checklist is based on an unpublished catalogue of over
2800 names. As a checklist, it is not required to include
the full list of synonyms, so synonyms are selected
here primarily where they help to clarify the identity
and scope of the species (including the subspecies included
by some authors), and particularly for those names in
most common use in the literature of the last 25 years.
Misidentifications are not included with the lists of
synonyms and are discussed only where they are needed
to clarify the application of problematic names.
of names in the published checklist (Williams, 1998
[intro pdf] ) follows the International Code
of Zoological Nomenclature (International Commission
on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN], 1985).
This web list takes account of the new code of zoological
nomenclature (ICZN, 1999),
and summary information on changes is included here.
The Principle of Priority is generally adhered to, although
regard is given to the stated purpose of priority (ICZN,
1985: Article 23b, 1999:
Article 23.2): namely that it should be used to promote
stability and is not intended to be used to upset a
long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning (ICZN,
1985: Article 79c, 1999:
typographical conventions are used to show the status
of names (see the table below). A question mark (?)
before a valid name (in large bold type) in the list
shows that, while it refers to a taxon that is considered
likely to be a separate species, it may be conspecific
with the preceding taxon in the list. Names in the more
detailed references are followed by names of authors,
date of first publication (within the meaning of ICZN,
1999), and page reference.
Wherever possible, the true first date of publication
is given in preference to any purported date of publication
when these differ. If a name were published originally
in a different generic combination, then the original
genus is shown in brackets. If the name had been published
originally with a different termination, or with capital
initial letters, diacritic marks etc., then the original
form is shown without the mandatory changes (with the
exception that small capital letters are reduced to
lower case). A question mark (?) before an available
name in the list shows that, while it refers to a taxon
that is considered likely to be conspecific, it may
be a separate species. Square brackets [ ] are placed
around names that are unavailable within the meaning
of the code and which are associated informally.
to typography & symbols
name of species (oldest available name)
name (junior synonym)
material for name examined (in whole or in part)
(left) list of species for subgenus
(right) alphabetic list of all names in checklist
a discussion of species concepts in relation to this
checklist, see Williams, 1991
[intro pdf], 1998
[intro pdf], 2000
[text], Williams et al.
In order to interpret the checklist, the species-discriminating
criteria are made explicit where they are controversial.
It is equally important to convey the present belief
that there is no simple solution to the problem of how
to recognise species (because of potentially conflicting
issues of pattern and process) and that no single known
approach can resolve all of the cases in a uniform and
entirely satisfactory manner.
species may be seen as useful conventions to aid in
the communication of information gathered about the
individuals that are their parts. It can be argued that
the most important initial goal is to describe the nature
of the variation in each particular case and to avoid
presenting only theory-laden (and constrained) interpretations.
In this way, basic information on variation will remain
available for re-interpretation as theory changes. Hopefully,
future information will help to clarify problematic
cases. In the interests of pluralism, these pages are
aimed at reporting not only a preferred interpretation
in the comments on each species, but also at least the
more widely-held alternative interpretations.
this checklist, the interest is primarily in problems
of recognition and nomenclature for taxa at the rank
of species. Subspecific names refer to parts of species,
and so for present purposes these can be treated as
synonyms of specific names (e.g. Schwarz et al.,
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