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Distribution of Afrotropical Kite Swallowtails

References and links

We have organised this page into three sections: people, organisations and other references.


Dick Vane-Wright is the Keeper of the Department of Entomology, responsible for over 100 people who work there and the National Collection of more than 28 million specimens of insects and related arthropods.

Campbell R. Smith is a staff entomologist carrying out research on the butterflies, in collaboration with Dick.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition. 824 pp. Holmiae.
Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) was a Swedish biologist (principally a botanist) who is considered to be the father of modern taxonomy. He was the first scientist to apply a binominal system of a generic and specific name to an organism, limiting the use of that name to just one species and linking it to a description intended to be sufficient to identify it with accuracy. Zoologists date the starting point for modern nomenclature to the 10th edition of Linnaeus's Systema naturae, published in 1758. All names from before that date are considered invalid and so the oldest accepted names are those employed by Linnaeus in his great work.
Naming animals and plants was far from being Linnaeus's only achievement, as a visit to the brief biography on the Linnean Society website will show.

Wallace, A.R. 1865. On the phenomena of variation and geographical distribution as illustrated by the Papilionidae of the Malayan region. Transactions of the Linnean Society 25: 1-71.
Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) was one of THE great nineteenth century naturalists. He collected extensively in South America (with his friend Henry Walter Bates) and the Indonesian Archipelago and developed a theory of evolution by natural selection at the same time as Charles Darwin was finishing his own. It was possibly correspondence with Wallace that prompted Darwin to 'rush' into print with On the origin of species. Papers on the subject by each of them were read at the Linnean Society in 1858. Much more about Wallace can be found at the The Alfred Russel Wallace Page.
Henry Walter Bates (1825-1892) was another of the constellation of nineteenth century British naturalists. He collected in South America together with Wallace and wrote the book The naturalist on the Amazons based on his experiences. Bates was an early convert to the belief in evolution by natural selection and used his experience of observing and collecting butterflies to formulate a theory of mimicry of one species by another as a result of evolution.


GBIF logoGBIF. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility is intended to be 'an interoperable network of biodiversity databases and information technology tools that will enable users to navigate and put to use the world's vast quantities of biodiversity information to produce national economic, environmental and social benefits.'

GloBIS logoGloBIS. The Global Butterfly Information System, which is in its infancy, aims to gather as much as is currently known of the taxonomic, distributional, bibliographic and ecological information about butterflies, to make that information available, mainly on the Web. The intention is to keep the information up to date by encouraging feedback from users of the lists who may be able to add new data or correct what's wrong.

GART logoGART. Globales Artregister Tagfalter (Global Butterfly Species Register) is a German based and German funded programme that has already posted on the Web a checklist of the world's swallowtails. It is effectively a component part of GloBIS. By collaborating extensively with members of the GART team, we have been able to provide them with up-to-date information on Afrotropical Graphium.
'The aim of the GART project is to provide access to general information about butterflies on the basis of a global taxonomic catalogue.'

I.C.Z.N. logoICZN 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th Edition). xxx + 306pp. ITZN, London. The Code is published by The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), 'the official body responsible for providing and regulating the system for ensuring that every animal has a unique and universally accepted scientific name.'

The Willi Hennig Society is dedicated to the advancement and promotion of systematic biology using cladistics. It is named in honour of the German entomologist Willi Hennig (1913-1976), often considered to be the first major proponent of the principles of the method. The Willi Hennig Society website includes a brief biography of Hennig and links to a brief explanation of the principles of cladistics. The society publishes the journal Cladistics.

Other references

Ackery P.R. 1984. Systematic and faunistic studies on butterflies. In Vane-Wright, R.I. and Ackery, P.R. (Eds) The biology of butterflies. Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London, No 11: 9-21 [see also Princeton paperback edition, 1989].

Ackery, P.R., Smith, C.R. & Vane-Wright, R.I. 1995. Carcasson's African butterflies: an annotated catalogue of the Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea of the afrotropical region. xii + 803 pp. CSIRO Publications, Melbourne.

Braby M.F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia : their identification, biology and distribution. Vol. 1: xx 1-458; Vol. 2: vii + 459-976. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Bridges, C.A. 1988a. Catalogue of family-group and genus-group names. Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera. 2nd ed. vi, [various paginations]. Charles A. Bridges, Urbana, Ill.

Bridges, C.A. 1988b. Catalogue of Papilionidae & Pieridae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). 721p. in various paginations. Urbana, Ill. Charles. A. Bridges.

Bryk, F. 1929. Papilionidae I (Lamproptera, Cressida, Euryades, Troides). In Strand, E. (Ed.) Lepidopterorum Catalogus (35): 1-55. Junk, Berlin.

Carcasson, R.H. 1981. Collins handguide to the butterflies of Africa, xix + 188 pp. (including 100 colour plates). Collins, London.

Collins, N.M. & Morris, M.G. 1985. Threatened swallowtail butterflies of the world. The IUCN red data book. viii + 403 pp. + 8 pls. IUCN, Gland.

Cramer, P. [1775-1776]. De Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waereld-deelen Asia, Africa en America 1: 2 frontispieces, [vi] + xxx + 16 + 155 pp., pls 1-96. Amsteldam & Utrecht.

DeVries, P.J. 1987. The butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history. Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae. xxii + 327pp., 50pls. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Eliot, J.N. 1992. [Ed.] Corbet A.S. & Pendlebury H.M. The butterflies of the malay peninsula. 4th ed. x + 595 + [69] pp., 69pp. of plates (some col.). Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.

Felsenstein, J. 1978. The number of evolutionary trees. Systematic Zoology 27: 27-33.

Ford, E.B. 1944a. Studies on the chemistry of pigments in the Lepidoptera, with reference to their bearing on systematics. 3. The red pigments of the Papilionidae. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 19: 92-106.

Ford, E.B. 1944b. Studies on the chemistry of pigments in the Lepidoptera, with reference to their bearing on systematics. 4. The classification of the Papilionidae. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 94(2): 201-223.

Gee, H. 2000. Deep time: cladistics, the revolution in evolution. 262 pp. Fourth Estate, London.

Goloboff, P. 1994. NONA: A tree searching program. Program and documentation available at the Willi Hennig Society.

Gray, G.R. 1832. In Griffith, E. [Ed.] The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization by the Baron Cuvier. 15 Class Insecta. 2. 796 pp. Whittaker, Treacher, and Co., London.

Hancock, D.L. 1983. Classification of the Papilionidae (Lepidoptera): a phylogenetic approach. Smithersia 2: 1-48.

Hemming, F. 1933. On the types of certain butterfly genera. The Entomologist 66: 196-200.

Igarashi, S. 1984. The classification of the Papilionidae mainly based on the morphology of their immature stages. Tyô to Ga 34: 41-96.

Kirby, W.F. 1896. Handbook to the order Lepidoptera. Part 1, Butterflies 2. xvi + 332 pp., 68 pls. In Allen's Naturalist's Library. W.H. Allen, London.

Kitching, I.J., Forey, P.F., Humphries, C.J. & Williams, D.M., 1998. Cladistics: the theory and practice of parsimony analysis. 2nd Edition. Systematics Association publication no. 11. xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Miller, J.S. 1987. Phylogenetic studies in the Papilioninae (Lepidoptera: Papilioninae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 186(4): 365-512.

Munroe, E. 1961. The classification of the Papilionidae (Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist (Suppl. 17): 51 pp.

Nixon, K.C. 1999. Winclada (BETA) ver. 0.9.9 published by the author. Ithaca, NY. Available as a download from

Pennington, K.M. 1994. Pennington's butterflies of southern Africa. 2nd Edition. [Eds Pringle, E.L.L., Henning, G.A. & Ball, J.B.; Revised Henning, G.A., Pringle, E.L.L. & Ball, J.B.]. 800pp., inc. 210pls & 1 map. Struik Winchester, Cape Town.

Popper, K.R. 1972. Objective knowledge. x + 380 pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Saigusa, T., Nakanishi, H.S., Shima, H. & Yata, O. 1977. Phylogeny and biogeography of the subgenus Graphium Scopoli (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, Graphium). Acta Rhopalocerologica 1: 2-32. [in Japanese.]

Saigusa, T., Nakanishi, H.S., Shima, H. & Yata, O. 1983. Phylogeny and geographical distribution of the swallow-tail subgenus Graphium (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Entomologia Generalis 8: 59-69.

Scopoli, J. 1777. Introductio ad historiam naturalem sistens genera lapidum, plantarum et animalium. [viii] + 506 + [34]pp. Pragae.

Scott, J.A. 1986. The butterflies of north America : a natural history and field guide. xiii + 583pp., 64pp. of col. plates, maps. Stanford University Press, California.

Smith C. R. & Vane-Wright R.I. 2001. A review of the Afrotropical species of the genus Graphium (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera: Papilionidae). Bulletin of The Natural History Museum (Entomology Series) 70(2): 503-719.

Stephens, J. F. 1831 in 1827-1828-1835-[1845]. Illustrations of British entomology: or, a synopsis of indigenous insects: containing their generic and specific distinctions: with an account of their metamorphoses, times of appearance, localities, food, and economy. Mandibulata, Vol.1-7. - Haustellata, Vol.1-4. London.

Swainson, W. 1832 in 1832-3. Zoological Illustrations, or original figures and descriptions of new, rare or interesting animals, selected chiefly from the class of ornithology, entomology and conchology, &c. (2) 3: [ix] pp. Pls 92-136. London.

Talbot, G. 1939. Butterflies Vol.1. In Sewell, R.B.S. (Ed.) The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. xxx + 600 +5pp., 3pls, 1 map. Taylor & Francis, London.

Tyler, H.A., Brown, K.S. jr. & Wilson K.H. 1994. Swallowtail butterflies of the Americas: a study in biological dynamics, ecological diversity, biosystematics, and conservation. 376 pp. Scientific, Gainesville, Florida.

van Son, G. 1949. The butterflies of southern Africa. Part 1. Papilionidae and Pieridae. (Transvaal Museum Memoir No.3). vi + 237 pp., 41pls. Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.