The Echinoid Directory

Faorina Gray, 1851 p. 132

[=Atrapus Troschel, 1851, p. 72 (subjective); = Favorina Gray, 1885, p. 57 (nomen vanum); =Sinaechinus Hayasaka, 1948, p. 93, type species Sinaechinus kawaguchii Hayasaka, 1948, p. 93 (=Faorina chinensis Gray, 1851 ]

Diagnostic Features
  • Test cordate with shallow frontal sulcus.
  • Apical disc ethmolytic, with 3 gonopores (no gonopore in genital plate 2).
  • Anterior ambulacrum narrow and weakly sunken throughout. Pore-pairs uniserial and enlarged adapically, supporting tube feet with suckered disc.
  • Paired ambulacra petaloid; moderately sunken, parallel-sided and open distally with perradial zone one to two times wider than a single pore-pair column; petals cruciform. Posterior petals only slightly shorter than anterior petals.
  • Periproct on vertical truncate posterior face; circular to transversely elongate.
  • Peristome kidney-shaped with projecting labral plate: peristome opening faces obliquely forwards.
  • Labral plate relatively elongate and wedge-shaped; extending to second ambulacral plate. Sternal plates symmetrical and episternal plates biserially offset.
  • Interambulacrum 1 meridoplacous, other interambulacra amphiplacous in type species, but may also be meridoplacous in other species.
  • No primary tubercles. Aboral tubercles set in groundmass of fine granules.
  • Peripetalous fasciole present; passing immediately beneath the ends of the petals and spliting into two bands around anterior. Marginal fasciole absent laterally in adults of type species, appearing only on plates beneath periproct. May be present as a thin band encircling the whole test in other species.
Early to Middle Miocene, Italy; Recent, Indo-West Pacific.
Name gender feminine
Faorina chinensis Gray, 1851, p. 132, by subsequent designation of de Loriol, 1875, p. 115.
Species Included
  • Faorina chinensis Gray, 1851; Recent, Indo-West Pacific.
  • Faorina sp. [=Pericosmus sp. A McNamara, 1984]; Recent, Australia.
  • Faorina maullui Stara & Borghi, 2012; early to middle Miocene, Italy.
  • Faorina callosa (Manzoni, 1879); Langhian, Miocene, Italy, San Marino.
Classification and/or Status

Spatangoida, Paleopneustina, Pericosmidae.

Presumed monophyletic.


Nisiyama (1968, p. 402) claimed that the material on which Hayasaka 1948 established his new genus Sinaechinus, was conspecific with Faorina chinensis. Faorina is distinguished from Pericosmus by having meridoplacous plating in interambulacrum 1 (i.e. first two plates uniserially arranged). Consequently McNamara's (1984) Pericosmus sp. A is here transferred to Faorina. Lambertiaster is very similar, but has four gonopores, not three.

For an extensive discussion of this genus see Stara & Borghi (2012).

Gray, J. E. 1851. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (2) 7, p. 132.

Mortensen, T. 1951. A monograph of the Echinoidea V Spatangoida. 2. C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.

Nisiyama, S. 1968. The echinoid fauna from Japan and adjacent areas, Part II. Palaeontological Society of Japan Special Papers 13, 1-491, pls 1-20.

K. J. McNamara 1984. Living Australian species of the echinoid Pericosmus (Spatangoida: Pericosmidae. Records of the Western Australia Museum 11, 87-100.

Stara P. & Borghi E. 2012. First fossil record of the genus Faorina (Echinoidea: Pericosmidae). Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 52 (2), 85-98.