About the Clayton database and images
Until 1990, when James Reveal and Norlyn Bodkin searched for, and extracted, all of the Clayton specimens that they could trace, the Clayton specimens were incorporated within the Museum's main collection . More have been found since then. This gathering together of the specimens has greatly eased the task of adding barcodes and preparing digital images of each sheet. Using a large-format camera with a digital scanner attachment, the images were fed directly into a computer using Photophase.Camera settings were an aperture of f.11 and a shutter speed of 1/60th of a second with a resolution of 300 dpi using medium scan. Scanning of the 710 sheets in this way took about 150 hours. The images were processed using Photoshop 5.0. In some cases two or three views of one specimen were amalgamated to show otherwise obscured parts. Apart from these cases, however, all sheets were taken in their entirety and with no image adjustments. The only manipulation carried out was a reduction of the image size to make thumbnails and full screen images for the web page with a resolution of 72 dpi. All images were saved as JPEG files. The original, higher resolution images have been archived to CD as TIFF files allowing for future re-use as required. Internet pages were designed using Dreamweaver.
The database of information that accompanies the Clayton images has been compiled by the Linnaean Plant NameTypification Project from a preliminary enumeration of the specimens made after their extraction from the main collection. We are aware of a number of inconsistencies and omissions concerning the database. However, checking of data is continuing, and we hope that, together with type information added from the Linnaean Typification Project's databases, the accompanying data will still prove helpful in locating specimens.
The following points should be noted by users:
- Where a Clayton number is indicated but no specimen image is provided, this means that the collection in question was cited by Gronovius in the Flora Virginica account but that the specimen has not been traced among the collections at BM.
- As will be apparent from looking at the images of some sheets, the absence of a Flora Virginica polynomial from the database does not necessarily mean that no polynomial is written on the sheet. Due to time limitations, it has not been possible to add all polynomials which appear on the sheets. Maintenance of the database, however, is an ongoing project and such information will be added in due course. In addition, some polynomials that do appear in the database are those of Linnaeus or other authors, rather than of Gronovius. Consequently, searching on this field may lead to unpredictable results.
- While many of the sheets carry determinavit slips, others do not. Where the database indicates the identity of the specimen but no authority for the identification, the name is that under which the specimen was found in the general collection. This is for guidance only, and no attempt has been made to verify such identifications. Additionally, for some determinations no relevant authority for the binomial has been traced, but these are nevertheless included, especially where no other annotation is present on the sheet.
- Some specimens carry dual Clayton numbers and for these a duplicate database entry can be found for each. Similarly, where the cited Clayton number in Flora Virginica does not match that found on the sheet, dual entries have been entered into the database.
- Where a current name is listed for a particular specimen, this reflects the current name for the Linnaean binomial only. However, unless the corresponding Clayton specimen has been designated as the lectotype, it should not be assumed that this is also the taxonomic identity of the Clayton sheet. Information on previous determinations has been included in the database as an aid both to ascertaining the possible identity of the specimens and to locating particular specimens within the database. This should aid the searching process, especially for Clayton specimens which have no link to a Linnaean binomial.
- For some specimens, no relevant reference in Gronovius's Flora Virginica has been traced. In these cases either the phrase name on the sheet cannot be traced or the sheet bears no such phrase name.
- In many cases, determinavit slips indicate specimens may be original material or types for Linnaean names. However, in all cases the database should be referred to for confirmation of this and relevant remarks may be found in the Comments field.
Other Natural History Museum herbaria: