The Echinoid Directory

Toxopatagus Pomel, 1883, p. 30

Diagnostic Features
  • Test large and cordiform. Discoidal in profile with distinct double bulge towards posterior of oral surface.
  • Apical disc lies distinctly posterior of centre. Plating holasterid, with four gonopores.
  • Paired ambulacra rather strongly flexed and with columns markedly unequal. Pore-pairs in posterior columns conjugate and elongate, those in the anterior column about half the width. Petals open distally.
  • Posterior petals strongly divergent initially.
  • Frontal groove continuous from apex to peristome and deepening towards ambitus. Pore-pairs simple isopores arranged uniserially.
  • Peristome facing distinctly towards anterior; covered by labral plate in oral view.
  • Plastron plating unrecorded.
  • Periproct inframarginal, clearly visible in oral view. Two strong subanal protuberances at the rear of the plastron.
  • Aboral tuberculation fine and homogeneous. Small tubercles set in a groundmass of granules.
  • No fascioles present.
Middle Miocene, Italy (type species).
Name gender masculine
Hemipneustes italicus Manzoni & Mazzetti, 1878, p. 104, by original designation.
Species Included
  • Lambert & Thiery (1920, p. 411) simply divided Hemipneustes into tall and flattened forms, placing 9 species in Toxopatagus along with the type.
Classification and/or Status

Holasteroida, Hemipneustidae.

Monotypic as defined here.


Differs from the type species of Hemipneustes in being much more depressed and with a sharper ambitus. It also has a wider frontal groove that becomes pinched anteriorly. However, in other features it is very similar.

The best description is that of Stefanini (1908).

Stefanini, G. 1908. Echinidi del Miocene Medio dell'Emilia. Palaeontographica Italica 14, 65-119, pls 13-16.