Butterflies and Moths of the World Generic Names and their Type-species

Genus details

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Biston Leach, 1815 , in Brewster. Edinburgh Encycl. 9 : 134.    [BHLBHL]

Available Name

Homonyms: 1

Higher classification:

Geometra prodromaria Schiffermüller, 1775. Ankündung syst. Werkes. Schmett. Wienergegend : 99.

Type-species designation:
by subsequent designation by Westwood , 1840. Introd. mod. Classif. Insects 2(Synopsis Genera Br. Insects): 99.    [BHLBHL]

Type specimens:
Syntype(s) [AUSTRIA]: Vienna region, (? Depository)..

Fletcher (1979) stated:-

G. prodromaria is a junior subjective synonym of Phalaena strataria Hufnagel, 1767, Berl. Mag. 4: 514. Invalid designation of type-species: Phalaena betularia Linnaeus, 1758, was designated by Boisduval, 1836, Hist. nat. Insectes (Spec. gén. Lépid.) 1 : 146. In the introduction to the volume, pages 1-154, Boisduval reviewed earlier classifications of Lepidoptera and designated as many as four different type-species for each generic name. In his `Exposé de notre méthode', pages 155-690, no type-species designation was made for any of the genera he himself used. Under Article 69(a)(iii) of the Code the type-designation of an author is eligible for consideration if he states that it is the type `...and if it is clear that he himself accepts it as the type-species'. Boisduval's type-designations, although clearly stated, do not fulfill the last requirement and so are invalid.

Even though Boisduval's work was well known to lepidopterists, the type-designations contained in it have not been accepted either by Hemming or by other authors. The acceptance of Boisduval's type-species designation in the case of Biston would make no difference to the generic concept, P. betularia Linnaeus and P. strataria Hufnagel being currently regarded as congeneric.

Parsons et al. (1999) included AMPHIDASEA Unger, 1856; AMPHIDASIS Treitschke, 1825; AMPHIDASYS Sodoffsky, 1837; BLEPHAROCTENIA Warren, 1894; BUZURA Walker, 1863; CULCULA Moore, 1888; DASYPHARA Billberg, 1820; EPAMRAICA Matsumura, 1910; EUBYJA Hübner, 1825; EUBYJODONTA Warren, 1893; and PACHYS Hübner, 1822 as junior synonyms of BISTON Leach, 1815.

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Junior name(s):
Amphidasea ; Unger, 1856: 61.
Amphidasis Treitschke, 1825: 434.
Amphidasys ; Sodoffsky, 1837: 90.
Amphidasys ; Wiegmann & Ruthe, 1832: 471.
Dasyphara Billberg, 1820: 89.
Pachys Hübner, 1806: [2].
Pachys Hübner, 1822: 38-44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52.

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