Bombus


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  Psithyrus annotated checklist
PyrobombusThoracobombus Psithyrus
Back to tree Number of species in equal-area (611,000 kmĀ²) grid cells with an equal-interval blue scale.
27 species

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B. citrinus
B. citrinus female visiting Trifolium.

Psithyrus
ecology and behaviour

 

HABITAT: Mountain meadows, forest edges, and grassland.

 

FOOD-PLANTS: Short to medium tongue-length bumblebees visiting shallow to medium flowers. Females lack pollen-collecting corbiculae on the hind legs (see photo left).

 

NESTING BEHAVIOUR: There is no worker caste and all species are obligate social parasites ('cuckoos') in colonies of the other social Bombus species (reviewed by Alford, 1975; Fisher, 1987). The degree of host specificity varies among species.

 

MATE-SEARCHING BEHAVIOUR: Males patrol circuits of scent marks.

 

Subgenus PSITHYRUS Lepeletier
Psithyrus Lepeletier, 1832:373, type-species Apis rupestris Fabricius (= Bombus rupestris (Fabricius)) by subsequent designation of Curtis, 1833:pl. 468
Apathus Newman, 1835:404, replacement name for Psithyrus Lepeletier, incorrectly stated to be a junior homonym of Psithyros Hübner, [1819]:132 (= Macroglossum Scopoli, 1777:414)
Psithyrus (Laboriopsithyrus) Frison, 1927:69, type-species Bombus laboriosus Fabricius (= Emphoropsis laboriosus (Fabricius) in the sense of Frison (= Bombus citrinus (Smith), a misidentification, see Milliron, 1960:99) by original fixation
Psithyrus (Ashtonipsithyrus) Frison, 1927:69, type-species Apathus ashtoni Cresson (= Bombus ashtoni (Cresson)) by original designation
Psithyrus (Fernaldaepsithyrus) Frison, 1927:70, type-species Psithyrus fernaldae Franklin (= Bombus fernaldae (Franklin)) by original designation
Psithyrus (Eopsithyrus) Popov, 1931:134, type-species Apathus tibetanus Morawitz (= Bombus tibetanus (Morawitz)) by original designation
Psithyrus (Metapsithyrus) Popov, 1931:135, type-species Apis campestris Panzer (= Bombus campestris (Panzer)) by original designation
Psithyrus (Allopsithyrus) Popov, 1931:136, type-species Apis barbutella Kirby (= Bombus barbutellus (Kirby)) by original designation
Psithyrus (Ceratopsithyrus) Pittioni, 1949:270, type-species Psithyrus klapperichi Pittioni (= Bombus cornutus (Frison)) by original designation
Psithyrus (Citrinopsithyrus) Thorp in Thorp et al., 1983:50, type-species Apathus citrinus Smith (= Bombus citrinus (Smith)) by original designation
Bombus (Psithyrus) Williams, 1991:44
[Psithyrus (Fernaldepsithyrus) Amiet, 1996:86, incorrect subsequent spelling]

 

TAXONOMIC STATUS: It has long been considered useful to regard Psithyrus as a separate genus in recognition of the distinctive behaviour of the species, as social parasites in colonies of the remaining Bombini, and in recognition of their distinctive morphology. However, most recent studies have agreed that, although Psithyrus is itself very likely to be monophyletic, the remaining bumble bees without Psithyrus are not (Plowright & Stephen, 1973; Obrecht & Scholl, 1981; Ito, 1985; Williams, 1985b, 1991, 1995; Pamilo et al., 1987).

 

Williams (1991 [pdf]) recommended recognising a single genus Bombus for all bumble bees, to include Psithyrus as a subgenus. This was a return to an emphasis of the more widely shared characters and the more distant affinities for the generic concept, encouraged by the opinion of Michener (1990, 2000) that bumble bees are 'morphologically monotonous' or 'homogeneous' in comparison with variation among species within closely related groups such as Euglossini (orchid bees) and Meliponini (stingless bees). One advantage of a single genus for all bumble bees is that it recognises a group for which evidence of monophyly is particularly strong, so that nomenclature is most likely to remain stable in the future. It also emphasises the many differences from other groups of bees. Use of a single genus Bombus for all bumble bees (Williams, 1991 [pdf]) has now been accepted by most recent authors (e.g. Rasmont & Adamski, 1995; Rasmont et al., 1995; Schwarz et al., 1996; Michener, 2000).

 

The subgenera within the former genus Psithyrus have often been considered less distinct from one another than have the other subgenera of Bombus (Pittioni, 1939a; Ito, 1985; Williams, 1985b; Michener, 1990) and therefore may be treated as synonyms of Psithyrus (Milliron, 1961; Williams, 1991, 1995). In an alternative treatment, Rasmont et al. (1995) included the former subgenera of the former genus Psithyrus as separate subgenera within the genus Bombus.

 

NOMENCLATURE: Because the type species of Laboriopsithyrus was misidentified (discussed by Milliron, 1960:99), the choice of type species to be designated should be made to serve nomenclatural stability (ICZN, 1999: Article 70). Williams (1998) suggested that, in the interests of stability (ICZN, 1999: Article 23), the bumble bee species actually involved should be designated (Bombus laboriosus in the sense of Frison, = Bombus citrinus (Smith)), which was wrongly named in the type fixation (ICZN, 1999: Article 70.3.2).

 

Part of the bumblebee phylogenetic tree including available Psithyrus species from an analysis of DNA sequence data for five genes (Cameron et al. 2007 [pdf]). Values above branches are Bayesian posterior probabilities, values below branches are parsimony bootstrap values. Alternative resolution from parsimony analysis is shown with dotted lines.

 

bellardii
barbutellus

bohemicus
branickii
campestris

chinensis
citrinus

coreanus

cornutus


expolitus
ferganicus
flavidus
insularis
monozonus
morawitzianus
norvegicus
novus

perezi

quadricolor
rupestris

skorikovi
suckleyi
sylvestris
tibetanus
turneri
variabilis

vestalis


 

citrinus-group of species

 

Bombus (Ps.) intrudens (Smith)subgeneric listall names
intrudens (Smith, 1861:154 [Apathus]) examined
variabilis (Cresson, 1872:284 [Apathus])
guatemalensis (Cockerell, 1912:21 [Psithyrus]) examined
sololensis (Franklin, 1915:173 [Psithyrus]) examined
mysticus (Frison, 1925a:138 [Psithyrus])
5 names

TAXONOMIC STATUS: Specimens in the NHM collection from Mexico and Guatemala labelled 'intrudens' and 'sololensis' appear to me to be closely similar to B. variabilis. Frison (1925a) believed that B. sololensis is a colour form of B. guatemalensis, but still distinguished B. mysticus as a separate species only on the basis of colour pattern. I am unaware of any reason (other than minor differences in colour pattern) why B. variabilis, B. intrudens, B. sololensis, or B. guatemalensis and B. mysticus, should not be considered conspecific.

NOMENCLATURE: A female in the NHM collection has three labels 'Apathus / intrudens / Smith.', '58.135 MEX. / (Oajaca.)', 'Holo- / type' and I am unaware of any problems with this designation. If this is correct and the type is conspecific with B. variabilis, then B. intrudens is the oldest available name for this species. D. Yanega (in litt.) agrees with this interpretation.

Although B. intrudens is the oldest available name for the present interpretation of this species, the name B. variabilis has been in common use for the species since 1950 (e.g. Chandler, 1950; LaBerge & Webb, 1962; Mitchell, 1962; Medler & Carney, 1963; Hobbs, 1966; Plowright & Stephen, 1973; Hurd, 1979; Husband et al., 1980; Michener, 1990; Poole, 1996). I know of no publications using the name B. intrudens for the whole of this species since 1899. It could be argued that, in the interests of stability (ICZN, 1999: Article 23), prevailing usage be maintained (in prep.).

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: E Nearctic, S Nearctic Regions, W Nearctic, N Neotropical borders.

 

Bombus (Ps.) citrinus (Smith)subgeneric listall names
citrinus (Smith, 1854:385 [Apathus]) examined
contiguus (Cresson, 1863:112 [Apathus])
2 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: E Nearctic Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) insularis (Smith)subgeneric listall names
interruptus Greene, 1858:11, not of Lepeletier, 1832:381 (= B. rupestris (Fabricius))
insularis (Smith, 1861:155 [Apathus]) examined
consultus (Franklin, 1913:459 [Psithyrus])
?bicolor (Franklin, 1913:460 [Psithyrus]) not of Höppner, 1897:33 (= B. soroeensis (Fabricius))
crawfordi (Franklin, 1913:464 [Psithyrus]) examined
5 names

TAXONOMIC STATUS: According to D. Yanega (in litt.), who has examined the type material, B. bicolor (Franklin) is conspecific with B. interruptus.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: W Nearctic, E Nearctic Regions.

 

 

rupestris-group of species

 

Bombus (Ps.) tibetanus (Morawitz)subgeneric listall names
tibetanus (Morawitz, 1887:202 [Apathus]) examined
?latefasciatus (Friese, 1931:304 [Psithyrus]) examined
3 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) cornutus (Frison)subgeneric listall names
cornutus (Frison, 1933:338 [Psithyrus])
pyramideus (Maa, 1948:19 [Psithyrus]) examined
acutisquameus (Maa, 1948:21 [Psithyrus]) examined
klapperichi (Pittioni, 1949:273 [Psithyrus]) examined, not of Pittioni, 1949:266 (= B. picipes Richards)
canus (Tkalcu, 1989:42 [Psithyrus]) examined
5 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) turneri (Richards)subgeneric listall names
turneri (Richards, 1929a:141 [Psithyrus]) examined
decoomani (Maa, 1948:26 [Psithyrus]) examined
martensi (Tkalcu, 1974b:314 [Psithyrus]) examined
3 names

TAXONOMIC STATUS: Several of these nominal taxa have been treated as separate species. However, aside from differences in colour pattern, they are closely similar in morphology. Until more evidence to the contrary is available from critical studies of patterns of variation, I shall treat them as parts of a single variable species.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region.

 

?Bombus (Ps.) monozonus (Friese)subgeneric listall names
monozonus (Friese, 1931:304 [Psithyrus]) not of Friese, 1909:674 (= B. lucorum (Linnaeus))
1 name

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) expolitus (Tkalcu)subgeneric listall names
expolitus (Tkalcu, 1989:44 [Psithyrus]) examined
1 name

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) novus (Frison)subgeneric listall names
novus (Frison, 1933:340 [Psithyrus])
?nepalensis (Tkalcu, 1974b:318 [Psithyrus]) examined
2 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) chinensis (Morawitz)subgeneric listall names
chinensis (Morawitz, 1890[April 30]:352 [Apathus]) examined
morawitzi (Friese, 1905:516 [Psithyrus]) examined, not of Radoszkowski, 1876:101 (= B. morawitzi Radoszkowski)
hönei [hoenei] (Bischoff, 1936:26 [Psithyrus]) examined, not of Bischoff, 1936:10 (= B. friseanus Skorikov)
3 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) branickii (Radoszkowski)subgeneric listall names
Branickii (Radoszkowski, 1893:241 [Psithyrus]) examined
chloronotus (Morawitz, 1893:6 [Apathus]) examined
elisabethae (Reinig, 1940:231 [Psithyrus]) examined
[branichi (Kim & Ito, 1987:32 [Psithyrus]) incorrect subsequent spelling]
11 names

NOMENCLATURE: According to Pesenko & Astafurova (2003), the papers by Radoszkowski (1893) and Morawitz (1893) must both be considered to have been published on the last day of November 1893. Popov (1931, citing O. Vogt in litt.), in synonymising Apathus chloronotus Morawitz with Psithyrus branickii Radoszkowski, is deemed to be acting as First Reviser in the meaning of the ICZN (1999: Article 24). Consequently the name Psithyrus branickii Radoszlowski is accepted as taking precedence, which serves stability of nomenclature.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic, Oriental Regions.

 

Bombus (Ps.) rupestris (Fabricius)subgeneric listall names
rupeftris [rupestris] (Fabricius, 1793:320 [Apis]) examined
Pyrenæus [pyrenaeus] (Lepeletier, 1832:375 [Psithyrus])
Interruptus (Lepeletier, 1832:381 [Psithyrus])
armeniacus (Reinig, 1970:77 [Psithyrus]) not of Radoszkowski, 1877b:202 (= B. armeniacus Radoszkowski)
70 names

NOMENCLATURE: The orthography of Fabricius (1793) employs a long 's' (similar to 'f' or 'f'), a common practice of the period. This convention has since changed and recent authors have consistently used 's'.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic, Oriental Regions.

NOTES on this species in Britain.

 

 

campestris-group of species

 

Bombus (Ps.) bellardii (Gribodo)subgeneric listall names
Bellardii (Gribodo, 1892:108 [Psithyrus]) examined
pieli (Maa, 1948:29 [Psithyrus]) examined
tajushanensis (Pittioni, 1949:277 [Psithyrus]) examined, not of Pittioni, 1949:244 (= B. bicoloratus Cockerell)
8 names

TAXONOMIC STATUS: B. bellardii, B. pieli, and B. tajushanensis are closely similar in morphology and I am unaware of any reason why these nominal taxa should not be considered conspecific.

NOMENCLATURE: For this species, the oldest available name is B. bellardii, which becomes the valid name. The only subsequent publications using the name B. pieli of which I am aware are by Maa (1948), Sakagami (1972), Tkalcu (1987) and Williams (1991 [pdf]), so this change of valid name is not a serious disruption of common usage.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) ferganicus (Radoszkowski)subgeneric listall names
ferganicus (Radoszkowski, 1893:241 [Psithyrus]) examined
ochraceus (Morawitz, 1893:5 [Apathus])
indicus (Richards, 1929a:139 [Psithyrus]) examined
3 names

NOMENCLATURE: According to Pesenko & Astafurova (2003), the papers by Radoszkowski (1893) and Morawitz (1893) must both be considered to have been published on the last day of November 1893. Popov (1931, citing O. Vogt in litt.), in synonymising Apathus ochraceus Morawitz with Psithyrus ferganicus Radoszkowski, is deemed to be acting as First Reviser in the meaning of the ICZN (1999: Article 24). Consequently the name Psithyrus ferganicus Radoszlowski is accepted as taking precedence, which serves stability of nomenclature.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic, Oriental Regions.

 

Bombus (Ps.) campestris (Panzer)subgeneric listall names
campeftris [campestris] (Panzer, 1801(74):11 [Apis])
Varius (Lepeletier, 1832:381 [Psithyrus])
flavus (Pérez, 1884:265 [Psithyrus])
flavo-thoracicus [flavothoracicus] (Hoffer, 1889:49 [Psithyrus])
?susterai (Tkalcu, 1959:251 [Psithyrus]) examined, not of May, 1944:267 (= B. maxillosus Klug)
?susteraianus (Tkalcu, 1977:224 [Psithyrus]) replacement name for susterai Tkalcu, 1959:251
32 names

TAXONOMIC STATUS: I am unaware of any reason (other than minor differences) why B. campestris and B. susteraianus should not be considered conspecific.

NOMENCLATURE: The orthography of Panzer (1801) employs a long 's' (similar to 'f' or 'f'), a common practice of the period. This convention has since changed and recent authors have consistently used 's'.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic Region.

NOTES on this species in Britain.

 

Bombus (Ps.) morawitzianus (Popov)subgeneric listall names
morawitzianus (Popov, 1931:148,183 [Psithyrus]) examined
redikorzevi (Popov, 1931:160,181 [Psithyrus])
6 names

NOMENCLATURE: Grütte (1937) regarded B. morawitzianus and B. redikorzevi as conspecific and, following the Principle of First Reviser (ICZN, 1999: Article 24), chose B. morawitzianus as the name for the species.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic, Oriental Regions.

 

 

bohemicus-group of species

 

Bombus (Ps.) suckleyi Greenesubgeneric listall names
Suckleyi Greene, 1860:169
2 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: W Nearctic Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) vestalis (Geoffroy)subgeneric listall names
veftalis [vestalis] (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785[see Hagen 1862:246]:450 [Apis])
20 names

NOMENCLATURE: The orthography of Fourcroy (1785) employs a long 's' (similar to 'f' or 'f'), a common practice of the period. This convention has since changed and recent authors have consistently used 's'.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic Region.

NOTES on this species in Britain.

 

Bombus (Ps.) perezi (Schulthess-Rechberg)subgeneric listall names
perezi (Schulthess-Rechberg, 1886:275 [Psithyrus])
3 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) coreanus (Yasumatsu)subgeneric listall names
coreanus (Yasumatsu, 1934:399 [Psithyrus])
1 name

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region, Palaearctic border.

 

Bombus (Ps.) bohemicus Seidlsubgeneric listall names
nemorum (Fabricius, 1775:380 [Apis]) examined, not of Scopoli, 1763:307 (= B. subterraneus (Linnaeus)), not of Fabricius, 1775:382 (= B. distinguendus Morawitz)
bohemicus Seidl, 1837:73
Ashtoni (Cresson, 1864:42 [Apathus])
?chinganicus (Reinig, 1936:8 [Psithyrus])
hedini (Bischoff, 1936:26 [Psithyrus]) examined, not of Bischoff, 1936:15 (= B. hedini Bischoff)
43 names

TAXONOMIC STATUS: I am unaware of any reason (other than the small body size of the holotype female and three paratype females of B. chinganicus) why B. bohemicus and B. chinganicus should not be considered conspecific. Consistent with this, body sizes do appear to vary substantially within British species of the subgenus Psithyrus, including B. bohemicus.

Although long regarded as a separate species (but questioned by Williams, 1991:46 [pdf]), on the basis of DNA-sequence data Cameron et al. (2007 [pdf]) have suggested that B. ashtoni might be conspecific with B. bohemicus and this is supported by COI barcodes.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic, Japanese, Oriental, W Nearctic, E Nearctic Regions, Arctic border.

NOTES on this species in Britain.

 

 

 

barbutellus-group of species

 

Bombus (Ps.) barbutellus (Kirby)subgeneric listall names
?faltuum [saltuum] (Panzer, 1801(75):21 [Apis])
Barbutella (Kirby, 1802:343 [Apis]) examined
maxillosus Klug in Germar, 1817:269
lugubris (Kriechbaumer, 1870:159 [Psithyrus])
unicolor (Kriechbaumer, 1870:159 [Psithyrus])
mixta (Kriechbaumer, 1870:160 [Psithyrus])
?richardsi (Popov, 1931:150,190 [Psithyrus]) not of Frison, 1930:6 (= B. rufipes Lepeletier)
susterai
(May, 1944:267 [Psithyrus]) not infrasubspecific after Tkalcu, 1977:224
?licenti (Maa, 1948:34 [Psithyrus]) examined
45 names

TAXONOMIC STATUS: As Rasmont (1988) notes, B. maxillosus is closely similar to B. barbutellus in morphology and habitat, so that specimens cannot always be distinguished reliably. A recent study including genes and male marking pheromones concludes that the two taxa are conspecific (Lecocq et al., 2011).

NOMENCLATURE: Løken (1984) interpreted B. saltuum (Panzer, 1801) as conspecific with B. barbutellus. Consequently, B. saltuum would appear to be the oldest available name for this species. However, Løken made no further comment on this and used the name Psithyrus barbutellus (= B. barbutellus), possibly because she remained unsure of the identity of B. saltuum. In contrast, Warncke (1986) interpreted B. saltuum as conspecific with B. subterraneus. Løken's interpretation seems more likely because (1) the metasoma of B. saltuum is described as nearly bald and the tergum shines through the hair more clearly for B. barbutellus and (2) B. barbutellus is more common in the woodland glade habitat described for B. saltuum. See the comments on B. subterraneus.

If B. saltuum were accepted as most likely to be conspecific with B. subterraneus, then no further action would be required. If both interpretations were considered to remain supportable, then it might be considered appropriate (ICZN, 1999: Article 75) to designate a specimen of B. subterraneus as neotype of Apis saltuum in order to conserve the current usage of B. barbutellus. Alternatively, if B. saltuum were considered more likely to be conspecific with B. barbutellus, then B. saltuum would become the oldest available name for this species, even though the name has not been used in the last 50 years. It is suggested that, in the interests of stability (ICZN, 1999: Article 23), prevailing usage should then be maintained.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic Region.

NOTES on this species in Britain.

 

 

sylvestris-group of species

 

Bombus (Ps.) skorikovi (Popov)subgeneric listall names
skorikovi (Popov, 1927:267 [Psithyrus]) examined
?gansuensis (Popov, 1931:202 [Psithyrus]) examined
kuani (Tkalcu, 1961b:362 [Psithyrus]) examined
5 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) flavidus Eversmannsubgeneric listall names
flavidus Eversmann, 1852:131
lissonurus (Thomson, 1872:49 [Apathus])
fernaldæ [fernaldae] (Franklin, 1911:164 [Psithyrus]) examined
23 names

TAXONOMIC STATUS: Rasmont (1988) reports that the Pyrenean population of B. flavidus is morphometrically distinct from the disjunct Scandinavian population (comparable distinctions are not known within its close relatives B. norvegicus and B. sylvestris, which share these areas of distribtuion). Nevertheless he continues to treat them as conspecific and I shall follow this, at least until further evidence in support of two separate species is available.

Although long regarded as a separate species, on the basis of DNA-sequence data, Cameron et al. (2007 [pdf]) have suggested that B. fernaldae might be conspecific with B. flavidus and this is supported by COI barcodes.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic, W Nearctic, E Nearctic Regions.

 

 

Bombus (Ps.) norvegicus (Sparre-Schneider)subgeneric listall names
norvegicus (Sparre-Schneider, 1918:40 [Psithyrus]) not of Friese, 1911:571 (= B. monticola Smith)
transbaicalicus (Popov, 1927:269 [Psithyrus])
10 names

NOMENCLATURE: With Psithyrus regarded as being a subgenus of the genus Bombus (Williams, 1991, 1995), P. norvegicus Sparre-Schneider (1918) becomes a junior secondary homonym in Bombus of B. lapponicus var. norvegicus Friese (1911) (deemed subspecific, see ICZN, 1999: Article 45.6), and therefore P. norvegicus Sparre-Schneider is invalid (ICZN, 1999: Article 57.3). For this species, the oldest available name of which I am aware is P. norvegicus var. transbaicalicus Popov, 1927 (deemed to be subspecific, see ICZN, 1999: Article 45.6), so B. transbaicalicus would become the valid name.

Although B. transbaicalicus is the oldest available name for this species, the name B. norvegicus has been in common use for the species since 1950 (e.g. Faester & Hammer, 1970; Delmas, 1976; Ito & Tadauchi, 1981; Pekkarinen et al., 1981; Reinig, 1981; Løken & Framstad, 1983; Rasmont, 1983; Løken, 1984; Ito, 1985; Pekkarinen & Teräs, 1993; Rasmont et al., 1995). It is suggested that, in the interests of stability, an application be made to ICZN to use its Plenary Power to suppress the senior homonym (ICZN, 1999: Article 78) (in prep.). However, the consequence of this action would be that norvegicus Friese would no longer be available for a subspecies of B. monticola.

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic, Japanese, Oriental Regions, Arctic border.

 

Bombus (Ps.) quadricolor (Lepeletier)subgeneric listall names
Quadricolor (Lepeletier, 1832:376 [Psithyrus])
globosus (Eversmann, 1852:126 [Psithyrus])
meridionalis (Richards, 1928b:351 [Psithyrus]) not of Dalla Torre, 1879:13 (= B. hortorum (Linnaeus))
18 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic Region.

 

Bombus (Ps.) sylvestris (Lepeletier)subgeneric listall names
Sylvestris (Lepeletier, 1832:377 [Psithyrus])
Brasiliensis (Smith, 1854:385 [Apathus]) examined, not of Lepeletier, [1835]:470 (= B. brasiliensis Lepeletier)
citrinus (Schmiedeknecht, 1883[see Baker, 1996c:297]:23[407] [Psithyrus]) not of Smith, 1854:385 (= B. citrinus (Smith))
[silvestris (Dalla Torre, 1896:571 [Psithyrus]) incorrect subsequent spelling]
24 names

MORPHOLOGY: photos of male genitalia.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic Region, Oriental border.

NOTES on this species in Britain.

 

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