Main diagnostic characters
1. Both sexes with mesopleuron large and undivided (100%)
2. Gaster subsessile (100%)
3. Mid coxae inserted level with posterior margin of mesopleuron (100%)
4. Prepectus enlarged, giving the thorax a shouldered appearance when viewed from above (99%)
The family currently includes 9 genera and 92 species. No subfamily classification has been proposed.
Tanaostigmatids are predominantly phytophagous in habit. They are associated with galls, in most cases as the presumed gall-formers. There are many records of species reared from galls, however very few detailed biologies are known for this family, and exceptions to gall-forming are known. Strict seed infestation without gall formation has been reported from India (Lateef, 1977; Lateef, et al. 1985); and inquinilism in cecidomyiid galls is known from Brazil and Japan (LaSalle, 1987). The Japanese species Cynipencyrtus flavus Ishii, which is the only known parasitic tanaostigmatid, attacks gall-forming cynipids (Tachikawa, 1973, 1978). Preferred host plants for tanaostigmatids are woody trees and shrubs in the pea family Fabaceae, although species have been reared from galls on Triplaris (Polygonaceae), Scutia and Condalia (Rhamnaceae) and Psidium (Myrtaceae), and recorded as collected on several other families.
Tanaoastigmatid galls are of many types, and may be found on stems, leaves, seeds of flowers (usually in deformed ovaries).
LaSalle, 1987 (World genera and Nearctic species).
LaSalle, J. 1987. New World Tanaostigmatidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Contribution of the American Entomological Institute 23(1):1-181.
Lateef, S.S. 1977. A new hymenopteran pest, Tanaostigmodes sp. (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodae) recorded on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan Millsp.) at ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin No 7:6-7.
Lateef, S.S., Reed, W. & LaSalle, J. 1985. Tanaostigmodes cajaninae LaSalle sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae), a potential pest of the pigeon pea in India. Bulletin of Entomological Research 75(2):305-313.
Tachikawa, T. 1973. Discovery of the hosts of Cynipencyrtus bicolor Ishii and Microterys tarumiensis Tachikawa (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea - Encyrtidae). Transactions of the Shikoku Entomological Society 11(4):133-134.
Tachikawa, T. 1978. A note on the genus Cynipencyrtus Ishii (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea - Encyrtidae). Transactions of Shikoku Entomological Society 14(1/2):69-71.Previous page | Next page
Last updated 05-Sep-2003 Dr B R Pitkin