A preliminary cladistic investigation of relationships among the bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae)
Williams, P. H. (1985)
Systematic Entomology 10: 239- 255.
The cladistic method is used to classify sixty species of bumble bees by characters of the male genitalia selected for their functional importance. A system of three genera is recommended, preserving the holophyletic groups Mendacibombus Skorikov, Psithyrus Lepeletier and Bombus Latreille, with the retention of the named subgroups of Bombus in subgeneric status. A new subgenus Brachycephalibombus is recognized in order to avoid paraphyletic groupings. The phylogenetic interpretation of the cladogram is considered and biogeographic problems discussed.