The Echinoid Directory

Toxopneustes L. Agassiz, 1841, p. 7

[=Boletia Desor 1846, p. 362 (objective); =Hemiechinus Agassiz, 1872, p. 167 (nomen nudum)]

Diagnostic Features
  • Apical disc hemicyclic; peripoct opening close to ocular plate I.
  • Ambulacral plating trigeminate, with pore-pairs in oblique arcs of three tending to become arranged into three distinct columns but not separated by tubercles as in Tripneustes. Pore zone relatively broad throughout and uniform.
  • Primary ambulacral tubercle on every second plate only.
  • Lower surface flattened, with relatively small peristome.
  • Multiple equal-sized tubercles on interambulacral plates.
  • Buccal notches sharp and pronounced.
Pliocene to Recent, Indo-Pacific.
Name gender feminine
Echinus pileolus Lamarck, 1816, p. 45, by original designation.
Species Included
  • T. pileolus (Lamarck, 1816); Recent, Indo-Pacific. 0-90 m.
  • T. maculatus (Lamarck, 1816); Recent, Christmas Island, Littoral.
  • T. roseus (Agassiz, 1863); Recent, East Pacific, 2-50 m.
  • T. elegans Doderlein, 1885; Recent, Japan, 20 m.
Classification and/or Status

Camarodonta; Echinoida; Toxopneustidae.

Presumed monophyletic.


Only Tripneustes has deep buccal notches and pore-pairs aligned into three vertical series, but in that taxon tuberculation is very much sparser, with multiple subequal tubercles never developed on interambulacral plates.

Mortensen, T. (1943) A monograph of the Echinoidea Part III.2, Camarodonta 1. C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen