Molluscs (Mollusca)

Molluscs are represented in a large number of historical marine collections that could be of use for ocean acidification research.

At the Natural History Museum they can be found in the:

  • Chagos Islands coral collections
  • Discovery collections
  • HMS Challenger collection

Relevant collections at other institutions:

  • Bangor University, Wales, has a specific Arctica islandica collection.
  • Dry Invertebrate Store at the Zoology Museum, University of Cambridge - the MacAndrew Collection in particular.
  • Mollusca collection at the National Museum of Wales.
  • National Museums Scotland has a few relevant recent survey collections - Shelagh Smith Collection, Antarctic cephalopods and the AC Stephen Cephalopod Collection.
Heliopora coerulea, blue coral
Chagos Islands coral collections

The Chagos archipelago lacks overfishing and pollution, making it potentially suitable for use as a global reference baseline for monitoring the impact of ocean acidification on local biota. Although this is predominantly a coral collection, some other taxa are included. Find out more.


Formalin-preserved specimens from the extensive Antarctic Discovery expedition collections
Discovery collections

The Discovery collections originate from a number of different expeditions that took place from 1901-1999. The collection of pteropods may be of particular importance for ocean acidification research, and there are a wide variety of other marine specimens as well as ocean bottom deposits and residues. Learn more.


Engraved view of HMS Challenger (1872-1876)
HMS Challenger collection

Scientists on the 1872-76 HMS Challenger expedition collected a vast amount of natural history material from around the globe, which is accompanied by extensive taxonomic and summary reports. Get information about the Challenger collections housed at the Natural History Museum.


Arctica islandica clam shells
School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Wales

Thanks to its longevity, the large clam Arctica islandica can be useful for studying modern and ancient ocean environments. Get information about Bangor University’s Arctica islandica collection.


An ostracod
Dry Invertebrate Store taxa

See a summary of what can be found in the Dry Invertebrate Store.


A long-necked clam
MacAndrew Collection

Find out detailed information about Robert MacAndrew's mollusc collection, which dates from the mid-19th century.


Part of the National Museum of Wales mollusc collection
Mollusca collection

Of the collections at the National Museum Wales, this is probably the most useful for ocean acidification research. It includes material from the HMS Challenger voyage, as well as the important Melvill-Tomlin Collection. Learn more.


Dried molluscs from the Shelagh Smith Collection at the National Museum of Scotland
Recent survey collections

National Museums Scotland has nine recent survey collections that could be useful for ocean acidification research. Find out more.