Water BV, Amersfoort, Holland
Full scale phosphate recovery process
municipal waste water treatment
plant, Edam, Holland (230,000
Process: DHV calcium phosphate
Full scale phosphate recovery
at Shimane Prefecture, 45,000 m2/day.
Commissioning September 1998.
Process : struvite precipitation
Unitika Ltd, Osaka, Japan and Japan
Sewage Works Agency
Demonstration scale phosphate recovery
plant at Warriewood
sewage works, near Sydney, Australia.
This plant ran from April 1995
to March 1996 (50,000 p.e.).
Process: calcium phospate formation
in a fluidised bed, Australian
Water Technologies and Sydney Water.
need to restore
the phosphate cycle
Modern society has moved
from a phosphorus recycling loop, where animal manure and human wastes
were spread on farming land to recycle nutrients, to a once-through system,
where phosphates are extracted from mined, non-renewable phosphate rock
and end up either in landfill (sewage sludge, incinerator ash) or in surface
for the protection of surface waters (e.g. the proposed EC Water Framework
Directive) require improved treatment of sewage and animal wastes across
In particular, nutrient
and toxicant removal are necessary in areas sensitive to possible eutrophication
problems (EC Urban Waste Water Treatment and Nitrates Directives).
These processes offer the
opportunity to recover phosphorus, as phosphates, for recycling back into
the detergent phosphate industry and into other high-grade industrial uses.
The chemistry of phosphate
recovery and recycling appears relatively straightforward, but its industrial
application in waste treatment facilities is still at an early stage although
a number of research or demonstration installations are already running.
Recycling phosphates from
waste waters (sewage and animal wastes) offers major advantages:
a sustainable future
reductions in sludge volumes
generated by waste water treatment and in ash production where sludges
are incinerated, thus reducing costs and the environmental impact of disposal
reductions in chemicals used
in sewage treatment works;
synergy with EC Directives requiring
the protection of surface waters through improved sewage treatment;
manufacture of detergent phosphates
from a recycled raw material: phosphates are the only recyclable ingredient
phosphates from all sources
in waste water (foods, organic matter, industrial chemicals ...) can be
recovered together for recycling;
reduced use of mined phosphate
rock (a non-renewable resource);
reduced waste production in
the phosphate industry.
The European detergent phosphate
industry is convinced that the future lies in phosphate recycling. This
brochure explains why and how, and opens the door for research and development
projects in this area.