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Science News

November 2012

Ralf Britz and his Smithsonian colleague David Johnson have published a paper in the Journal of Morphology on the development of the sucking disc of remoras. Remoras are a group of marine fish that usually attach themselves to sharks or other large fish such as manta rays with their sucking disc.  This lifestyle appears not to harm the shark, nor does it bring any benefit: depending on the species of remora, they eat fragments of the larger fish's food that fall from its mouth;  faeces; or the larger fish's parasites.


Echeneis NaturalHistoryMuseum_PictureLibrary_009079_Comp.jpgEcheneis naucrates - watercolour painting by Sydney Parkinson made during Captain Cook's first voyage 1768-1771


Ralf's work on the sucker involved examination and comparison of fins of different species of fish to identify the homology of its components - homology is the term used to describe organs in two species that have the same evolutionary origin, despite sometimes different appearance and function (so the human arm and a bat's wing are homologous).  The remora's sucker is not found in other fish - is it a totally new organ, or is it a highly modified version of an organ found in other fish?


By studying the development of larval remoras ranging from 9.3 to 26.7 mm in length, they demonstrated that the skeleton of the sucking disc forms by enormous expansion of the dorsal fin supports and the bases of the associated fin spines. The evolution of a sucking disc from a regular spinous dorsal fin seems like a major step in evolution but is actually a gradual process involving small incremental changes of structures during development.

Britz, R. & G. D. Johnson. 2012. Ontogeny and homology of the skeletal elements that form the sucking disc of remoras (Teleostei, Echeneoidei, Echeneidae). Journal of Morphology, 273 (12) 1353-1366 , DOI: 10.1002/jmor.20063

Ralf has also published a paper with a Brazilian colleague, Mônica Toledo-Piza, analysing the egg surface structure of the poorly known and highly venomous freshwater toadfish Thalassophryne amazonica with the NHM's scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Eggs of this fish show a highly unusual and complex system of ridges and intermittent grooves that originate at the equator of the egg and run toward the animal egg pole and end in a spiraling pattern at the micropyle (the only opening for sperm to enter). This striking modification may help to increase the chances of eggs being fertilized.

Britz, R. & M. Toledo-Piza. 2012. Egg surface structure of the freshwater toadfish Thalassophryne amazonica (Teleostei: Batrachoididae) with information on its distribution and natural habitat. Neotropical Ichthyology, 10: 593-599.


Ian Kitching, together with colleagues at the University of California, National University of Singapore and the University of Erlangen, Germany, has published a review paper charting the history of Charles Darwin’s prediction of coevolution between a long-spurred orchid, Angraecum sesquipedale, and a long-tongued hawkmoth, Xanthopan morganii praedicta, from Darwin’s first observations in 1862 to the final demonstration of successful pollination in the wild in 2004.


Angraecum NaturalHistoryMuseum_PictureLibrary_012880_IA.jpg

Angraecum Sesquipedale


Darwin wrote in his 1862 work On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing:


I fear that the reader will be wearied, but I must say a few words on the Angræcum sesquipedale, of which the large six-rayed flowers, like stars formed of snow-white wax, have excited the admiration of travellers in Madagascar. A whip-like green nectary of astonishing length hangs down beneath the labellum. In several flowers sent me by Mr. Bateman I found the nectaries eleven and a half inches long, with only the lower inch and a half filled with very sweet nectar. What can be the use, it may be asked, of a nectary of such disproportional length? We shall, I think, see that the fertilisation of the plant depends on this length and on nectar being contained only within the lower and attenuated extremity. It is, however, surprising that any insect should be able to reach the nectar: our English sphinxes have probosces as long as their bodies: but in Madagascar there must be moths with probosces capable of extension to a length of between ten and eleven inches!


A moth with such a long proboscis, Xanthopan morganii praedicta, was not described until 41 years after the publication of this book, and it was not observed to visit Angraecum until 1992, with further work to prove pollination since then.  Ian and colleagues discuss issues of co-evolution and predation in this excellent paper.


Xanthopan morganii praedicta NaturalHistoryMuseum_PictureLibrary_037535_IA.jpg
Xanthopan morganii praedicta

Arditti, J., Elliott, J., Kitching, I.J. & Wasserthal, L.T. 2012. ‘Good Heavens what insect can suck it’ – Charles Darwin, Angraecum sesquipedale and Xanthopan morganii praedicta. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 169: 403-432.


Department of Life Sciences Seminar


Where and what are biomes? And how can museum specimens help to define them?


Tiina Särkinen (Plants, Dept.of Life Sciences, NHM)


Wednesday 5th December 11:00
Sir Neil Chalmers seminar room, Darwin Centre LG16 (below Attenborough studio)



Biodiversity studies aim to understand species diversity gradients and distribution patterns. Many of such studies rely on maps depicting distributions of species assemblages, from local communities to ecosystems and biomes. But how good are our current ecosystem maps? Do we know exactly where rain forests, coral reefs, or savannas occur? And what data should ultimately be used to define and delimit biomes? My talk will focus on these questions, and provide some potential answers. I will present a case study of the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF) biome of South America, a relatively newly defined biome with a poorly known distribution. I argue that georeferenced specimen data have a significant role to play in biome mapping, firstly through predictive modelling where specimen data is used to model biome distributions, and secondly, as a validation tool for in silico ground-truthing of remote sensing maps. Ecologists have classically defined biomes as structurally homogeneous units, but biomes should be seen as biologically meaningful units, i.e. large evolutionary meta-communities that are not only ecological similar but share evolutionary lineages (species, genera, families, and orders). This is of particular importance as the gap between the fields of ecology and evolution is closing, and there is a growing need for a common frame of reference with which to test hypotheses that bridge the fields.



For additional details on attending this or other seminars see


Sexual selection in prehistoric animals: misidentifications and false positives


Prof Kevin Padian, Department of Integrative Biology & Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley


Tuesday 11th December 2012
Neil Chalmers Seminar Room, DC2, NHM, 1330


Darwin acknowledged that the roles of some morphological structures are difficult to determine.  But he was clear about what sexual selection is, and the role of sexual dimorphism in it.  Because Darwin invented sexual selection, and based it on observations that have never been falsified, his definition cannot be wrong.  It has three components: (1) it explains why sexual dimorphism exists, and its central role in sexual selection; (2) the dimorphic structures or behaviours are used by one gender to attract mates or repel rivals for mates; and (3) these structures and behaviours help the bearer gain access to mates.  Strangely, palaeontologists and neontologists have largely ignored him.  Assertions of sexual selection/dimorphism in the fossil record suffer from a lack of statistical rigor and an unwillingness to test hypotheses through independent lines of evidence.  No such study has had any independent assessment of the chronological age or stage of its individuals, although such information is frequently available.  We show why much alleged sexual dimorphism in fossil tetrapods is more likely simply ontogenetic change, and why both a statistically significant population sample and an independent assessment of age of specimens are needed before the hypothesis of sexual dimorphism can be tested.



For additional details on attending this or other seminars see


The big bang: the impact of twenty years of molecular systematics on understanding the algae.


by Professor Juliet Brodie, NHM


Wednesday 28 November 2012

6pm (following AGM at 5pm)

Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1J 0BF


Molecular systematics occupies a minute fraction of time in the history of science, but its impact has been transformative in revealing hitherto unrecognised diversity of life on earth. Furthermore, it has enabled us to see the extent of genetic diversity that is not necessarily reflected in the morphology of organisms. This has led to a fundamental shift in species concepts and as a consequence has profound implications for understanding distribution, rarity and endemism. In this talk Juliet Brodie will explore these ideas using examples from algal groups that she has studied and attempt comparisons with other organisms. She will also argue the necessity of using molecular systematics in understanding the impact of environmental factors such as climate change and ocean acidification.



The meeting is open to visitors


Wine will be served after the lecture to members and guests


What can psyllids tell us that other bugs can't?
A non-model model organism for studying plant-insect interactions


Diana Percy

Terrestrial Invertebrates, Dept.of Life Sciences, NHM


Wednesday 28 of November 11:00
Sir Neil Chalmers seminar room, Darwin Centre LG16 (below Attenborough studio)

Psyllids exhibit the greatest degree of host specificity amongst the sternorrhynchan plant-feeders, and they are the only members of this group to have retained a complex vibrational communication system [sound and light show includes backup band]. But can psyllids reveal things that studying other bugs can't? I will present examples of how systematic analyses of psyllid lineages can provide remarkable insights into host mediated diversification. From modest beginnings of “who eats what where?”, we can build up a picture of how these observed plant-insect interactions came to be. Combining these observations with molecular systematics and genomics approaches will help us interpret the past and look into the future to make predictions of “who will eat what where?” – the psyllid version of “eats shoots and leaves”.



For additional details on attending this or other seminars see


Ralf Britz and collaborators from the Conservation Research Group from St Albert's College, Kochi, Kerala have published a series of papers describing three new fish species from South India.


Pristolepis rubripinnis, Dario urops and Pangio ammophila were discovered during the January 2012 NHM-funded visit of Dr Ralf Britz to Kochi, to work with Dr Rajeev Raghavan. Historical specimens of the fish collection in the Natural History Museum collected by Sir Francis Day in the 1860s and 70s played an important role in the resolution of taxonomic and nomenclatural issues before the species could be described.


This series of papers highlights our incomplete knowledge of one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in Asia, the Western Ghats, a mountain range along the west coast of Peninsular India. Both Pristolepis rubripinnis and Dario urops are of particular interest in that closely related species are found in north-eastern India - it is not clear how this distribution arose because there are no river connections between the two areas that would have allowed ancestral populations to separate, migrate and diverge into different species. 

Britz, R., Kumar, K. & Baby, F. (2012). Pristolepis rubripinnis, a new species of fish from southern India (Teleostei: Percomorpha: Pristolepididae). Zootaxa, 3345: 59-68.

Britz, R., Ali, A. & Philip, S. (2012). Dario urops, a new species of badid fish from the Western Ghats, southern India (Teleostei: Percomorpha: Badidae). Zootaxa, 3348: 63-68.

Britz, R., Ali, A. & R. Raghavan. (2012). Pangio ammophila, a new species of eel-loach from Karnataka, southern India (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 23: 45-50.


Earth Science Department Seminar

Posted by C Lowry Nov 22, 2012

Palaeontology Seminar


Microstructure of modern sea pen axes – a tool for the systematics of fossil pennatulaceans (Octocorallia)


Dr Mike Reich, University of Göttingen


Thursday 29th November

Neil Chalmers Seminar Room, DC2, 12:00 (the first of two talks that day)




Pennatulaceans are considered to be a very distinct and specialised group of octocorallian cnidarians, known from soft bottom areas of the intertidal to the deep sea. Since they are largely composed of soft tissue, the systematics of modern sea pens (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) are mostly based on soft-part morphology. Among the only hard parts (an axial rod and various sclerites) present in most species, only the sclerites have been employed as systematic traits. However, both types of hard parts, especially the calcareous axial rod, are often the only remnants of fossil Pennatulacea. Fossil sea pen axes (known since the Late Cretaceous) have therefore mostly been placed in the ‘collective genus’ Graphularia without any further systematic assignment. A study of hard-part morphology, using 20 modern sea pen species from 10 of the 14 valid families, has shown that the microstructure of the axial rod is relatively consistent within a genus, whereas the cross-section may vary between the distal ends of the rachis and the peduncle. Using field emission SEM, the microstructure of at least a dozen fossil Graphularia species have been studied. By comparing the microstructure of modern and fossil sea pens, similarities allow a placement of fossil pennatulacean species close to modern genera and within modern families, demonstrating the value of axis microstructure as a systematic trait.





For additional details on attending this or other seminars see


Palaeontology Seminar


The latitudinal biodiversity gradient through deep time


Dr Philip Mannion, Imperial College London


Thursday 29th November
Neil Chalmers Seminar Room, DC2, 16:00 (second of two talks that day)



Today, biodiversity increases from polar to equatorial regions. Despite representing a fundamental pattern governing the distribution of the vast majority of life on Earth today, the causes of this latitudinal biodiversity gradient remain unresolved. Understanding this pattern is critical to predictions of climatically-driven biodiversity loss. The fossil record offers a unique perspective on the evolution of this gradient, providing a dynamic system in which to explore spatiotemporal diversity fluctuations. Deep time studies indicate that a gradient was present from 500 million years ago, but that it has not been a persistent pattern throughout the history of complex life. Instead, recent work has revealed a palaeotemperate peak in Mesozoic dinosaurs and other early Cenozoic groups, suggesting that the steep, modern-type gradient might only have come into existence in the last 30 million years



For additional details on attending this or other seminars see


Life Sciences Seminar

Posted by C Lowry Nov 15, 2012

Cold water and hot air: the evolution of lunglessness in amphibians

Mark Wilkinson
Vertebrates, Dept of Life Sciences, NHM

Wednesday 21st November,11:00

Sir Neil Chalmers seminar room, Darwin Centre LG16 (below Attenborough studio)


Lunglessness is rare in Amphibians but has evolved independently at least once in each of the three main groups (frogs, salamanders, caecilians).  A 'classical' hypothesis for the evolution of lunglessness in salamanders explains it as an adaptation to reduce disadvantageous buoyancy in fast flowing waters. This hypothesis was first seriously challenged in the 1990's prior to the discoveries of lungless frogs and caecilians. I will review the arguments in the controversy, discuss the implications of the more recent discoveries and reveal some startling new findings regarding the true nature of the most recently described lungless caecilian.



For additional details on attending this or other seminars see


Collection Management Seminar

Posted by C Lowry Nov 15, 2012


What on earth is a Permanent Loan? Loans In review and the challenge of dealing with old loans.



Friday 23rd November 2012, 2.30pm-4.00pm




Flett Lecture Theatre, NHM, South Kensington



Who? Speaker: 

Lee Murrell, Imperial War Museums, London



What’s it about?

IWM London is now well into its Loans Review Project. The output has already improved how loans are administered and led to the creation of my role. I’ll talk about the aims and methods of the review, some of the problems that came to light and look at some of the ways that it is integrated with other museum projects.



Who should come?

The seminar is open to all members of the museum who are interested in getting involved or learning more about a Review of Loans In. It is suggested that the following staff will find the seminar most useful.


Science Group: All senior departmental managers & collection management staff.


Public Engagement Group:  Any staff who work with and use collections or manage staff who work with collections.



We also welcome colleagues from other institutions who would find the seminar of interest. There is no booking fee and only large parties need to notify the organiser for catering purposes.



Tea and coffee will be available in the seminar room lobby area after the talk.


Suggestions for seminar speakers are always most welcome. Please contact the organiser Clare Valentine ( )




               For additional details on attending this or other seminars see


Fungal-plant associations in Palaeozoic-Mesozoic times

Dr Christine Strullu-Derrien, Department of Earth Sciences, NHM

Thursday 15th November
Neil Chalmers Seminar Room, DC2, NHM 15:00



A fungal mode of life (mycelial growth and mode of nutrition) is shared by several living groups of organisms, notably Fungi (Eumycota) and Oomycetes (Stramenopila). Originally, a lot of these groups were called fungi, but now we know that they have quite diverse relationships among eukaryotes. These organisms are known to have coexisted with plants since the dawn of life on land, but their role in plant evolution is still poorly understood.


Recent research based on historic collections of petrified plants is opening up a rich new source of information for the study of fungal-plant associations. Dr Strullu-Derrien will present an overview of recent findings including fossil evidence for fungi and fungi-like symbionts in Palaeozoic and Mesozoic ecosystems.



For additional details on attending this or other seminars see



Posted by C Lowry Nov 8, 2012

Publications for the previous 4 to 5 weeks (Search done 8th Nov.)

Search on the basis of ‘Nat SAME Hist SAME Mus* SAME Lon* using Web of Science + TRING



Buffet, P.E., Amiard-Triquet, C., DYBOWSKA, A., Risso-de Faverney, C., Guibbolini, M., VALSAMI-JONES, E. & Mouneyrac, C. 2012. Fate of isotopically labeled zinc oxide nanoparticles in sediment and effects on two endobenthic species, the clam Scrobicularia plana and the ragworm Hediste diversicolor. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 84: 191-198. 

Gioia, R., Li, J., Schuster, J., Zhang, Y.L., Zhang, G., Li, X.D., SPIRO, B., Bhatia, R.S., Dachs, J. & Jones, K.C. 2012. Factors Affecting the Occurrence and Transport of Atmospheric Organochlorines in the China Sea and the Northern Indian and South East Atlantic Oceans. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(18): 10012-10021. 

Keller, J. & ZAITSEV, A.N. 2012. Geochemistry and petrogenetic significance of natrocarbonatites at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Composition of lavas from 1988 to 2007. Lithos, 148: 45-53. 

KHAN, F.R., MISRA, S.K., GARCIA-ALONSO, J., SMITH, B.D., STREKOPYTOV, S., RAINBOW, P.S., LUOMA, S.N. & VALSAMI-JONES, E. 2012. Correction: Bioaccumulation Dynamics and Modeling in an Estuarine Invertebrate Following Aqueous Exposure to Nanosized and Dissolved Silver (vol 46, pg 7621, 2012). Environmental Science & Technology, 46(18): 10381-10381. 

KNIGHT, K.S. 2012. Low temperature thermoelastic and structural properties of LaGaO3 perovskite in the Pbnm phase. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 194: 286-296. 

Paar, W.H., Cooper, M.A., Moelo, Y., STANLEY, C.J., Putz, H., Topa, D., Roberts, A.C., Stirling, J., Raith, J.G. & Rowe, R. 2012. Eldragónite, Cu6BiSe4(Se2), a new mineral species from the El Dragón mine, Potosí, Bolivia, and its crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 50(2): 281-294. 

Papp, G., Criddle, A.J. & STANLEY, C.J. 2012. A re-investigation of "Dognácskaite". Canadian Mineralogist, 50(2): 341-351. 

SCOTNEY, P.M., Carney, J.N. & Harwood, M. 2012. New information on Neoproterozoic-Cambrian geology and the Triassic unconformity around Groby, southern Charnwood Forest, UK. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 59: 37-51. 



LLOYD, G.T., Pearson, P.N., Young, J.R. & SMITH, A.B. 2012. Sampling bias and the fossil record of planktonic foraminifera on land and in the deep sea. Paleobiology, 38(4): 569-584. 

MA, X.Y., Hou, X.G., Aldridge, R.J., Siveter, D.J., Siveter, D.J., Gabbott, S.E., Purnell, M.A., Parker, A.R. & EDGECOMBE, G.D. 2012. Morphology of Cambrian lobopodian eyes from the Chengjiang Lagerstatte and their evolutionary significance. Arthropod Structure & Development, 41(5): 495-504. 

Mergl, M. & ZAMORA, S. 2012. New and revised occurrences of rhynchonelliformean brachiopods from the middle Cambrian of the Iberian Chains, NE Spain. Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(3): 571-586. 

Muadsub, S., Sutcharit, C., Pimvichai, P., Enghoff, H., EDGECOMBE, G.D. & Panha, S. 2012. Revision of the rare centipede genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934, with description of a new species from Thailand (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae). Zootaxa(3484): 35-52. 

SMITH, A.B. 2012. Cambrian problematica and the diversification of deuterostomes. Bmc Biology, 10: Article no. 79. DOI 10.1186/1741-7007-10-79. 


HUNT, A.C., Parkinson, I.J., Harris, N.B.W., Barry, T.L., Rogers, N.W. & Yondon, M. 2012. Cenozoic Volcanism on the Hangai Dome, Central Mongolia: Geochemical Evidence for Changing Melt Sources and Implications for Mechanisms of Melting. Journal of Petrology, 53(9): 1913-1942. 

STEELE, R.C.J., Coath, C.D., Regelous, M., RUSSELL, S. & Elliott, T. 2012. Neutron-poor nickel isotope anomalies in meteorites. Astrophysical Journal, 758(1): Article No. 59. DOI: 10.1088/0004-637x/758/1/59. 

Tomioka, N., MORLOK, A., Koike, C., Kohler, M. & GRADY, M. 2012. Laihunite in planetary materials: An FTIR and TEM study of oxidized synthetic and meteoritic Fe-rich olivine. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 107(4): 157-166. 

WELCH, M.D. & Wunder, B. 2012. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of the 3.65-phase MgSi(OH)(6), a high-pressure hydroxide perovskite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 39(9): 693-697. 




Edwards, D., RICHARDSON, J.B., Axe, L. & Davies, K.L. 2012. Correction: A new group of Early Devonian plants with valvate sporangia containing sculptured permanent dyads (vol 168, pg 229, 2012). Botanical Journal Of the Linnean Society, 170(2): 283-283. 

MAIDMENT, S.C.R. & BARRETT, P.M. 2012. Does morphological convergence imply functional similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 279(1743): 3765-3771. 

Preece, R.C. & PARFITT, S.A. 2012. The Early and early Middle Pleistocene context of human occupation and lowland glaciation in Britain and northern Europe. Quaternary International, 271: 6-28. 






International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. 2012. Editorial: Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Zootaxa(3450): 1-7. 

International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. 2012. Editorial: Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. ZooKeys(219): 1-10. 



Hill, A., Guralnick, R., Smith, A., Sallans, A., Gillespie, R., Denslow, M., Gross, J., Murrell, Z., CONYERS, T., Oboyski, P., Ball, J., Thomer, A., PRYS-JONES, R., de la Torre, J., Kociolek, P. & Fortson, L. 2012. The notes from nature tool for unlocking biodiversity records from museum records through citizen science. ZooKeys(209): 219-233. 

KHAN, F.R., MISRA, S.K., GARCIA-ALONSO, J., SMITH, B.D., STREKOPYTOV, S., RAINBOW, P.S., LUOMA, S.N. & VALSAMI-JONES, E. 2012. Correction: Bioaccumulation Dynamics and Modeling in an Estuarine Invertebrate Following Aqueous Exposure to Nanosized and Dissolved Silver (vol 46, pg 7621, 2012). Environmental Science & Technology, 46(18): 10381-10381.

Ng, P.K.L. & CLARK, P.F. 2012. Danielita Ng, Clark & Tan, 2010 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Ocypodoidea: Camptandriidae), preoccupied by Danielita Kiriakoff, 1970 (Lepidoptera: Glossata: Heteroneura: Noctuoidea: Notodontidae) [Letter]. Zootaxa(3490): 48-48. 

Williams, J.J., BROOKS, S.J. & Gosling, W.D. 2012. Response of chironomids to late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental change in the eastern Bolivian Andes. Journal of Paleolimnology, 48(3): 485-501. 

Winterton, S.L., Guek, H.P. & BROOKS, S.J. 2012. A charismatic new species of green lacewing discovered in Malaysia (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): the confluence of citizen scientist, online image database and cybertaxonomy. ZooKeys(214): 1-11. 




Abramovich, R.S., Pomati, F., JUNGBLUT, A.D., Guglielmin, M. & Neilan, B.A. 2012. T-RFLP Fingerprinting Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Debris Cones, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 23(3): 244-248. 




ATTWOOD, S.W. & Upatham, E.S. 2012. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis. Parasites & Vectors, 5: Article no. 126. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-5-126. 

EMERY, A.M., ALLAN, F.E., RABONE, M.E. & ROLLINSON, D. 2012. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN). Parasites & Vectors, 5: Article no. 185. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-185. 

Galaktionov, K.V., Blasco-Costa, I. & OLSON, P.D. 2012. Life cycles, molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the 'pygmaeus' microphallids (Digenea: Microphallidae): widespread parasites of marine and coastal birds in the Holarctic. Parasitology, 139(10): 1346-1360. 

Navidpour, S., Vazirianzadeh, B., HARBACH, R., Jahanifard, E. & Moravvej, S.A. 2012. The identification of culicine mosquitoes in the Shadegan wetland in southwestern Iran. Journal of Insect Science, 12: Article No. 105.




BYSTRIAKOVA, N., Peregrym, M., Erkens, R.H.J., Bezsmertna, O. & SCHNEIDER, H. 2012. Sampling bias in geographic and environmental space and its effect on the predictive power of species distribution models. Systematics and Biodiversity, 10(3): 305-315. 

Christenhusz, M.J.M. & SCHNEIDER, H. 2012. (2054) Proposal to conserve the name Drynaria against Aglaomorpha (Polypodiaceae). Taxon, 61(2): 465-466. 

ELLIS, L.T., Alegro, A., Bansal, P., Nath, V., Cykowska, B., Bednarek-Ochyra, H., Ochyra, R., Dulin, M.V., Erzberger, P., Garcia, C., Sergio, C., Claro, D., Stow, S., Hedderson, T.A., Hodgetts, N.G., Hugonnot, V., Kucera, J., Lara, F., Pertierra, L., Lebouvier, M., Liepina, L., Mezaka, A., Strazdina, L., Madzule, L., Reriha, I., Mazooji, A., Natcheva, R., Phephu, N., Philippov, D.A., Plasek, V., Cihal, L., Pocs, T., Porley, R.D., Sabovljevic, M., Salimpour, F., Motlagh, M.B., Sharifnia, F., Darzikolaei, S.A., Schafer-Verwimp, A., Segota, V., Shaw, A.J., Sim-Sim, M., Sollman, P., Spitale, D., Holzer, A., Stebel, A., Vana, J., van Rooy, J. & Voncina, G. 2012. New national and regional bryophyte records, 32. Journal of Bryology, 34: 231-246. 

JONES, K., Anderberg, A.A., De Craene, L.P.R. & Wanntorp, L. 2012. Origin, diversification, and evolution of Samolus valerandi (Samolaceae, Ericales). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 298(8): 1523-1531.

Ligrone, R., DUCKETT, J.G. & Renzaglia, K.S. 2012. The origin of the sporophyte shoot in land plants: a bryological perspective. Annals of Botany, 110(5): 935-941. 

SARKINEN, T., Staats, M., Richardson, J.E., Cowan, R.S. & Bakker, F.T. 2012. How to Open the Treasure Chest? Optimising DNA Extraction from Herbarium Specimens. PLoS ONE, 7(8): Article no. e43808. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043808. 




AGASSIZ, D.J.L. 2012. The Acentropinae (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) of Africa. Zootaxa(3494): 1-73.  (Scientific Associate)

BLAGODEROV, V., KITCHING, I.J., LIVERMORE, L., SIMONSEN, T.J. & SMITH, V.S. 2012. No specimen left behind: industrial scale digitization of natural history collections. ZooKeys(209): 133-146. 

Butcher, B.A., Smith, M.A., Sharkey, M.J. & QUICKE, D.L.J. 2012. A turbo-taxonomic study of Thai Aleiodes (Aleiodes) and Aleiodes (Arcaleiodes) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) based largely on COI barcoded specimens, with rapid descriptions of 179 new species. Zootaxa(3457): 7-+. 

QUICKE, D.L.J., BROAD, G.R. & Butcher, B.A. 2012. First host record for the Palaeotropical braconine wasp genus Cassidibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) with the description of a new species from India. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 28: 135-141. 

QUICKE, D.L.J., Smith, M.A., Miller, S.E., Hrcek, J. & Butcher, B. 2012. Colastomion Baker (Braconidae, Rogadinae): nine new species from Papua New Guinea reared from Crambidae. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 28: 85-121.

Proshchalykin, M.Y. & KUHLMANN, M. 2012. The bees of the genus Colletes Latreille 1802 of the Ukraine, with a key to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae). Zootaxa(3488): 1-40. 

Wheeler, Q., Bourgoin, T., Coddington, J., Gostony, T., Hamilton, A., Larimer, R., POLASZEK, A., Schauff, M. & Solis, M.A. 2012. Nomenclatural benchmarking: the roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy. ZooKeys(209): 193-202. 

Regier, J.C., Mitter, C., Solis, M.A., Hayden, J.E., Landry, B., Nuss, M., SIMONSEN, T.J., Yen, S.H., Zwick, A. & Cummings, M.P. 2012. A molecular phylogeny for the pyraloid moths (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and its implications for higher-level classification. Systematic Entomology, 37(4): 635-656. 

Seltmann, K.C., Yoder, M.J., Miko, I., Forshages, M., Bertone, M.A., Agosti, D., Austin, A.D., Balhoff, J.P., Borowiec, M.L., Brady, S.G., BROAD, G.R., Brothers, D.J., Burks, R.A., Buffington, M.L., Campbell, H.M., Dew, K.J., Ernst, A.E., Fernandez-Triana, J.L., Gates, M.W., Gibson, G.A.P., Jennings, J.T., Johnson, N.E., Karlsson, D., Kawada, R., Krogmann, L., Kula, R.R., Mullins, P.L., Ohl, M., Rasmussen, C., Ronquist, F., Schulmeister, S., Sharkey, M.J., Talamask, E., Tucker, E., Vilhelmsen, L., Ward, P.S., Wharton, R.A. & Deans, A.R. 2012. A hymenopterists' guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 27: 67-88. 

SMITH, V.S. & BLAGODEROV, V. 2012. Bringing collections out of the dark. ZooKeys(209): 1-6. 


AGORRETA, A. & RUBER, L. 2012. A standardized reanalysis of molecular phylogenetic hypotheses of Gobioidei. Systematics and Biodiversity, 10(3): 375-390. 

Hill, A., Guralnick, R., Smith, A., Sallans, A., Gillespie, R., Denslow, M., Gross, J., Murrell, Z., CONYERS, T., Oboyski, P., Ball, J., Thomer, A., PRYS-JONES, R., de la Torre, J., Kociolek, P. & Fortson, L. 2012. The notes from nature tool for unlocking biodiversity records from museum records through citizen science. ZooKeys(209): 219-233.

KHAN, F.R., MISRA, S.K., GARCIA-ALONSO, J., SMITH, B.D., STREKOPYTOV, S., RAINBOW, P.S., LUOMA, S.N. & VALSAMI-JONES, E. 2012. Correction: Bioaccumulation Dynamics and Modeling in an Estuarine Invertebrate Following Aqueous Exposure to Nanosized and Dissolved Silver (vol 46, pg 7621, 2012). Environmental Science & Technology, 46(18): 10381-10381.

Murphy, J.C., Mumpuni, de Lang, R., GOWER, D.J. & Sanders, K.L. 2012. The Moluccan short-tailed snakes of the genus Brachyorrhos  Kuhl (Squamata: Serpentes: Homalopsidae), and the status of Calamophis Meyer. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 60(2): 501-514.

RASMUSSEN, P.C., Allen, D.N.S., COLLAR, N.J., DeMeulemeester, B., Hutchinson, R.O., Jakosalem, P.G.C., Kennedy, R.S., Lambert, F.R. & Paguntalan, L.M. 2012. Vocal divergence and new species in the Philippine Hawk Owl Ninox philippensis complex. Forktail(28): 1-20. 

RUSSELL, D.G.D., Sladen, W.J.L. & Ainley, D.G. 2012. Dr. George Murray Levick (1876-1956): unpublished notes on the sexual habits of the Adelie penguin. Polar Record, 48(247): 387-393.  WILKINSON, M. 2012. Caecilians. Current Biology, 22(17): R668-R669.


KHAN, F.R., MISRA, S.K., GARCIA-ALONSO, J., SMITH, B.D., STREKOPYTOV, S., RAINBOW, P.S., LUOMA, S.N. & VALSAMI-JONES, E. 2012. Correction: Bioaccumulation Dynamics and Modeling in an Estuarine Invertebrate Following Aqueous Exposure to Nanosized and Dissolved Silver (vol 46, pg 7621, 2012). Environmental Science & Technology, 46(18): 10381-10381. 

Schmahl, W.W., Griesshaber, E., Kelm, K., BALL, A., Goetz, A., Xu, D.Y., Kreitmeier, L. & Jordan, G. 2012. Towards systematics of calcite biocrystals: insight from the inside. Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie, 227(8): 604-611.