Nematocera are the most primitive Diptera and include crane-flies, mosquitoes, sandflies and various types of midges.
The distinguishing features of Nematocera are:
Many Nematocera are slender and long-legged, such as crane-flies and the various groups of midges.
A few Nematocera groups have biting, blood-sucking adult females, and a small number of these transmit pathogenic micro-organisms to humans or farm animals when they bite.
These groups include:
The females require blood meals as a source of protein for egg production. The males do not bite.
Gall midge in Baltic amber
The Nematocera larval stage can occur in:
Gall midges larvae are either:
Some of the phytophagous species are agricultural pests.