collaboration with Dr Jean van Elsen (University of Bath, UK) and Eivind Undheim (The University of Queensland, Australia).


Although most lay people have little problem in identifying creatures like jellyfish, wasps, spiders, and scorpions as potentially dangerous venomous organisms, far fewer know that the ca. 3,300 species of centipedes possess potent venoms. A pair of strong venom claws is located just behind the head, and they house large venom glands that contain complex cocktails of venom components. Unfortunately we know almost nothing about the make-up of centipede venom, which leaves not only a large hole in our understanding of an ecologically important group, but it also compromises our general understanding of venom evolution in the animal kingdom. This study aims to remedy this ignorance by performing the first extensive and intensive analysis of the composition of centipede venoms. This is not only important for enhancing our limited understanding of centipede biology, but also for asking and answering fundamental questions about the evolution of venoms across the animal kingdom.


Higher-level phylogeny of centipedes © Greg Edgecombe



The stone centipede Lithobius forficatus © Greg Edgecombe


This project will take a genetic approach, and will characterize the toxin profiles from the venoms of five species of centipedes. These five species have been chosen to represent all major groups of centipedes. For each species, up to half a million mRNA sequences will be characterized. These precursor molecules are the templates for the production of toxin proteins. By comparing the profiles of these sequences across the selected species we can start to address important questions relating to the evolution of venoms and venomous organisms. The most basic question that can be answered is simply: what toxins are expressed in the venom glands of centipedes? The answer to this question will be the basis for answering the other questions.



Left forcipule (venom claw) of the centipede Lithobius forficatus © Greg Edgecombe


Does centipede venom have many toxins in common with the venoms of other groups? We already know from previous research that different groups of venomous animals can recruit many similar toxins into their venom. They do this by taking a gene coding for normal body protein, duplicating it, and expressing one of the copies specifically in the venom gland. Changes in the sequence of the gene can create changes in the protein, and this can change the protein’s function to be more effective as a toxin. Preliminary work, however, has suggested that centipede venom may contain many toxins not (yet?) found in other groups. This study will allow us to see how many venom components in centipedes are unique for them


Another major question that can be addressed with the new data is whether the diversification of the centipede species and their toxins went hand in hand. By integrating the family trees of the toxin genes and the centipedes we can infer is particular episodes in the evolution of centipedes are associated with bouts of toxin evolution as well. We can also infer, by incorporating data from other venomous and non-venomous animals, from what kind of genes the toxin genes in centipedes have evolved. Since there were no centipede data available till now, we can broadly reassess our current understanding of the pattern of toxin in evolution across all animals.


We can use the new data also to ask what kinds of processes were important in shaping the composition of centipede venom. One factor that is likely to be important is the range of different kinds of prey the centipede eats. A species tackling a broad range of prey has perhaps a greater diversity of toxins, than a species specializing in just a particular prey species. By trying to correlate venom composition with the diversity of prey identified in their guts we can begin to answer this question. Lastly, by looking at what kinds of changes have occurred in the toxin sequences, and in which parts of them, we can infer the types and intensities of selection pressures that were likely important in shaping toxin diversity.

Evolution of polychaete venoms

This project is funded by BBSRC (Tracking toxins in venomous Vermes: comparative venomics of polychaete annelids. BB/K003488/1) in collaboration with the lab of Dr Christoph Bleidorn (University of Leipzig, Germany).



The bloodworm Glycera capitata © Adrian Glover


Polychaete annelids are another group of animals that have been relatively neglected by venom researchers. Although it has been known for several decades that bloodworms (Glyceridae) are venomous, the composition of their venom remains largely unstudied. Our ignorance is even greater for the scale-worms, which comprise several related families of polychaetes for which morphological studies have indicated the presence of jaw-associated venom glands. Taking an approach similar to that of the centipede project our goal is to generate the first genetic characterization of the genes expressed in presumed polychaete venom glands, and to perform a comparative analysis of the results to better understand the general rules governing convergent venom evolution.



Giant Antarctic scale-worm (probably Eulagisca gigantea) © Les Watling


Venom in remipede crustaceans

This project is supported by postdoctoral funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for Dr Bjoern von Reumont.


Despite the extreme body plan disparity found among extant crustaceans, it is remarkable that no venomous crustacean has ever been found. In contrast, venomous species abound in the other major arthropod groups, for instance with venomous spiders and scorpions in Chelicerata, venomous hymenopterans in Hexapoda, and venomous centipedes in Myriapoda. This project's aim is to establish whether the prime candidates for venomous crustaceans, the cave-dwelling remipedes, do indeed express venom genes in their venom glands, and what that can teach us about venom evolution.


Remipede venom apparatus © Bjoern von Reumont


Imagining ancestors. Fact and fantasy in evolution

This is a book project contracted with the University of California Press, to appear in the book series Species and Systematics.

I'm writing a book on the topic of ancestors in evolutionary biology. The book takes an in depth look at the role of ancestors in the history of evolutionary biology. It chronicles the origin of the concept from pre-Darwinian type concepts, explores the changing epistemological roles of ancestors in evolutionary biology and phylogenetics from 1859 to the present, and explores the interplay of facts and fantasy in the study of animal body plan evolution.


Word cloud of Gregory (2008, Evo. Edu. Outreach 1:121-137), showing the importance of ancestors in the explanation of evolutionary trees; the word is used 97 times in 15 pages of text.


Ernst Haeckel's vertebrate archetype (ideale Urbild des Wirbelthieres) from his 1874 Anthropogenie.


  • Mathers, T. C., Hammond, R. L., Jenner, R. A., Hänfling, B. and Gómez, A. ( 2013 ) Multiple global radiations in tadpole shrimps challenge the concept of 'living fossils' PeerJ 1 : e62 . 10.7717/peerj.62
  • Mathers, T. C., Hammond, R. L., Jenner, R. A., Zierold, T., Hänfling, B. and Gómez, A. ( 2013 ) High lability of sexual system over 250 million years of evolution in morphologically conservative tadpole shrimps BMC Evolutionary Biology 13 : 30 . BMC Evolutionary Biology | 10.1186/1471-2148-13-30
  • Vogt, L., Nickel. M., Jenner, R. A. and Deans, A. R. ( 2013 ) The need for data standards in zoomorphology Journal of Morphology 274 : 793-808 .
  • von Reumont, B. M., Blanke, A., Richter, S., Alvarez, F., Bleidorn, C. and Jenner, R. A. ( 2013 ) The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin Molecular Biology and Evolution in press : . 10.1093/molbev/mst199
  • Reumont, B. M. von, Jenner, R. A., Wills, M. A., Dell'Ampio, E., Pass, G., Ebersberger, I., Meyer, B., Koenemann, S., Illiffe, T. M., Stamatakis, A., Niehuis, O., Meusemann, K. and Misof, B. ( 2012 ) Pancrustacean phylogeny in the light of new phylogenomic data: support for Remipedia as the sister group of Hexapoda Molecular Biology and Evolution 29 : 1031-1045 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2011 ) Use of morphology in criticizing molecular trees Journal of Crustacean Biology 31 : 373-377 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2010 ) [Review of] The science of describing. Natural history in Renaissance Europe, by B. W. Ogilvie The Systematist 31 : 13-16 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2010 ) [Review of] All creatures. Naturalists, collectors, and biodiversity 1850-1905, by R. E. Kohler The Systematist 31 : 22-25 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2010 ) Higher-level crustacean phylogeny: consensus and conflicting hypotheses Arthropod Structure & Development 39 : 143-153 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2010 ) [Review of] Arachnids, by J. Beccaloni The Systematist 32 : 14-15 .
  • Koenemann, S., Jenner, R. A., Hoenemann, M., Stemme, T., and Von Reumont, B. M. ( 2010 ) Arthropod phylogeny revisited, with a focus on crustacean relationships Arthropod Structure & Development 39 : 88-110 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2009 ) Shaking the tree of life Nature 458 : 706 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2009 ) [Review of] From embryology to evo-devo. A history of developmental evolution Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 : 458-462 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2009 ) Idalatry Palaeontological Association Newsletter 71 : 94-102 .
  • Jenner, R. A. and Littlewood, D. T. J. ( 2009 ) Invertebrate Problematica: kinds, causes, and solutions, In: Animal evolution: genomes, fossils and trees (Telford, M. J., Littlewood, D. T. J., eds) . Oxford University Press 107-126 .
  • Jenner, R. A., Ní Dhubhghaill, C., Ferla, M. P. and Wills, M. A. ( 2009 ) Eumalacostracan phylogeny and total evidence: limitations of the usual suspects BMC Evolutionary Biology 9 : 21 . 10.1186/1471-2148-9-21
  • Wills, M.A, Jenner, R. A., Ní Dhubhghaill, C. ( 2009 ) Eumalacostracan evolution: conflict between three sources of data Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 67 : 71-90 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2008 ) Evo-devo’s identity: from model organisms to developmental types, In: A. Minelli and G. Fusco (eds.), In: Evolving pathways. Key themes in evolutionary developmental biology . Cambridge University Press 100-119 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2008 ) For a very specialized audience only. The Palaeontological Association Newsletter 69: 23-25. .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2008 ) On molecular clocks and molecular fetish. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 67: 25-29. .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2008 ) [Review of] The regulatory genome. Gene regulatory networks in development and evolution, by Davidson, E. H. The Systematist 30: 19-21 .
  • Jenner, R. A. and Littlewood, D. T. J. ( 2008 ) Problematica old and new Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363 : 1503-1512 . 10.1098/rstb.2007.2240
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2007 ) [Review of] Evolutionary pathways in nature. A phylogenetic approach, by Avise, J. C. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 66: 77-78 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2007 ) [Review of] Macroevolution. Diversity, disparity, contingency. Essays in honor of Stephen Jay Gould, E. S. Vrba and Eldredge, N. (eds.), University of Chicago Press, 2005. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 64: 102-106 .
  • Jenner, R. A. and Wills, M. ( 2007 ) The choice of model organisms in evo-devo Nature Reviews Genetics 8 : 311-319 . 10.1038/nrg2062
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2006 ) Challenging received wisdoms: some contributions of the new microscopy to the new animal phylogeny Integrative and Comparative Biology 46 : 93-103 . 10.1093/icb/icj014
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2006 ) Unburdening evo-devo: ancestral attractions, model organisms, and basal baloney Development, Genes and Evolution 216 : 385-394 . 10.1007/s00427-006-0084-5
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2006 ) Metazoan phylogeny, In: J. H. Kaas (ed.), In: Evolution of nervous systems. Volume I: History of ideas, basic concepts and developmental mechanisms . Academic Press : Oxford , 17-40 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2006 ) On cosmik debris and palaeontology. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 62: 28-35.
    Jenner, R. A. 2006b. Demolishing the ivory tower: science as entertainment. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 63: 19-25. .
  • Webster, B. L., Copley, R. R., Jenner, R. A., Mackenzie-Dodds, J. A., Bourlat, S. J., Rota-Stabelli, O., Littlewood, D. T. J. and Telford, M. J. ( 2006 ) Mitogenomics and phylogenomics reveal priapulid worms as extant models of the ancestral ecdysozoan Evolution & Development 8 : 502-510 . 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2006.00123.x
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2005 ) Foiling vertebrate inversion with the humble nemertean. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 58: 32-39. .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2005 ) Meeting a nemertean nemesis. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 59: 37-43 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2005 ) Scotoma of systematics, or Herschel’s headaches and Darwin’s metaphysics. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 60: 18-25 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2005 ) Combating footnote status in evolutionary theory. Contributions to Zoology 74: 209-211 .
  • Jenner, R. A. and Scholtz, G. ( 2005 ) Playing another round of metazoan phylogenetics: historical epistemology, sensitivity analysis, and the position of Arthropoda within the Metazoa on the basis of morphology, In: Koenemann, S. And Jenner, R. A. (eds), In: Crustacea and Arthropod Relationships . CRC Press 355-385 .
  • Koenemann, S. and Jenner, R. A. ( 2005 ) Crustacea and arthropod relationships (Crustacean Issues, 16) . CRC Press .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2004 ) Towards a phylogeny of the Metazoa: evaluating alternative phylogenetic positions of Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, and Gnathostomulida, with a critical reappraisal of cladistic characters Contributions to Zoology 73 : 3-163 . Contributions to Zoology
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2004 ) Accepting partnership by submission? Morphological phylogenetics in a molecular millennium Systematic Biology 53 : 333-342 . 10.1080/10635150490423962
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2004 ) The scientific status of metazoan cladistics: why current research practice must change Zoologica Scripta 33 : 293-310 . 10.1111/j.0300-3256.2004.00153.x
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2004 ) When molecules and morphology clash: reconciling conflicting phylogenies of the Metazoa by considering secondary character loss Evolution & Development 6 : 372-378 . 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2004.04045.x
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2004 ) Libbie Henrietta Hyman (1888-1969): from developmental mechanics to the evolution of animal body plans Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular and Developmental Evolution) 302B : 413-423 . 10.1002/jez.b.21019
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2004 ) The hold of hypothetical ancestors and the amazing appeal of annelids as archetypes. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 55: 18-27 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2004 ) Presumed primitive until proven derived: appreciating evolutionary loss. The Systematist 23: 12-16 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2004 ) Historical imagination, colonial theories and phylogenetic fashion. The Palaeontological Association Newsletter 56: 50-59 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2004 ) The tainting of Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 57: 10-17 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2003 ) Unleashing the force of cladistics? Metazoan phylogenetics and hypothesis testing Integrative and Comparative Biology 43 : 207-218 . 10.1093/icb/43.1.207
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2003 ) Conceptual fossils. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 52: 24-29 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2003 ) “Laws” of animal evolution and evolutionary folk wisdom. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 53: 42-48 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2003 ) Darwin’s cirripedology meets modern phylogenetics. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 54: 10-16 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2003 ) [Review of] Invertebrates, by R. C. Brusca and G. J. Brusca, Sinauer, 2003. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 54: 80-88 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2003 ) [Review of] The development of animal form. Ontogeny, morphology, and evolution, by A. Minelli, Cambridge University Press, 2003. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 54: 68-72 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2003 ) Evolutionary déjà vu. The Systematist 22: 15-17 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2002 ) Boolean logic and character state identity: pitfalls of character coding in metazoan cladistics Contributions to Zoology 71 : 67-91 . Contributions to Zoology
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2002 ) [Review of] From DNA to diversity. Molecular genetics and the evolution of animal design, by S. B. Carroll, J. K. Grenier and S. D. Weatherbee, Blackwell Science, Inc., 2001. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 51: 43-47 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2002 ) Technophilia and the black box. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 51: 22-26 .
  • Jenner, R. A. and F. R. Schram, F. R. ( 2002 ) Systematic zoology: invertebrates, in Biological Systematics, In: A. Minelli and G. Contrafatto, (eds.), In: In Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) . EOLSS Publishers : Oxford , .
  • Galis, F. and R. A. Jenner ( 2001 ) The evolution of individuality and conflict mediation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 541 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2001 ) Bilaterian phylogeny and uncritical recycling of morphological data sets Systematic Biology 50 : 730-742 . Systematic Biology
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2001 ) Evolution of animal body plans: the role of metazoan phylogeny at the interface between pattern and process Evolution & Development 2 : 208-221 . 10.1046/j.1525-142x.2000.00060.x
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2001 ) [Review of] Multicellular animals. The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa. Volume II, by P. Ax, Springer-Verlag, 2000. Quarterly Review of Biology 76: 363-364 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2001 ) [Review of] Genomic regulatory systems. Development and evolution, by E. H. Davidson, Academic Press, 2001. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 47: 73-75 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 2001 ) Carrying metazoan phylogenetics forward in the 21st century. Contributions to Zoology 70: 181-184. [review of and comments on Animal evolution, 2nd edition by Claus Nielsen, Oxford University Press, 2001] .
  • Schram, F. R. and Jenner, R. A.. ( 2001 ) The origin of Hexapoda: a crustacean perspective, In: T. Deuve, (ed.), In: The origin of Hexapoda . Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N. S.) : France , 243-264 .
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 1999 ) Metazoan phylogeny as a tool in evolutionary biology: current problems and discrepancies in application Belgian Journal of Zoology 129 : 245-261 .
  • Jenner, R. A. and F. R. Schram. ( 1999 ) The grand game of metazoan phylogeny: rules and strategies Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 74 : 121-142 . Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • Jenner, R. A. ( 1998 ) Hierarchical organization and the structural-interactive hierarchy Journal of Theoretical Biology 194 : 457-460 . 10.1006/jtbi.1998.0765
  • Jenner, R. A., C. H. J. Hof and F. R. Schram ( 1998 ) Palaeo- and archaeostomatopods (Hoplocarida, Crustacea) from the Bear Gulch Limestone, Mississipian (Namurian), of Central Montana Contributions to Zoology 67 : 155-185 . Contributions to Zoology