Butterflies and Moths of the World Generic Names and their Type-species

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Phanes Godman, 1901 , in Godman & Salvin. Biol. centr.-amer. (Insecta. Lepidoptera Rhopalocera) 2 : 741.    [BHLBHL]

Objective Replacement Name

Homonyms: 1

Higher classification:

Thracides aletes Geyer, 1832. In: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. : 31, pl.[126], figs 731-732.    [BHLBHL]

Type-species designation:
by subsequent designation by Int. Commn zool. Nom. , 1967. Bull. zool. Nom. 24: 280-281 (Opinion 830).    [BHLBHL]

Type specimens:
See BHL scanned Type-species page: .

Hemming (1967) stated:-

The name Phanes was introduced by Godman to replace the name Phanis published by himself in the previous year (1900), that name being invalid under the Law of Homonymy.

The name Phanes, as a replacement name, automatically takes as its type-species the species which at the introduction of this name was the type-species of Phanis, the name replaced. That type-species was a misidentified nominal species. In order to rectify this mistake and to promote nomenclatorial stability, the Commission was asked to designate as the type-species of both these genera the species described by Godman in place of the nominal species actually cited by that author.

What happened in this case was this. Godman, when establishing the genus Phanis, gave a detailed diagnosis. This was based on the characters exhibited by what may here be termed Species "X". He designated as the type-species what he called Hesperia justinianus Latreille, [1824]. At the same time he cited as a junior synonym of that name the name Thracides aletes Geyer (in Hübner), which he attributed to Hübner. On the following page he described this "species" again calling it by the name justinianus and again citing the name aletes as a synonym. In addition, Godman gave four figures of what he called "justinianus" on his plate 99 : figs 24, 25 (male - upperside & underside), fig. 26 (neuration), fig. 27 (male - genitalia). Both Godman's description of "justinianus" and the figures on plate 99 refer to what has been termed Species "X" above. The detailed information provided by Godman, the extensive material in the British Museum and Latreille's type of Hesperia justinianus (a male with a female body gummed on) now also in the British Museum make it clear (as has been demonstrated by Evans, 1955 (Cat. amer. Hesp. Brit. Mus. 4 : 118, 119, 194, 196)) that the two taxa here in question are very distinct from one another and that all Godman's observations and figures relating to what he called Phanis justinianus (Latreille) refer exclusively to Thracides aletes Geyer. Accordingly, when Godman designated as the type of his genus Phanis, the nominal species Hesperia justinanus, what in fact he was trying to do was so to designate the species which he had misidentified as Hesperia justinianus, namely Thracides aletes Geyer.

As a stop-gap measure to avoid confusion and unnecessary name-changing Evans (1955, loc. cit. 4 : 118) adopted Thracides aletes Geyer as the type-species of Phanes Godman, at the same time (: 90, 194) erecting the new genus Justinia for Hesperia justinianus Latreille. Since then an application has been submitted to the Commission asking for the settlement of this case on the lines set out above. (See Hemming, 1965, Bull. zool. Nom. 22 : 78).

Cowan (1968) made the following comment for this and other genera

Opinions published in September and December 1967 in Bull. zool. Nomencl. 24, parts (4) and (5) CONFIRMED the forecasts given in the List [Hemming, 1967] for the following genera;

Adopaeoides Godman; Op. 825
Arisbe Hübner; Op. 823
Artines Godman; Op. 826
Gegenes Hübner; Op. 827
Halpe Moore; Op. 828
Iaspis Kaye; Op. 821
Napaea Hübner; Op. 820
Papias Godman; Op. 829
Phanes Godman; Op. 830
Phrissura Butler; Op. 824
Telicota Moore; Op. 831
Ypthima Hübner; Op. 819
Zenis Godman; Op. 832

Thracides aletes Geyer, 1832 was designated as the type-species for Phanes Godman, [1901], using the plenary powers of the Commission. Thracides aletes was placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology and Phanes on the List of Generic Names in Zoology, (Opinion 830), The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 24 : 280.

See also electronic Biologia centrali americana. Insecta. Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera volume 2

The higher classification used here follows Lamas (2008).

Learn more about Hesperiidae in Wikipedia.

See images at Butterflies of America where it is treated in the Hesperiinae : Moncini.

Search the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) for references to PHANES and included species.

Junior name(s):
Phanis Godman, 1900: 548.

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