It is the larva of varied carpet beetle, Anthrenus verbasci.
It is commonly known as a woolly bear (actually one of several larvae to carry that name).
You definitely should investigate and get rid of them - there could be quite a lot still chewing away your carpet, perhaps in a corner or under furniture. They might not be apparent until you look closely, perhaps pulling up the carpet to look underneath. They will also go for other fabrics, such as stored clothes, curtains, upholstery.