From bilateral symmetry to pentaradiality: The phylogeny of hemichordates and echinoderms

 

Andrew B. Smith, Kevin J. Peterson, Gregory Wray and D.T.J. Littlewood

 

Description of morphological characters used in cladistic analysis of class relationships:

 

2550 – ciliated epidermis: 0 = multiciliated cells 1 = monociliated cells.

2551 – telotroch: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2552 – neotroch: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2553 – trimery: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2554 – mesocoelomic ducts and pores: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2555 – ciliated extensions of mesocoel: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2556 – mesocoel accompanied by somatocoel in tentacular extensions: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2557 – posterior stalk that develops as a ventral outgrowth – 0 = absent 1 = present with extensions of both left and right somatocoels; 2 = present only as right somatcoel.

2558 – axial complex: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2559 – hydropore/protocoelomic pore: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2560 – paired protocoelomic pores: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2561 – saccate gut: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2562 – pharyngotremy 0 = present; 1 = absent.

2563 – synapticules 0 = present; 1 = absent.

2564 – dorsal nerve cord/ganglion associated with mesosome: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2565 – stomochord: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2566 – tRNA Lys

2567 – AGA and AGG serine

2568 – Brachyury expressed in oral and anal regions of gut: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2569 – apical ganglion with many serotonergic neurons and a caudal serotonergic projection to the ciliary band: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2570 – periacrosomal material (Jameson 2000b,c; Franzén 2001)

2571 – sperm with single annular mitochondrion (Jameson 2000a,c): 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2572 – proboscis skeleton crura cause dorsolateral grooves in stomochord (Hyman 1959): 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2573 – recurved gut with ventral anus in larva: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2574 – coelomic stacking: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2575 – calcitic larval skeleton: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2576 – skeletal rods supporting arms that carry loops of the ciliary band in larva: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2577 – paroral ciliary bands: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2578 – loss of larval mouth with adult mouth formed on left side: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2579 – anterior adhesive pit or disc for attachment: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2580 – larval tube feet: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2581 – water vascular system (i.e., hydrocoel communicates to axocoel via stone canal): 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2582 – epineural folds form to enclose developing radial water vessel: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2583 – skeleton composed of stereom: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2584 - Pentameral symmetry: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2585 - Ambulacral growth meridional creating globular body form; aboral surface greatly reduce compared with oral surface: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2586 - Subterminal plate addition (ocular plate rule): 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2587 - Radial water vessel and nerve overlain by epineural sinus: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2588 - Polian vesicles: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2589 - Haemal system arranged as discrete peripharangeal ring which sends out radial canals located between the radial nerve and hyponeural sinus: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2590 - Calcified madreporitic body forms around hydropore: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2591 - Calcified stone canal: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2592 - Perianal coelom: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2593  - Peripharyngeal coelom: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2594 - Moveable articulated spines in dermis: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2595 - Tube-feet with calcified disc: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2596 - Tube-feet forming from lateral side-branches of cylindrical radial water vessel with one-way valve: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2597 - Tube foot with internal ampulla: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2598 - Circumoral ring water canal and nerve intimately associated with first ambulacral ossicles or their deriviatives: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2599 - Goblet and apical tuft cells in tube feet: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2600 - Axial gland (= glomerulus) within left axial sinus (= dorsal sac) : 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2601 - Axial gland integral part of the axial sinus wall: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

2602 - Right axial sinus: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2603 - Differentiated adambulacral ossicles: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2604 - Scleroblasts forming a syncitium: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2605 - Discrete, well-defined nerve canal in tube feet: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2606 - Batyl alcohol: 0 = absent; 1 = present.

2607 - Adoralmost ambulacral plates specialized into a ring of jaw elements linked laterally by circumoral ring muscles: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Matrix:

branchio  000000000?0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000?0

herdmani  00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000?0

Saccoglo  0100100111000111????101000000000000000000000000000000000?0

Harriman  0??1100?11100111??????1?00000000000000000000000000000000?0

cephalod  1001110111100111??????0000000000000000000000000000000000?0

Ptychode  01111000110000111111??0000000000000000000000000000000000?0

CRINCONS  100101121100110011??11001000001011000000000000000100000010

OPHCONSEN 101101101101110011?111011111001111011111100101010111111101

ASTCONS   1011011011011100111111011000111011010111100101110111110110

HOLCONS   101101?0110011001111110111010110111?1111111011111000011010

ECHCONSEN 1011011011001100111100011111101111111011111111111011011001