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Record number: WCP296

Sent by:
Alfred Russel Wallace
Sent to:
Violet Isabel Wallace
22 October 1897

Sent by Alfred Russel Wallace, Corfe View, Parkstone, Dorset to Violet Isabel Wallace [address not recorded] on 22 October 1897.

Record created:
06 February 2013 by Catchpole, Caroline


Re. bird behaviour; Violet's expenses and dental treatment; news from her brother William in America; books; "The Arena", Alfred Russel Wallace, Dr Brett and General Dunn buying orchids; anti-vaccination chapter finished, considering publishing as a separate paper.

Record contains:

  • letter (1)
  • publication (2)

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Smith, Frederick Edwin. (1931). The Five Hundred Best English Letters. Cassell. 1-960. [p. 791]

Copyright owner:
Not in copyright

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Transcription information



[[1]]1 [p. 791]

Parkstone, Dorset, October 22, 1897

My dear Violet, In your previous letter you asked me the conundrum, Why does a wagtail wag its tail? That's quite easy, on Darwinian principles. Many birds wag their tails. Some Eastern flycatchers--also black and white--wag their long tails up and down when they alight on the ground or on a branch. Other birds with long tails jerk them up in the air when they alight on a branch. Now these varied motions, like the motions of many butterflies, caterpillars, and many other animals, must have a use to the animal, and the most common, or rather the most probable, use is, either to frighten or to distract an enemy. If a hawk was very hungry and darted down on a wagtail from up in the air, the wagging tail would be seen most distinctly and be aimed at, and thus the bird would be missed or at most a feather torn out of the tail. The bird hunts for food in the open, on the edges of ponds and streams, and would be especially easy to capture, hence the wagging tail has been developed to baffle the enemy.


1. Editor Charles H. Smith's Note: A letter on animal adaptations to Wallace's daughter Violet that after his death found its way onto page 791 of the collection The Five Hundred Best English Letters.


This transcript originates from Charles H. Smith’s The Alfred Russel Wallace Page website (http://people.wku.edu/charles.smith/index1.htm): See http://people.wku.edu/charles.smith/wallace/S708AA.htm

Please note that work on this transcript is not yet complete. Users are advised to study electronic image(s) of this document, if available.