The Echinoid Directory

Contributed by Andrew Smith, December 2010

Superorder Carinacea Kroh & Smith, 2010, p. 170

Diagnosis Acroechinoidea with keeled teeth, and their descendants.
Classification and/or Status Euechinoidea, Acroechinoidea
Remarks This group units all echinoids with keeled teeth and encompasses the traditional groups of Camarodonta, Stirodonta and Irregularia.  Although advanced irregular echinoids have lost their lantern, primitive irregular echinoids all have keeled teeth, and trigeminate plate compounding in ambulacral zones showing that they have evolved from a regular Carinacea.

Kroh, A. & Smith, A. B. 2010. The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 7, 147-212.