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4 Posts tagged with the meteoritics tag
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Dr Sarah Crowther, University of Manchester

 

Tuesday 18th November 1600h

 

Earth Sciences Seminar Room  (Basement, WEB 05)

 

 

The I-Xe chronometer provides a high resolution means of studying events that occurred during the formation of the Solar System and the subsequent reprocessing of material within the first ~150 Ma of Solar System history. Barwell seems to have sampled igneous clasts that formed early in the Solar System's history, and preserved the I-Xe system from this time. These clasts are igneous in nature, rather than chondritic. If they are relics from a previous generation of melted, differentiated planetesimals, it would support data that suggest there was an earlier generation of planetesimals that pre-date the formation of the chondrite parent bodies. Barwell also allows us the opportunity to investigate whether chondrules from this early period of Solar System history are also present.

 

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In this talk Sarah Crowther will discuss the background to this study, the I-Xe chronometer, the techniques and mass spectrometer used at The University of Manchester to determine I-Xe ages, and  recent analyses of Barwell.

 

More information on attending seminars at http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/news-events/seminars/

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Earth Sciences Seminar Room (Basement, WEB 05, the previous Mineralogy Seminar Room)

 

Wednesday 29th October  4.00 pm

 

Dr. Laurence A.J. Garvie, Center for Meteorite Studies, Tempe AZ 85287-6004 (lgarvie@asu.edu)

 

In 1806 a black, friable meteorite fell near the town of Alais in France. Subsequent chemical analysis published in the same year by Thenard showed that the stone contained 2.5 parts carbon and 18.5 parts water. In 1834, Berzelius showed that the stone contained clays and a complex suite of organic materials that were extracted with water. This study heralded the field of extraterrestrial organic chemistry.

 

The Alais stone belongs to a class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites (CC). These chondrites are primitive meteorites composed of various proportions of chondrules and refractory materials set in a fine-grained matrix. Their study provides important information on early Solar System processes. In addition, the matrix of these meteorites harbors a suite of presolar materials, some of which are carbonaceous.

 

Today, more than 40,000 organic compounds have been recognized in the CC meteorites, including more than 100 amino acids. Together with these soluble compounds, some CC meteorites contain an abundant carbonaceous component that is insoluble in water, solvents, and acids called the insoluble organic material (IOM). The IOM is chemically and structurally diverse and contains two easily recognizable and curious components – carbonaceous nanoglobules (also called organized elements) and nanodiamonds. I will explore the significance of these components to early Solar System studies as well as address the frequent past and present claims of indigenous microfossils in the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites.

 

 

 

More information on attending seminars at http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/news-events/seminars/

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Wild Stardust

Posted by John Jackson Dec 23, 2011

Samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust mission provided an unequalled opportunity to compare previously available extraterrestrial samples against those from a known comet. Iron sulphides are a major constituent of cometary grains commonly identified within cometary interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and Wild 2 samples.  NHM scientists Sara Russell and Anton Kearsley, and Scientific Associate Phil Bland, are key collaborators on a new examination of this unique material.

 

Chemical analyses show that Wild 2 sulphides are fundamentally different from those in IDPs. However, as Wild 2 dust was collected via impact into capture media at approximately 6.1 km s-1, it is unclear whether this is due to original variations in these materials or is due to heating and alteration during collection. The results obtained are consistent with estimated peak pressures and temperatures experienced (approximately 85 GPa, approximately 2600 K) and some may be used to predict original chemistry and estimate mineralogy - the work continues....


Wozniakiewicz P J, Ishii H A, KEARSLEY A T, Burchell M J, BLAND P A, Bradley J P, Dai Z R,   Teslich N, Collins G S, Cole M J & RUSSELL S S 2011. Investigation of iron sulfide impact crater residues: A combined analysis by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 46: 1007-1024.

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Where does the Moon come from?  The Moon has immense influence on the Earth – not least, the gravity that it exerts determines all sorts of biological rhythms and causes marine tides, which in turn influence currents, erosion processes and many other phenomena.

 

However, we don’t yet know exactly where the Moon comes from or how it was formed, and this is has been a topic of debate for well over 100 years.

There are three main hypotheses put forward:

 

  • the first is that the Moon is a body formed elsewhere and captured by the Earth’s gravity;

  • the second is that the Earth and Moon were part of a single larger body of molten material and that the Moon span off as a result of centrifugal      forces; and

  • third, the Giant Impact Hypothesis that suggests that a body the size of Mars collided with the Earth and the impact launched material off      to orbit the Earth – the origin of the Moon.

Lydia Hallis, Mahesh Anand and Sara Russell, based in the Museum’s Mineralogy Department, collaborated with colleagues from the Open University, the British Antarctic Survey and University of Hawai’I to investigate the formation and early evolution of the lunar mantle and crust. They analysed the oxygen isotopic composition, titanium content and modal mineralogy (relative proportions of different mineral components) of a suite of lunar basalts.

 

Chemical elements can have different forms – isotopes – which differ slightly in atomic mass (the best known being Carbon-12 and Carbon-14).  Most oxygen is in the form Oxygen-16, but some is in the forms of Oxygen-17 and Oxygen-18. Materials of different origin in the Solar System can have different ratios of these isotopes. Basalt is a common igneous rock, formed when lava emerges and cools at the surface of a planet.

 

The scientists’ samples included eight low-Titanium basalts from the Apollo 12 and 15 lunar mission collections, and 12 high-Titanium basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 collections. In addition, they measured the oxygen isotopic composition of an Apollo 15 KREEP (K - potassium, REE - Rare Earth Element, and P - phosphorus) basalt (sample 15386) and an Apollo 14 feldspathic mare basalt (sample 14053).

 

As with results of previous studies, the data reveal no detectable difference between the ratios of Oxygen isotopes in rocks of the Earth and Moon.

Large objects from elsewhere in the Solar System would be likely to have different Oxygen isotope ratios to that found in Earth rocks. Since the ratios on Earth and Moon are the same, the Giant Impact Hypothesis is open to substantial doubt: it seems more likely from this evidence that Earth and Moon were once part of the same body in the early Solar System and separated by means other than a collision – possibly by centrifugal forces.

 

Hallis, L.J., Anand, M., Greenwood, R.C., Miller, M.F., Franchi, I.A., Russell, S.S. (2010) The oxygen isotope composition, petrology and geochemistry of mare basalts: Evidence for large-scale compositional variation in the lunar mantle, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 74, 6885-6899. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2010.09.023