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Acerbi, J. 1802. Travels through Sweden, Finland and Lapland, to the North Cape, in the years 1798 and 1799. 2: 376 pp. London.

Ackery, P. R. & Vane-Wright, R. I. 1984. Milkweed butterflies, their cladistics and biology, being an account of the natural history of the Danainae, a subfamily of the Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. ix+425 pp. London.

Akre, R. D., Greene, A., MacDonald, J. F., Landolt, P. J. & Davis, H. G. 1980. Yellowjackets of America north of Mexico. USDA Handbook No. 552. 102 pp. Washington D.C.

Alford, D. V. 1973. Bumblebees in Britain. Central Association of Bee-Keepers, Ilford.

- 1973. Bumblebee Distribution Maps Scheme guide to the British species. 48 pp. London.

- 1975. Bumblebees. xii+352 pp. London.

- (ed.) 1980. Atlas of the bumblebees of the British Isles. 32 pp. Cambridge.

Amiet, F. 1996. Hymenoptera Apidae, 1. Teil. Allgemeiner Teil, Gattungsschlüssel, die Gattungen Apis, Bombus und Psithyrus. Insecta Helvetica (Fauna) 12: 98 pp.

An, J.-D., Williams, P. H., Miao, Z.-Y. & Zhou, B.-F. 2011. The bumblebees of Gansu, northwest China (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Zootaxa, 2865: 1-36. [Article PDF]

An, J.-D., Huang, J.-X., Shao, Y.-Q., Zhang, S.-W., Wang, B., Liu, X.-Y., Wu, J., & Williams, P.H. 2014. The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille). Zootaxa 3830: 1-89. [PDF]

Andrewartha, H. G. & Birch, L. C. 1954. The distribution and abundance of animals. Chicago.

Arretz, P. V. & Macfarlane, R. P. 1982. The introduction of Bombus ruderatus to Chile for red clover pollination. Bee World 67: 15-22.

Ashmead, W. H. 1905. Additions to the recorded Hymenopterous fauna of the Philippine Islands, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 28: 957-971.

Asperen de Boer, J. R. J. van 1990. Bombus krusemani - a new bumblebee species from Guatemala (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologische Berichten 50: 1-3.

- 1992a. Bombus villarricaensis, a new garden bumblebee from southern Chile (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologische Berichten 52: 133-136.

- 1992b. Bombus xelajuensis - a new species of bumblebee from Guatemala (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologische Berichten 52: 162-164.

- 1993a. A note on Bombus rohweri with a description of the queen (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologische Berichten 53: 32-34.

- 1993b. Bombus villarricaensis is but a junior synonym of Bombus ruderatus. Entomologische Berichten 53: 38.

- 1995. Bombus menchuae - a second species of the subgenus Dasybombus from Highland Guatemala (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologische Berichten 55: 47-50.

- 2007. Remarks on the subgenus Robustobombus SKORIKOV, 1922 with description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 117: 234-237.

Aytekin, A.M., Terzo, M., Rasmont, P., & Cagatay, N. 2007. Landmark based geometric morphometric analysis of wing shape in Sibiricobombus Vogt (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus Latreille). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 43: 95-102.



Baker, D. B. 1996a. On a collection of Bombus and Psithyrus principally from Sutherland, with notes on the nomenclature or status of three species (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 9: 7-19.

- 1996b. On a collection of humble-bees from northern Iran (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Bombinae). Beiträge zur Entomologie 46: 109-132.

- 1996c. The dates of Schmiedeknecht's Apidae Europaeae. Archives of Natural History 23: 295-298.

- 1996d. Priorities of publication for some nineteenth-century works describing new taxa of Hymenoptera, principally Apoidea. Archives of Natural History 23: 299-302.

Ball, F. J. 1914. Les bourdons de la Belgique. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique 58: 77-108.

Benton, T. 2000. The bumblebees of Essex. viii+180 pp. Ipswich

- 2006. Bumblebees. xi+580 pp. London.

Bergström, G. & Svensson, B. G. 1973. Studies on natural odoriferous compounds, VIII. Characteristic marking secretions of the forms lapponicus and scandinavicus of Bombus lapponicus Fabr. (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Chemica scripta 4: 231-238.

Bertsch, A. 2010. A phylogenetic framework for the bumblebee species of the subgenus Bombus sensu stricto based on mitochondrial DNA markers, with a short description of the neglected taxon B. minshanicola Bischoff, 1936 n. status. Beiträge zur Entomologie 60, 471-487.

Bertsch, A., Habré de Angelis, M. & Przemeck, G. K. H. 2010a. Phylogenetic relationships of the bumblebees Bombus moderatus, B. albocinctus, B. burjaeticus, B. florilegus and B. cryptarum based on mitochondrial DNA markers: a complex of closely related taxa with circumpolar distribution. Beiträge zur Entomologie 60, 13-32.

Bertsch, A., Habré de Angelis, M. & Przemeck, G. K. H. 2010b. A phylogenetic framework for the North American bumblebee species of the subgenus Bombus sensu stricto (Bombus affinis, B. franklini, B. moderatus, B. occidentalis & B. terricola) based on mitochondrial DNA markers. Beiträge zur Entomologie 60, 229-242.

Bertsch, A., Schweer, H. & Titze, A. 2004. Discrimination of the bumblebee species Bombus lucorum, B. cryptarum and B. magnus by morphological characters and male labial gland secretions. Beiträge zur Entomologie 54: 365-386.

Bertsch, A., Schweer, H., Titze, A. & Tanaka, H. 2005. Male labial gland secretions and mitochondrial DNA markers support species status of Bombus cryptarum and B. magnus (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Insectes Sociaux 52, 45-54.

Bingham, C. T. 1897. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. I. Wasps and bees. xxix+579 pp. London.

Bischoff, H. 1930. Entomologische Ergebnisse der schwedischen Kamtschatka Expedition 1920-1922. 29. Bombinae (Hymen.). Arkiv för zoologi 21: 1-6.

- 1936. Schwedisch-chinesische wissenschaftliche Expedition nach den nordwestlichen Provinzen Chinas, unter Leitung von Dr. Sven Hedin und Prof. Sü Ping-chang. Insekten gesammelt vom schwedischen Arzt der Expedition Dr. David Hummel 1927-1930. 56. Hymenoptera. 10. Bombinae. Arkiv för zoologi 27: 1-27.

- 1937. Hymenoptera Aculeata (excl. Formicidae und Halictinae) von den kanarischen Inseln. Commentationes biologicae 6: 1-3.

Bischoff, H. & Hedicke, H. 1931. Über einige von Illiger beschriebene Apiden (Hym.). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1930: 385-392.

Brian, A. D. 1957. Differences in the flowers visited by four species of bumble-bees and their causes. Journal of Animal Ecology 26: 71-98.

Bright, P. M. & Leeds, H. A. 1938. A monograph of the British aberrations of the chalk-hill blue butterfly Lysandra coridon (Poda, 1761). 144 pp. Bournemouth.

Brown, J. H. 1984. On the relationship between abundance and distribution of species. American Naturalist 124: 255-279.

Buchmann, S., Kevan, P. G., Adams, L. & Dalsimer, A. 2008. Birds, bees, and bases: how military natural resource managers can help local pollinators and why they should care. Natural Selections 4: 5-6.

Burks, B. D. 1951. Tribe Bombini. In C. F. W. Muesebeck, K. V. Krombein & H. K. Townes (eds.): Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalog. Agricultural Monographs 2: 1247-1255.



Cameron, S. A. & Whitfield, J. B. 1996. Use of walking trails by bees. Nature, London 379: 125.

Cameron, S. A., Hines, H. M. & Williams, P. H. 2007. A comprehensive phylogeny of the bumble bees (Bombus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 91: 161-188.

Cardale, J. C. 1993. Zoological catalogue of Austalia, volume 10. Hymenoptera: Apoidea. ix+406 pp. Canberra.

Carolan, J. C., Murray, T. E., Fitzpatrick, U., Crossley, J., Schmidt, H., Cederberg, B., McNally, L., Paxton, R. J., Williams, P. H., & Brown, M. J. F. 2012. Colour patterns do not diagnose species: quantitative evaluation of a DNA barcoded cryptic bumblebee complex. PLoSONE, 7: 662-667. [Article PDF]

Carvell, C. 2002. Habitat use and conservation of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) under different grassland management regimes. Biological Conservation 103: 33-49.

Castro, L. 1987. Nuevas citas de tres Bombinae (Hym. Apidae) de la Penínsùla Ibérica. Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 11: 413.

- 1988. Sobre Bombus (Megabombus) reinigiellus (Rasmont, 1983) (Hym., Apidae). Boletín de la Asociación Española de Entomología 12: 281-289.

- 1993. Sobre los Bombinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae) de la Sierra de Albarracín (I). ZAPATERI: revista aragonesa de entomología 3: 5-13.

Chandler, L. 1950. The Bombidae of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 60: 167-177.

Chen, X. & Wang, S. 1997. A study on phylogenetic relationships among the subgenera of bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologia Sinica 4: 324-336.

Cheverton, J., Kacelnik, A. & Krebs, J. R. 1985. Optimal foraging: constraints and currencies. Fortschritte der Zoologie 31: 109-126.

Chiu, S. C. 1948. Revisional notes on the Formosan bombid-fauna (Hymenoptera). Notes d'entomologie chinoise 12: 57-81.

Christ, J. L. 1791. Naturgeschichte, Klassification, und Nomenclatur der Insekten vom Bienen, Wespen, und Ameisengeschlecht; als der fünften Klasse fünfte Ordnung des Linneischen Natursystems von dem Insekten: Hymenoptera. Mit häutigen Flügeln. 576 pp. Frankfurt am Main.

Claridge, M. F., Dawah, H. A. & Wilson, M. R. 1997. Species: the units of biodiversity. xvi+439 pp. London.

Cockerell, T. D. A. 1905. Descriptions and records of bees. - I. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 16: 216-225.

- 1906. Descriptions and records of bees. - XII. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 18: 69-75.

- 1909. Descriptions and records of bees. - XXIII. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 4: 393-404.

- 1910a. Descriptions and records of bees. - XXVIII. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 5: 409-419.

- 1910b. Some bees from high altitudes in the Himalaya mountains. Entomologist 43: 238-239.

- 1911. The humble-bees of Formosa. Entomologist 44: 100-102.

- 1912. Descriptions and records of bees. - XLV. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 10: 21-31.

- 1917. New social bees. Psyche 24: 120-128.

- 1920. Supplementary notes on the social bees of the Philippine Islands. Philippine Journal of Science 16: 631-632.

- 1922. Bees in the collection of the U.S. National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 60: 20 pp.

Colla, S. R. & Packer, L. 2008. Evidence for decline in eastern North American bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with special focus on Bombus affinis Cresson. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 1379-1391.

Colwell, R. K. & Coddington, J. A. 1994. Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B) 345: 101-118.

Cowan, C. F. 1971. On Guérin's Iconographie: particularly the insects. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 6: 18-29.

Cracraft, J. 1989. Speciation and its ontology: the empirical consequences of alternative species concepts for understanding patterns and processes of differentiation. In D. Otte & J. A. Endler: Speciation and its consequences, pp. 28-59. Sunderland.

Cresson, E. T. 1863. List of the North American species of Bombus and Apathus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 2: 83-116.

- 1864. Descriptions of several new species of North American Apidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 3: 38-43.

- 1872. Hymenoptera Texana. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 4: 153-292.

- 1874. Descriptions of new Hymenoptera. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 5: 99-102.

- 1878. Descriptions of new species of North American bees. Proceedings of the Academy of natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1878: 181-221.

Curtis, J. 1833. British entomology. Vol. 10. Privately printed, London

- 1835. Insects. Descriptions, &c. of the insects brought home by Commander James Clark Ross, R.N., F.R.S. &c. In J. Ross: Appendix to the narrative of a second voyage in search of a North-West Passage, and of a residence in the arctic regions during the years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, pp. lix-lxxx. London.

Curtis, J., Haliday, A. H. & Walker, F. 1837. XV. Descriptions, &c. of the insects collected by captain P. P. King, R.N., F.R.S., in the survey of the Straits of Magellan. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 17: 315-359.



Dahlbom, G. 1832. Bombi Scandinaviæ monographice tractati et ionibus illustrati. 55 pp. London.

Dalla Torre, K. W. von 1879. Bermerkungen zur Gattung Bombus Latr. I. Bericht der Naturwissenschaftlich-medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 8(1877): 3-21.

- 1880. Unsere Hummel- (Bombus) Arten. Der Naturhistoriker 2: 40-41.

- 1882. Bemerkungen zur Gattung Bombus Latr., II. Bericht des Naturwissenschaftlich-medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 12: 14-31.

- 1890. Hymenopterologische Notizen. Wiener entomologische Zeitung 9: 139.

- 1896. Catalogus hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Volumen X: Apidae (anthophila). viii+643 pp. Lipsiae.

Darwin, C. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. ix+490 pp. London.

Day, M. C. 1979. The species of Hymenoptera described by Linnaeus in the genera Sphex, Chrysis, Vespa, Apis and Mutilla. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 12: 45-84.

DeGeer, C. 1773. Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des insectes. 3: viii+696 pp. Stockholm.

Delmas, R. 1976. Contribution à l'étude de la faune française des Bombinae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Bombidae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France (Nouvelle serie) 12: 247-290.

De Meulemeester, T., Aytekin, A. M., Cameron, S. & Rasmont, P. 2010. Nest architecture and species status of the bumble bee Bombus (Mendacibombus) shaposhnikovi (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini). Apidologie 42: 301-306.

Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the origin of species. xvi+364 pp. New York.



Edwards, M. 1999. UK BAP Bumblebee Working Group Report, 1999. 81 pp. Midhurst.

- 2000. UK BAP Bumblebee Working Group Report, 2000. 25 pp. Midhurst.

- 2001. UK BAP Bumblebee Working Group Report, 2001. 32 pp. Midhurst.

- 2002. UK BAP Bumblebee Working Group Report, 2002. 45 pp. Midhurst.

Edwards, R. 1980. Social wasps, their biology and control. 398 pp. East Grinstead.

Edwards, R. & Telfer, M. 2001.Provisional atlas of the aculeate Hymenoptera of Britain and Ireland. Part 3. 145 pp. Huntingdon.

Else, G. R. 2000. Observations on Bombus soroeensis (F.) B. humilis Illiger and B. muscorum (L.) on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, in 1998-2000. BWARS Newsletter Autumn 2000: 5-6.

Erlandsson, A. 1979. Bombus canariensis Pérez, 1895 n. stat and Bombus maderensis n. sp. from the Macaronesian Islands. Entomologica scandinavica 10: 187-192.

Esmaili, M. & Rastegar, R. 1974. Identified species of aculeate Hymenoptera of Iran. Journal of the Entomological Society of Iran 2: 43-44 + pp. [41-52].

Estoup, A., Solignac, M., Cornuet, J.-M., Goudet, J. & Scholl, A. 1996. Genetic differentiation of continental and island populations of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Europe. Molecular Ecology 5: 19-31.

Evans, W. 1901. The pale variety of Bombus smithianus, White, in Scotland. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 37: 47.

Eversmann, E. 1846. Hymenopterorum Rossicorum species novæ vel parum cognitæ, descriptæ et ex parte depictæ. Byulleten' Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytatelei prirody 19: 436-443.

- 1852. Fauna hymenopterologica Volgo-Uralensis. (Continuatio). Familia anthophilarium seu apidarum. Izvêstiya Moskovskago éntomologicheskago obshchestva 3: 3-137.



Fabricius, J. C. 1775. Systema entomologiae, sistens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus. 32+832 pp. Flensburgi & Lipsiae.

- 1777. Genera insectorum eorumque characteres naturales secundum numerum, figuram, situm et proportionem omnium partium oris adiecta mantissa specierum nuper detectarum. xvi+310 pp. Chilonii.

- 1781. Species insectorum exhibentes eorum differentias specificas, synonyma auctorum, loca natalia, metamorphosin adiectis observationibus, descriptionibus. 1: viii+552 pp. Hamburg.

- 1787. Mantissa insectorum sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiectis characteribus genericis, differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus. 1: xx+348 pp. Hafniae.

- 1793. Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species adjectis synonimis, locis observationibus, descriptionibus. 2: viii+519 pp. Hafniae.

- 1798. Supplementum entomologiae systematicae. [2]+572 pp. Hafniae.

- 1804. Systema Piezatorum secundum ordines, genera, species adiectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. xiv+439 pp. Brunsvigae.

Faester, K. & Hammer, K. 1970. Systematik der mittel- und nordeuropäischen Bombus und Psithyrus (Hym., Apidae). Entomologiske Meddelelser 38: 257-302.

Fisher, R. M. 1987. Queen-worker conflict and social parasitism in bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Animal behaviour 35: 1026-1036.

Forbes, H. O. 1885. A naturalist's wanderings in the eastern archipelago, a narrative of travel and exploration from 1878 to 1883. xix+536 pp. London.

Fourcroy, A. F. de 1785. Entomologia Parisiensis; sive catalogus insectorum quæ in agro Parisiensi reperiuntur; secundum methodum Geoffræanam in sectiones, genera & species distributus: cui addita sunt nomina trivialia & fere trecentæ novæ species. 2: 233-544. Paris.

Francoso, E., Oliveira, F.F. & Arias, M.C. 2015. An integrative approach identifies a new species of bumblebee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini) from northeastern Brazil. Apidologie, 15.

Franklin, H. J. 1907. Notes on Bombinae, with descriptions of new species. Entomological News 18: 90-93.

- 1911. New North American Bombidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 37: 157-168.

- 1913. The Bombidae of the New World. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 38(1912): 177-486.

- 1915. Notes on Bombidae, with descriptions of new forms (Hym.). Entomological News 26: 409-417.

- 1954. The evolution and distribution of American bumblebee kinds. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 80: 43-51.

Free, J. B. & Butler, C. G. 1959. Bumblebees. xiv+208 pp. London.

Friese, H. 1902. Die arktischen Hymenoptera mit Ausschluss der Tenthrediniden. In F. Römer & F. Schäudinn (eds): Fauna Arctica: eine Zusammenstellung der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördlichen Eismeer im Jahre 1889. 2: 439-500. Jena.

- 1903. Neue Bombus-Arten aus der Neotropischen Region. Zeitschrift für Systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 3: 253-255.

- 1904. Beitrage zur Bienenfauna von Chile, Peru und Ecuador. Zeitschrift für Systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 4: 180-188.

- 1905. Neue oder wenig bekannte Hummeln des russischen Reiches (Hymenoptera). Ezhegodnik Zoologicheskago muzeya 9(1904): 507-523.

- 1909. Neue Varietäten von Bombus (Hym.). Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift 1909: 673-676.

- 1910. Neue Bienenarten aus Japan. Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 60: 404-410.

- 1911. Neue Varietäten von Bombus, III. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift 1911: 571-572.

- 1912. Zur Synonymie der Bombus-Arten. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift 1911: 684.

- 1913. Über einige neue Apiden (Hym.). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 78(1912)(A,12): 85-89.

- 1916. Über einige neue Hummelformen (Bombus), besonders aus Asien (Hym.). Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift 1916: 107-110.

- 1918. Über Hummelformen aus dem Himalaja. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift 1918: 81-86.

- 1931. Über Bombus und Psithyrus. Konowia 10: 300-304.

Friese, H. & Wagner, H. von 1904. Über die Hummeln als zeugen natürlicher Formenbildung. Zoologische Jahrbucher, Supplement (Festschrift Weismann) 7: 551-570.

- 1910. Zoologische Studien an Hummeln. I. Die Hummeln der deutschen Fauna. Zoologische Jahrbucher, Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere 29(1909): 1-104.

Frison, T. H. 1921. New distribution records for North American Bremidae, with description of a new species (Hym.). Entomological News 32: 144-148.

- 1923. Systematic and biological notes on bumblebees (Bremidae; Hymenoptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 48: 307-326.

- 1925a. Contribution to the classification of the Bremidae (bumble-bees) of Central and South America. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 51: 137-165.

- 1925b. The bumble bees of the Philippine Islands (Bremidae: Hymenoptera). Philippine Journal of Science 27: 113-121.

- 1927. A contribution to our knowledge of the relationships of the Bremidae of America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 53: 51-78.

- 1928. A new species of bumblebee from Guatemala (Bremidae: Hym.). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 23: 151-152.

- 1930. The bumblebees of Java, Sumatra and Borneo (Bremidae: Hymenoptera). Treubia 12: 1-22.

- 1933. Records and descriptions of Bremus and Psithyrus from India (Bremidae: Hymenoptera). Record of the Indian Museum 35: 331-342.

- 1934. Records and descriptions of Bremus and Psithyrus from Formosa and the asiatic mainland. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa 24: 150-185.

- 1935. Records, notes and descriptions of Bremus from Asia (Bremidae: Hymenoptera). Record of the Indian Museum 37: 339-363.

Frost, D. R. & Kluge, A. G. 1994. A consideration of epistemology in systematic biology, with special reference to species. Cladistics 10: 259-294.



Gaston, K. J. 1994. Rarity. x+205 pp. London.

Gaston, K. J. & Mound, L. A. 1993. Taxonomy, hypothesis testing and the biodiversity crisis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B) 251: 139-142.

Gaston, K. J., Blackburn, T. M. & Loder, N. 1995. Which species are described first?: the case of North American butterflies. Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 119-127.

Gaston, K. J., Scoble, M. J. & Crook, A. 1995. Patterns in species description: a case study using Geometridae (Lepidoptera). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 55: 225-237.

Germar, E. F. 1817. Reise nach Dalmatien und in das Gebiet von Ragusa. xii+323 pp. Leipzig.

Gerstaecker, A. 1869. Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss einiger Bienen-Gattungen. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung 30: 315-367.

- 1872. Hymenopterologische Beiträge. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung 33: 250-311.

Ghiselin, M. 1975. A radical solution to the species problem. Systematic Zoology 23(1974): 536-544.

Goulson, D., Hanley, M. E., Darvill, B., Ellis, J. S. & Knight, M. E. 2005. Causes of rarity in bumblebees. Biological Conservation 122: 1-8.

Goulson, D. & Williams, P. 2001. Bombus hypnorum (Hymenoptera: Apidae), a new British bumblebee? British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 14: 129-131. [Article]

Greene, J. W. 1858. II. Descriptions of several new Hymenopterous insects from the north west coast of America. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 7: 11-12.

- 1860. XXI. Review of the American Bombidae, together with a description of several species heretofore undescribed, being a synopsis of this family of Hymenopterous insects thus far known to inhabit North America. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 7: 168-176.

Gribodo, G. 1882. Alcune nuove specie e nuove genere di imenotteri aculeati. Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale Giacomo Doria 18: 261-268.

- 1892. Contribuzioni imenotterologiche. Sopra alcune specie nuove o poco conosciute di imenotteri antofili (generi Ctenoplectra, Xylocopa, Centris, Psithyrus, Trigona, e Bombus). Bolletino della Società Entomologica Italiana 23(1891): 102-119.

Groombridge, B. 1992. Global biodiversity, status of the Earth's living resources. xx+585 pp. London.

Grütte, E. 1937. Zur Kenntnis zentralasiatischer Arten von Psithyrus Lep. (Hym. Apid.). Mitteilungen der Deutschen entomologischen Gesellschaft 7: 103-109.

Guérin-Méneville, F. É. 1829-1844. Iconographie du règne animal de G. Cuvier, ou représentation d'après nature de l'une des espèces les plus remarquables, et souvent non encore figurées, de chaque genre d'animaux. Avec un texte descriptif mis au courant de la science. Ouvrage servir d'atlas a tous les traités de zoologie. Paris.

Gurr, L. 1957. Bumble bee species present in the South Island of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology (A) 38: 997-1001.



Haas, A. 1976. Paarungsverhalten und Nestbau der alpinen Hummelart Bombus mendax (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologica Germanica 3: 248-259.

Hagen, H. A. 1862. Bibliotheca entomologica. Die Litteratur über das ganze Gebiet der Entomologie bis zum Jahre 1862. 1: xii+512 pp. Leipzig.

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