About the database and images

Unlike previous similar projects, where the accompanying database has been based on the literary work that formed the basis for the herbarium, eg Flora Zeylanica for the Paul Hermann Herbarium, this project and the associated database are specimen based.

Entries in the Hortus Cliffortianus for which there is no associated specimen are not included. This is because the numbers of specimens in the Clifford herbarium are so much larger than in our other herbaria. There are also very few, if any, examples of specimens being cited which are no longer extant, whereas this was relatively common in previous projects.

Like previous digital projects, each specimen has its own image and database entry, including details such as type information and relevance to Linnaean nomenclature.


Using a large-format camera with digital scanner attachment, the images were fed directly into a dedicated computer. The image capture process was much quicker than some previous departmental digital projects involving large folio bound volumes, and it was easily possible to capture as many as 60 specimen images per day.


Data held in the accompanying database have mostly been provided by the Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project, which holds data on all Linnaean names, many of which are directly linked to Clifford sheets.

While we are aware of a number of inconsistencies and omissions in database, every effort has been made to provide as full and accurate information as possible, including data on the type status of specimens and determinations where present.

How to use the Clifford Herbarium database