Bombus


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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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Sample of names
Nomenclature
Species
Subspecies
Key to typography & symbols

 

A

altaicus Eversmann
altaicus
Skorikov
americanorum
amurensis
anachoreta
andamanus
andreae
angustus
apollineus
appositus
arcticus Dahlbom
arcticus Quenzel
arcticus Kirby
ardens
arenicola
argillaceus
armeniacus Radoszkowski

 

B

 

C

charharensis
chayaensis
chinensis Dalla Torre
chinensis Morawitz
chinensis Skorikov
chinganicus Reinig, 1936:6
chinganicus Reinig, 1936:8
chloronotus
cingulatus
cinnameus
citrinus Schmiedecknecht
citrinus Smith
clydensis
coccineus
cognatus

 

D

 

E

 

F

 

G

 

H

haematurus
haemorrhoidalis
handlirschi
handlirschianus
haueri
hedini Bischoff, 1936:15 (Th.)
hedini Bischoff, 1936:26 (Ps.)
heicens
himalayanus
hispanicus
hoenei Bischoff, 1936:10 (Ml.)
hoenei Bischoff, 1936:26 (Ps.)
honshuensis
hortorum
hortulanus
huangcens

 

I

 

J

 

K

kashmirensis
keriensis
kirbiellus
kirbyellus
klapperichi Pittioni, 1949:266
klapperichi Pittioni, 1949:273

 

L

 

M

 

N

napensis
nasutus
nemorum Fabricius, 1775:380
nemorum Fabricius, 1775:382
neoboreus
neotropicus
nepalensis
nevadensis

 

O

 

P

 

Q

 

R

ruderarius
ruderatus
rufipes
rufocinctus Cresson
rufocinctus Morawitz
rufocognitus
rufofasciatus
rufoflavus
rupestris

 

S

 

T

tahanensis
tajushanensis Pittioni, 1949:244
tajushanensis Pittioni, 1949:277
tanguticus
tenellus
tenuifasciatus Vogt, 1909:49 (Pr.)
tenuifasciatus Vogt, 1909:49 (Ml.)
terminalis Smith, 1870
terminalis Smith, 1873
terrestriformis
ternarius
terrestris
terricola
tersatus

tricornis
trifasciatus
trilineatus
trinominatus
tristis Seidl
tristis Sparre-Schneider
tschitscherini
tucumanus
tunicatus
turkestanicus Kruger
turkestanicus
Skorikov
turneri

 

U

unicolor Friese
unicolor Kriechbaumer

 

V

 

W

 

X

 

Y

 

Z

.

Sample of names

This checklist is based on an unpublished catalogue of over 2800 names. As a checklist, it is not required to include the full list of synonyms, so synonyms are selected here primarily where they help to clarify the identity and scope of the species (including the subspecies included by some authors), and particularly for those names in most common use in the literature of the last 25 years. Misidentifications are not included with the lists of synonyms and are discussed only where they are needed to clarify the application of problematic names.

 

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Nomenclature

Treatment of names in the published checklist (Williams, 1998 [intro pdf] ) follows the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN], 1985). This web list takes account of the new code of zoological nomenclature (ICZN, 1999), and summary information on changes is included here. The Principle of Priority is generally adhered to, although regard is given to the stated purpose of priority (ICZN, 1985: Article 23b, 1999: Article 23.2): namely that it should be used to promote stability and is not intended to be used to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning (ICZN, 1985: Article 79c, 1999: Article 23.9.1).

 

Familiar typographical conventions are used to show the status of names (see the table below). A question mark (?) before a valid name (in large bold type) in the list shows that, while it refers to a taxon that is considered likely to be a separate species, it may be conspecific with the preceding taxon in the list. Names in the more detailed references are followed by names of authors, date of first publication (within the meaning of ICZN, 1999), and page reference. Wherever possible, the true first date of publication is given in preference to any purported date of publication when these differ. If a name were published originally in a different generic combination, then the original genus is shown in brackets. If the name had been published originally with a different termination, or with capital initial letters, diacritic marks etc., then the original form is shown without the mandatory changes (with the exception that small capital letters are reduced to lower case). A question mark (?) before an available name in the list shows that, while it refers to a taxon that is considered likely to be conspecific, it may be a separate species. Square brackets [ ] are placed around names that are unavailable within the meaning of the code and which are associated informally.

 

Key to typography & symbols

 

Bombus avinoviellus

valid name of species (oldest available name)

callophenax

available name (junior synonym)

?bicolor

provisional synonym

[silvestris]

unavailable name

mendax examined

type material for name examined (in whole or in part)
?Bombus auricomus

provisionally separate species

links to:
(left) list of species for subgenus
(right) alphabetic list of all names in checklist

 

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Species

For a discussion of species concepts in relation to this checklist, see Williams, 1991 [intro pdf], 1998 [intro pdf], 2000 [text]. In order to interpret the checklist, the species-discriminating criteria are made explicit where they are controversial. It is equally important to convey the present belief that there is no simple solution to the problem of how to recognise species (because of potentially conflicting issues of pattern and process) and that no single known approach can resolve all of the cases in a uniform and entirely satisfactory manner.

 

Pragmatically, species may be seen as useful conventions to aid in the communication of information gathered about the individuals that are their parts. It can be argued that the most important initial goal is to describe the nature of the variation in each particular case and to avoid presenting only theory-laden (and constrained) interpretations. In this way, basic information on variation will remain available for re-interpretation as theory changes. Hopefully, future information will help to clarify problematic cases. In the interests of pluralism, these pages are aimed at reporting not only a preferred interpretation in the comments on each species, but also at least the more widely-held alternative interpretations.

 

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Subspecies

For this checklist, the interest is primarily in problems of recognition and nomenclature for taxa at the rank of species. Subspecific names refer to parts of species, and so for present purposes these can be treated as synonyms of specific names (e.g. Schwarz et al., 1996). This is not to say that subspecific taxa could not be recognised if they are considered useful (e.g. Rasmont et al., 1995).

 

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