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Curator of Micropalaeontology's blog

2 Posts tagged with the ct_scanning tag

One of my curatorial predecessors Randolf Kirkpatrick (1863-1950) thought that larger benthic foraminifera (LBFs) were so important that he published a theory that they were vital to the formation of all rocks on earth. Our collection of LBFs has received relatively little attention over the 20 years I have been at the Museum, but recently it has been the most viewed part of the microfossil collection.



Some images of larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) taken by Antonino Briguglio, a recent SYNTHESYS-funded visitor to our collections. The images represent specimens roughly the size of a small fingerprint.


Traditionally LBFs have been difficult to study but new techniques, particularly CT scanning, are changing this perception. This post tells the story of Kirkpatrick and explains how the collection is currently being used for studies in stratigraphy, oil exploration, past climates and biodiversity hot spots.


Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF)


Larger benthic foraminifera are classified as microfossils because they were produced by a single celled organism, but they can reach a size of several centimetres. Their study is difficult because it usually relies on destructive techniques such as thin sectioning to make precise identifications. My first line manager at the Museum Richard Hodgkinson was an expert at producing these thin sections. He described the technique of cutting the specimens exactly through the centre as an art rather than science. Sadly there are very few people in the world skilled enough to make these sections, but thankfully the Museum collection is packed with LBF thin sections available for study.


Randolf Kirkpatrick's Nummulosphere


Randolf Kirkpatrick was Assistant Keeper of Lower Invertebrates in the Zoology Department of the British Museum (Natural History), and worked at the Museum from 1886 to his retirement in 1927. He published on sponges but is most famous for his series of four books entitled The Nummulosphere that he had to pay to publish himself because his ideas were so unusual. In the Introduction to part four he writes:

'Fourteen years have passed since the publication of Part III of the Nummulosphere studies, but the scientific world has entirely ignored the work to its own real and serious loss... I think it not amiss to call attention to the financial aspect. Since its beginning in 1908, this research has cost me much over £2000, all paid out of a modest salary and pension, and certainly by a cheerful giver.'




Kirkpatrick developed a theory that at one stage Earth was covered with water and LBFs of the genus Nummulites accumulated into a layer he called 'The Nummulosphere'. He went on to suggest that all rocks we see now were subsequently derived from this nummulosphaeric layer and he figured examples in his books of supposed nummulitic textures he had seen in granites and even meteorites.




I think that Kirkpatrick would be very interested to hear that scientists are looking for evidence of life on Mars and that meteorites may hold the key to this. Obviously the evidence of life, if it arrives, is almost certainly not going to be a LBF. However, I think that if he were alive today, Kirkpatrick would be very interested to hear of the renewed interest in our LBF collection and that his earlier publications on sponges have also received renewed interest. These publications had been largely ignored because of his later publications of the Nummulosphere theory.



Image of palm-sized model of a nummulite made in plaster of Paris based on an original illustration by Zittel (1876), showing strands of protoplasm colonising its complex shell.


Find out more about Kirkpatrick from the Museum Archives or read the article entitled 'Crazy Old Randolf Kirkpatrick' by Steven Jay Gould in his book The Panda's Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History. Read on to find out about some of the projects that the collection has been used for.


Evaluating past climates and extinctions


Naturalis Biodiversity Center researcher Laura Cotton studied for her PhD in the UK and has been a regular visitor to our LBF collections. She borrowed some rock sample material from Melinau Gorge in Sarawak, Malaysia that was worked on by one of the leading LBF workers of the time, former Natural History Museum Palaeontology Department Associate Keeper Geoff Adams (1926-1995). It would have been almost impossible to arrange for this material to be recollected.


In a study published earlier this year, Laura carried out destructive techniques on these samples to release whole rock isotope data that has provided information about the position of an isotope excursion that relates to a period of global cooling and climate disruption. Laura showed that an extinction of LBFs previously described by Geoff Adams occurred prior to this isotope excursion, a situation she had previously described in Tanzania. This suggests that this Eocene-Oligocene extinction of LBFs is a global phenomenon, closely linked to changes in climate around 34 million years ago.



Boxes at our Wandsworth stores containing samples from which much of our larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) collection was obtained. Please note that the temporary box labels in this 2007 picture have now been replaced!


Most of our micropalaeontology rock sample collections are housed at our Wandsworth outstation and this project is a very good example of how duplicate samples are valuable resources for later studies using new techniques.


Studying hotspots of biodiversity in SE Asia


Naturalis researcher Willem Renema has been studying LBFs from SE Asia as part of a large multidisciplinary group including my colleague Ken Johnson (corals). The 'coral triangle' situated in SE Asia contains the highest diversity of marine life on Earth today. Back in time, water flowed from the tropical west Pacific into the Indian Ocean (Indonesian Throughflow) but this closed during Oligocene - Miocene times roughly 25 million years ago.


This interval in geological time is characterised by an apparent increase in reef-building and the diversification other faunas including the LBFs and molluscs, leading to the formation of the present day 'coral triangle'. The project aims to investigate how changes in the environment led to the high diversity of species present today.



Some slides from the Geoff Adams Collection from SE Asia scanned by Malaysian intern student Zoann Low.


Our LBF collections are very strong from this area of the world following the work of Geoff Adams. Two curatorial interns Faisal Akram and Zoann Low from Universiti Teknologie PETRONAS in Malaysia have helped greatly to enhance this area of the collection by providing images and additional data relating to Geoff Adams' collection and allowing us to prepare data to be released on the Museum data portal and for this 'coral triangle' project.


Supporting Middle East stratigraphy


One of our most important collections, the former Iraq Petroleum Collection contains many LBFs that help to define the stratigraphy of oil bearing rocks of the Middle East. Some significant early oil micropalaeontologists such as Eames and Smout of BP also contributed to the collection.



Recent donation from Oman of some Permian larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) of the genus Parafusulina.


A major publication on the collection by Museum Associate John Whittaker and others is being updated by John and a team of scientists including our own Steve Stukins and Tom Hill. We look forward to seeing this published in a major book in the next couple of years.


Atlas of larger benthic foraminifera


LBF worker Antonino Briguglio was successful with an application to SYNTHESYS, a European fund that facilitates visits to museum collections for European researchers. He visited us in March at the same time as Russian LBF worker Elena Zakrevskaya as part of work to compile an Atlas of LBFs. Antonino's work has included CT scanning LBF specimens and a video showing the architecture of the internal chambers of Operculina ammonoides:





CT scanning has opened up a whole new method for studying LBFs and made it much easier to create virtual sections through specimens without the need for expert and time consuming thin sectioning. We hope that our collection can be an excellent source for those wishing to CT scan LBFs and recently we were in negotiations with long term Museum visitor Zukun Shi who is studying fusuline specimens like the ones illustrated on my hand above.


This collection may never be as important as Kirkpatrick thought it was. However, it is a really excellent example of one that has become more relevant recently as new techniques are applied to its study. 


The new Treasures Cadogan Gallery opened at the Museum this week with an iconic specimen from the micropalaeontology collections displayed prominently in the first case you come to when entering from the left-hand-door. Just over 10 years ago, this beautiful glass model of a radiolarian made in Dresden in 1889 by father and son Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka, was housed in a cardboard box and hidden behind the scenes at the Museum.


Treasures Gallery-040-231112_blog.jpg

Picture courtesy of the NHM Picture Library

Radiolarians are single celled organisms (Protozoa) that secrete tiny skeletons of opaline silica or glass so it is appropriate that the Blaschkas should re-create them in glass. They range in size from 0.03mm to 2mm and mainly have a marine solitary floating lifestyle (planktonic), although some are colonial. The model on display is enlarged approximately 1,000 times.


For some time it has been a goal to get the Museum collection of Blaschka models on permanent display so walking into the new gallery this week and seeing the Blaschka specimens finally on show was very exciting. It has been a great team effort enhancing the profile of the collection by research, publications, conference presentations, conservation, exhibition loans, CT-scanning, filming and exhibition design. Here are a series of pictures illustrating the journey of a small part of the Museum Blaschka collection from cardboard box to permanent display.


Raphidiophrys_elegans_1889_6_11_1-18k_Conservation 006_blog.jpg


We hardly dared open the cardboard boxes housing the collection of 18 radiolarians to show them to visitors for fear of breaking the glass models inside. The boxes had "S" written on the side in red to signify that they are salvage specimens to be removed from the Museum first, in the event of a disaster.


To me these glass models are real treasures, not only because of the amazing skill and artistry in their fabrication but also because they so beautifully display aspects of microscopic collections that lie hidden behind the scenes at the Museum. The radiolarian represents the only specimen from the micropalaeontology collections currently on display in the Museum galleries. The octopus and jellyfish also on display show colours and structures that are not visible in spirit collection jars and beautifully show the anatomy of each species.




The Museum holds 185 Blaschka glass models of radiolarians, amoebas, heliozoans (similar to radiolarians), squid, octopuses, cuttlefish, nautiluses, nudibranchs (soft bodied marine molluscs), corals, sea anemones and jellyfishes. The Museum collection was acquired in four stages in 1866, 1876, 1883 and 1889, representing some of the earliest and last marine invertebrates made by the Blaschkas. In 1887 they started making glass flowers for Harvard University and shortly afterwards were employed exclusively by Harvard so ceased making marine invertebrates.


Long serving members of staff recall the collection being on display in the corridor outside the current Human Biology Exhibition in the 1970s. The collection was subsequently divided between the Palaeontology and Zoology departments where it was housed in five different locations throughout the Earth and Life Science departments. Zoology curator Miranda Lowe and I first located the specimens and searched the Museum archives and Zoology specimen registers for details.


Copy of CNV00023.JPG

This image shows a list made by the Blaschkas in 1883 of the models sent to the British Museum including the octopus model on display in the Treasures Cadogan Gallery. The price (113 Reichsmarks) and relatively small size of the transport box (26 x 22 x 15 inches) are shown.
Image courtesy of the Rakow Reserach Library, Corning Museum of Glass, New York (CMGL Bib 94604.6).


Miranda and I made trips to the Blaschka archive in the Rakow Library at the Corning Museum of Glass, New York, to find out more about the history of our collections. These suggest that British Museum staff may have ordered glass taxidermy eyes from the Blaschkas in 1872 and complained when the mollusc models arrived broken in 1883.


The Corning archive also includes the original drawings from which the Blaschkas worked. They gained their inspiration by direct observation from nature and from illustrations in publications like Henry Gosse's 1860 Actinologia britannica or Ernst Haeckel's 1862 monograph on the Radiolaria (see above). The publication by Haeckel was one of the first to employ evolutionary theory to explain the distribution of organisms so it is appropriate that a copy of Darwin's On the Origin of Species is displayed next to the Blaschka models in the Treasures Cadogan Gallery.



The National Museum of Ireland copy of the radiolarian Aulosphaera elegantissima now appears on each cover of the journal Historical Biology. Reproduced with permission from Nigel Monaghan (National Museum of Ireland) and Taylor and Francis.


Blaschka experts met at a conference in Dublin in 2007 made possible by the kind benefaction of George Loudon with the support of the National Museum of Ireland. Miranda and I presented a paper on the Museum Blaschka Collection that was published the following year in the Blaschka conference proceedings.



At the time of the conference the profile of the Museum Blaschka collection had been raised both in and outside the Museum leading to several requests from other museums to display our Blaschka models in temporary exhibitions. Models were lent to the National Glass Centre in Sunderland, Sheffield Museum and displayed in temporary exhibitions at the Museum at Tring (see above) and in The Deep here at South Kensington.




Transport boxes for Blaschka models at the National Glass Centre, Sunderland. In case you were wondering, they were empty when this picture was taken. We wouldn't dream of stacking them like this if they were full!


Special cases were bought so that the models could be transported safely to and from exhibition venues. Bespoke inserts were made from layers of Plastazote™ foam and white Tyvek™ cloth to hold the items firmly in place during transport. These boxes were then transported in lorries usually employed for moving works of art between galleries.


Meanwhile, new conservation grade storage boxes for the collection were constructed initially by Felicity Bolton, then of the Museum's Palaeontology Conservation Unit. For her published work on the displayed radiolarian model, Liesa Brierley was awarded the Institute of Conservation’s Nigel Williams Prize for glass and ceramics conservation as well as a prize for the best student dissertation of 2008 at the University of Applied Sciences Erfurt, Germany.


She employed a two-stage cleaning process using a modified museum vacuum and a range of soft brushes followed by a mixture of solvents on an antistatic mini swab. She also reattached broken spines with reversible adhesive Paraloid™ B72, remounted some of the fine model strands using nylon micro-tubing and carried out initial CT-scanning of some of the models.


CT_model.jpgCT-scan of the gold centre of the displayed radiolarian not seen since the Blaschkas made the model in 1889.


Chris Collins and Effie Verventiotou of the Museum Conservation Centre in conjunction with Dr Farah Ahmed in the Museum's Imaging and Analysis Centre employed CT-scanning as well as other detailed analytical techniques to study the condition of the models. This has revealed valuable information about how the models were built, helping conservators to better understand deterioration processes and to tailor their conservation strategies.


Effie, who carried out the conservation work on the octopus and jellyfish models, remarked about the octopus, "The results of the study showed the use of animal glue and gum arabic used as coatings, adhesives and paint media. The analysis also demonstrated the use of at least two different types of glass on its construction and revealed an intricate internal structure."



Helen Walker with Effie Verventiotou and Miranda Lowe at the installation of the Blaschka case of the Treasures Cadogan Gallery.


In conjunction with museun mount maker specialist Helen Walker from the Design and Conservation Department, Effie also used these CT-scans to print 3-D mounts for the displayed specimens so that the bases of the radiolarian and octopus specimens could be perfectly supported while on display.


Light levels in the gallery are kept to a minimum and the models will be changed every 6 months to avoid light damage. The mounts are attached to granite blocks and the glass cases fixed to the underlying structure of the museum building rather than resting directly on the floorboards of the gallery to minimise the possibility of vibration damage.




Getting just three of the Museum Blaschka collection items from their cardboard boxes to permanent display has been a major undertaking involving a very large team. I just checked my Blaschka e-mail folder and it includes over 2,500 e-mails sent over 10 years by over 100 different people so apologies that I have failed to mention everyone involved.


I must have opened the Blaschka cabinet for visitors, tours and various Museum staff hundreds of times during these 10 years so I am delighted that the Museum chose and supported the work for Blaschka specimens to be part of the new gallery and available for all to see in future. Several on-line resources are available including a Treasures video on the BBC website, details of all Treasures specimens in the gallery a short Blaschka film featuring Miranda, Effie, Farah and myself (the YouTube version is also embedded below). The radiolarian and all the other Treasures in the gallery look amazing on-line but even more spectacular in real life so please visit if you can.



The Treasures Cadogan Gallery is free and open every day of the year apart from Christmas Day. As you leave, don't forget to vote for the Blaschka models as your favourite on the interactive screen situated to the left of Guy the Gorilla.

Giles Miller

Giles Miller

Member since: Apr 21, 2010

This is Giles Miller's Curator of Micropalaeontology blog. I make the Museum micropalaeontology collections available to visitors from all over the world, publish articles on the collections, give public talks and occasionally make collections myself.

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