The Echinoid Directory

Lovenechinus Jackson, 1912, p. 324

[[Eriechinus Pomel, 1883 is based on an invalid taxon]; = Typhlechinus Neumayr, 1889, p. 362, type species Palaechinus sphaericus Koninck, 1869, non M'Coy, 1844 [=Lovenechinus lacazei (Julien, 1890)]; =Palechinus Tornquist, 1897, p. 739 fide Jackson, 1912, p. 304, 307]

Diagnostic Features
  • Test shape globular; plating thick and with vertical sutures.
  • Apical disc small; plating monocyclic, small oculars alternating with larger genital plates. Gonopores multiple on each genital plate, arranged in an arc.
  • Ambulacra straight and narrow; quadriserial throughout. In each half ambulacrum there is an inner and outer series of plates; the outer series being small demi-plates. Pore-pairs rather small and positioned adradially to form a single offset column of pore-pairs.
  • No internal flanges; radial water vessel fully internal.
  • Interambulacral zones wide; composed of up to 6 regular columns of thick hexagonal plates.
  • Interambulacral and ambulacral plates with granulation only; no primary tubercles.
  • Peristome small, plating unknown.
  • Lantern and spines unknown.
Lower Carboniferous, USA, Europe, China.
Name gender masculine
Oligoporous missouriensis Jackson, 1896, p. 184, by original designation.
Species Included
  • L. missouriensis Jackson, 1896; Burlington Limestone, Missouri, USA.
  • L. gordoni Kier, 1965; Osagean, Nevada, USA.
  • L. lacazei (Julien, 1896); Lower Carboniferous, western Europe.
  • L. jacksoni Demanet, 1931; Dinantian, Belgium.
  • L. hunanensis Ozaki, 1939, Lower Carboniferous, China.
  • L. mutatus (Keyes, 1894); Keokuk, Lower Carboniferous, USA.
  • L. nobilis (Meek & Worthen, 1868); Burlington Group, Lower Carboniferous, USA.
  • L. anglicus Jackson, 1912; Lower Carboniferous, England.
  • L. septies Jackson, 1912; Warsaw Group, Lower Carboniferous, USA.
Classification and/or Status

Stem group Echinoidea; Palaechinidae.

Probably not monophyletic.


This taxon is distinguished on its ambulacral plating, which is quadriserial but with the pore-pairs closely spaced so as to form a single alternating band on either side.

Jackson, R. T. 1912. Phylogeny of the Echini, with a revision of Paleozoic species Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History 7, 491 pp. 76 pls.

Kier, P. M. 1965. Evolutionary trends in Paleozoic echinoids. Journal of Paleontology 39, 436-465, pls 55-60.