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A revised taxonomic and geographical inventory of world blackflies (Diptera : Simuliidae)

Roger W. Crosskey and Theresa M. Howard

Geographical information

Distribution

For each species considered valid the distribution is shown in the right hand column by alphabetical listing of the countries from which it has been recorded. For large countries (eg Canada) and/or those spanning a very wide range of environments (eg Chile) the first-level subdivisions (eg province or region) for which there are records are shown, with the type locality given first and followed by the other subdivisions in alphabetical order of their abbreviations (see list of abbreviations below). Countries for which occurrence of the species is insufficiently substantiated are listed at the end, each with a parenthetical query mark against the name. If a country record is definitely an error this is shown by placing the country name in quote marks and within square brackets; eg the entries under Simulium hirsutum Pomeroy of '['Sierra Leone' error]' and under Simulium monticola Friederichs of '['Britain' error]' show that the published records of the species from those particular countries are now known to be wrong (ie, based on misidentifications)

Siberia and Alaska are treated separately as if they are individual countries. The individuality of Siberia follows that established by Soós & Papp (eds) in their Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera (14 volumes, 1984-1994), where the eastern part of the old USSR (now Russian Federation) is distinguished from European Russia. This has much to commend it both on practical and faunistic grounds. Likewise, we treat Alaska as an individual entity equivalent to a country because of its size, its separateness from the contiguous USA and the close relations of its boreal fauna to those of Siberia: we think the reader interested in Alaska will benefit because Alaskan distributions will stand out more obviously in the Inventory. Another departure from the strictly administrative basis concerns Labrador and Newfoundland, entries for the latter referring only to the island and the mainland area (Labrador) being entered independently. Isolated archipelagos have been treated separately from the mother country of which they are part: thus the Balearics and Canaries are treated independently of Spain, the Azores and Madeira independently of Portugal.

A word should be said about the 'negative' aspects of distribution, those areas for which there are no records for one or other of three reasons: (1) areas not adequately prospected where Simuliidae presumed to occur; (2) areas well prospected and with suitable lotic habitat but Simuliidae absent; (3) areas without trace of running water and Simuliidae absent. Some of the presently negative areas worth pinpointing are as follows. In the first category are the large countries of Cambodia, Laos, Mauritania and Western Sahara and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (no records traced for any of these areas). In the second category are the Hawaiian Islands, Samoan Islands, Tristan da Cunha and Kerguelen; in the third category are the streamless calcareous islands such as Bahamas, Bermuda and Cayman Islands and superabundant streamless coral islands and atolls of the Pacific and Indian Oceans (also the dead volcano of Ascension Island). The Falkland Islands (Malvinas) appear to be negative but the streams have not been adequately surveyed.

Type locality

For valid names the country of the type locality is given as the first entry in the geographical distribution statement, followed by a semicolon and augmented as appropriate by any first-level subdivisions given in parentheses. Where subdivisions within a country, or islands within an archipelago, are specified the first always pertains to the type locality and is given in unabbreviated form, eg 'USA (California, Ari, Kan, Neb, Nev, Texas)'. For synonyms the type locality is given as a country entry in square brackets after the synonym name entry, amplified if appropriate, eg '[Italy (Sicily)]'. There are a few instances in which the type locality country cited in the Inventory differs from that given in the original species description, the reason being that the original type material is lost and a neotype has been designated from elsewhere. In such a case the new type locality country is cited in the form 'Afghanistan [neotype]'.

Geographical abbreviations

Country names are given in full but to condense the text it has been necessary to abbreviate most names of second-level areas (regions, provinces, states). The basic principle has been to give single-word names in full up to a limit of five letters, abbreviating thereafter. Initial capitals are used for multiple-word names such as New York or San Luis Potosi and usually the first consecutive two or three letters for longer single-word names (varied if necessary to deal with names that share the first few letters). The abbreviations are:

Argentina: BA, Buenos Aires; Cat, Catamarca; Chu, Chubut, Cór, Córdoba; Cos, Corrientes; ER, Entre Rios; For, Formosa; LP, La Pampa; LR, La Rioja; Men, Mendoza; Mis, Misiones; Nqn, Neuquén; RN, Rio Negro; SC, Santa Cruz; SDE, Santiago del Estero; SF, Sante Fe; SJ, San Juan; SL, San Luis; TDF, Tierra del Fuego; Tuc, Tucumán.

Note: Isla de los Estados (Staten Island), part of the province of Tierra del Fuego, has been specified when appropriate.

Australia: ACT, Australian Capital Territory; NSW, New South Wales; NT, Northern Territory; Qld, Queensland; SA, South Australia; Tas, Tasmania; Vic, Victoria; WA, Western Australia.

Brazil: Amz, Amazonas; BFD, Brasilia Federal District; ES, Espirito Santo; Mar, Maranhão; MG, Minas Gerais; MGr, Matto Grosso; MGrN, Matto Grosso do Norte; MGrS, Matto Grosso do Sul; Par, Paraná; Pba, Paraiba; Per, Pernambuco; RGN, Rio Grande do Norte; RGS, Rio Grande do Sul; RJ, Rio de Janeiro; Ron, Rondônia; Ror, Roraima; SC, Santa Catarina; SP, São Paulo; Toc, Tocantins.

Britain: CI, Channel Islands; En, England; Sc, Scotland; Wa, Wales.

Note: the Channel Islands, with only four species known, have minor significance and are listed last in the abbreviations sequence. The numerous islands associated with mainland Britain are not specified in the distribution data except for one instance where the Shetland Islands are type locality.

Canada: Alb, Alberta; BC, British Columbia; Lab, Labrador; Man, Manitoba; NB, New Brunswick; Nfld, Newfoundland; NS, Nova Scotia; NWT, Northwest Territories; Ont, Ontario; PEI, Prince Edward Island; Que, Quebec; Sask, Saskatchewan.

Note: Labrador and insular Newfoundland are separately listed for reasons given above. Islands of the Canadian Arctic for which there are records (Baffin, Banks, Southampton and Victoria) are specified when appropriate. The Queen Charlotte Islands have been specified within BC only when they are type locality.

Chile: Ant, Antofagasta; Ara, Araucania; Ata, Atacama; BB, Bio-Bio; Coq, Coquimbo; LL, Los Lagos; Mag, Magallanes; O'H, O'Higgins; San, Santiago; Tar, Tarapacá; Val, Valparaiso.

Note: Chiloé and Navarino Islands have been specified within the appropriate province whenever applicable.

China: Be, Beijing; Fu, Fujian; Gd, Guangdong; Gu, Guizhou; He, Heilongjiang; HK, Hong Kong; IM, Inner Mongolia; Ji, Jiangsu; Jx, Jiangxi; Li, Liaoning; Qi, Qinghai; Sg, Shandong; Sh, Shanxi; Si, Sichuan; Sx, Shaanxi; Xi, Xinjiang; Yu, Yunnan; Zh, Zhejiang.

India: AP, Andhra Pradesh; ArP, Arunachal Pradesh; HP, Himachal Pradesh; Ka, Karnataka (old Mysore); Ke, Kerala; Ma, Maharashtra; Me, Meghalaya; MP, Madhya Pradesh; Mr, Manipur; Na, Nagaland; Pu, Punjab; Sik, Sikkim; TN, Tamil Nadu (old Madras); UP, Uttar Pradesh; WB, West Bengal.

Japan: Hok, Hokkaido; Hon, Honshu; Ky, Kyushu; NI, Nansei (= Ryukyu) Islands; Sh, Shikoku.

Mexico: Ag, Aguascalientes; Ca, Chihuahua; Ch, Chiapas; Cl, Coahuila; Co, Colima; Cp, Campeche; Du, Durango; FD, Federal District; Gj, Guanahuato; Gu, Guerrero; Hi, Hidalgo; Ja, Jalisco; Ju, Juliaca; Mi, Michoacan; Mo, Morelos; MS, Mexico State; Na, Nayarit; NL, Nuevo Leon; Ox, Oaxaca; Pu, Puebla; Si, Sinaloa; SLP, San Luis Potosi; So, Sonora; Ta, Tamaulipas; Tb, Tabasco; Vz, Veracruz; Za, Zacatecas.

New Guinea: PNG, Papua New Guinea.

Note: the islands of Bougainville, Mussau, New Britain and New Ireland, all administratively parts of Papua New Guinea, are specified when appropriate.

Peru: Anc, Ancash; Apu, Apurimac; Are, Arequipa; Huá, Huánuco.

Russia: CR, Central Russia; KM, Karelia-Murmansk; NR, Northern Russia; SR, Southern Russia.

Note: the latitudinal division of European Russia into northern, central and southern areas follows the system used by Soós & Papp (eds), Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera (1984-1994). On this system the northern area lies north of (approximately) 60ºnorth latitude, the central area between 60°and 50°, and the southern area south of 50° (limited by the Caucasus and Kazakhstan).

Siberia: ES, Eastern Siberia; FE, Far East; WS, Western Siberia.

Note: the longitudinal division of Siberia into three regions follows the system used by Soós & Papp (eds), Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera (1984-1994). The areas are listed in the Inventory in the same non-alphabetical west to east sequence and the Soós & Papp definitions of the WS, ES and FE areas are used: West Siberia extends from the Urals to the Yenisei river, East Siberia from the Yenisei river to the border of the Magadan and Khabarovsk regions, and the Far East from that border to the Pacific limit of the Russian Federation.

South Africa: EC, Eastern Cape; FS, Free State; G, Gauteng; KZN, KwaZulu Natal; L, Limpopo; M, Mpumalanga; NC, Northern Cape; NW, North-West; WC, Western Cape.

Note: Mpumalanga was Eastern Transvaal (ET) and Limpopo Province was Northern Transvaal (NT) at the time of the 1997 Inventory.

USA: Ala, Alabama; Ari, Arizona; Ark, Arkansas; Cal, California; Col, Colorado; Con, Connecticut; DC, District of Columbia; Del, Delaware; Flo, Florida; Geo, Georgia; Ill, Illinois; Ind, Indiana; Kan, Kansas; Ken, Kentucky; Lou, Louisiana; Mar, Maryland; Mas, Massachusetts; Mic, Michigan; Min, Minnesota; Misp, Mississippi; Misr, Missouri; Mon, Montana; NC, North Carolina; ND, North Dakota; Neb, Nebraska; Nev, Nevada; NH, New Hampshire; NJ, New Jersey, NM, New Mexico; NY, New York; Okl, Oklahoma; Ore, Oregon; Pen, Pennsylvania; RI, Rhodes Island; SC, South Carolina; SD, South Dakota; Ten, Tennessee; Ver, Vermont; Vir, Virginia; Was, Washington; Wis, Wisconsin; WV, West Virginia; Wyo, Wyoming.

28-Jun-2004 Dr B R Pitkin