The Echinoid Directory

Classification of the Holasteroida

The phylogeny and classification of Holasteroida is discussed in depth in Smith & Wright (2003) and in a forthcoming paper (Smith, 2004). Mooi & David (1996) discuss the classification of extant Urechinina. The following scheme is used here.


Holasteroida Durham & Melville, 1957 [= Total Group]
(basal holasteroids)
Eoholaster Solovjev, 1989
Taphraster Pomel, 1883
Cardiasterina Pomel, 1883
Pseudholaster Pomel, 1883
Giraliaster Forster & Philip, 1974
Protocardiaster Smith & Wright, 2003
Cardiasteridae Lambert, 1917
Cardiaster Forbes, 1850
Plesiocorys Pomel, 1883
Infulaster Desor, 1858
Hagenowia Duncan, 1889
Hemipneustidae Lambert, 1917
Plesiohemipneustes Smith & Wright, 2003
Hemipneustes Agassiz, 1836
Opisopneustes Gauthier, 1889
Toxopatagus Pomel, 1883
Meridosternata Loven, 1883 [=Crown Group]
'Basal Meridosternata'
Lampadocorys Pomel, 1883
Crassiholaster Smith & Wright, 2003
Echinocorythidae Wright, 1857
Echinocorys Leske, 1778
Pseudananchys Pomel, 1883
Holasteridae Pictet, 1857
Holaster Agassiz, 1836
Scagliaster Munier-Chalmas, 1891
Offaster Desor, 1858
Cibaster Pomel, 1883
Incertae sedis
Galeola Quenstedt, 1874
Jeronia Seunes, 1888
Stegasterina Lambert, 1917
Stegasteridae Lambert, 1917
Stegaster Pomel, 1883 [?=Rispolia Lambert, 1917]
Seunaster Lambert, 1912
Tholaster Seunes, 1890
Entomaster Gauthier, 1888
Guettaria Gauthier, 1888
Lampadaster Cotteau, 1889
Calymnidae Mortensen, 1907
Calymne Wyville Thomson, 1877
Sternopatagus de Meijere, 1902
Pseudoffaster Lambert, 1924
Sanchezaster Lambert, 1924
Chelonechinus Bather, 1934
Urechinina H. L. Clark, 1946
Pilematechinus A. Agassiz, 1904
Urechinidae Duncan, 1889
Antrechinus Mooi & David, 1990
Cystechinus A. Agassiz, 1879
Urechinus A. Agassiz, 1879
Unnamed plesion
Garumnaster Lambert, 1907
Corystidae Foster & Philip, 1978
Cardabia Foster & Philip, 1978
Corystus Pomel, 1883
Huttonechinus Foster & Philip, 1978
Unnamed clade
Basseaster Lambert, 1936
Plexechinidae Mooi & David, 1996
Plexechinus A. Agassiz, 1896
Pourtalesiidae A. Agassiz, 1881
Galeaster Seunes, 1889
Pourtalesia A. Agassiz, 1869
Ceratophysa Pomel, 1883
Cystocrepis Mortensen, 1907
Echinocrepis A. Agassiz, 1879
Echinosigra Mortensen, 1907
Helgocystis Mortensen, 1907
Spatangocystis A. Agassiz, 1879

Taxa currently too poorly known for placement are listed below

The genus Titanaster Szorenyi appeared in an unpublished Ph. D. thesis and thus is not an available name. Mortensen (1950) figured the specimen for the first time in publication but was unable to give a diagnosis. Similarly Wagner & Durham (1966) figured but did not diagnose the taxon. The name has thus never been validated.

Mortensen, T.1950. A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V.1. Spatangoida 1. C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.

Mooi, R. & David, B. 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of extreme morphologies: deep-sea holasteroid echinoids. Journal of Natural History 30, 913-953.

Smith, A. B. 2004. Phylogeny and systematics of holasteroid echinoids and their migration into the deep-sea. Palaeontology 47, 123-150.

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 2003. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 7, Atelostomata, 1. Holasteroida. Palaeontographical Society Monographs, London. Pp. 440-568, pls 139-182.