Prof Phil Rainbow DSc

Professor Phillip Rainbow
  • Head of Life Sciences Department
  • Life Sciences department
  • Department Operations Team
Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road
London
SW7 5BD

Career History

Employment history

1975 - 1989        Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London - Lecturer

1989 - 1994        Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London - Reader

1994 - 1997        Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London - Professor of Marine
                              Biology

1995 - 1997        Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London - Head of School of
                              Biological Sciences

1997 - present   Natural History Museum - Keeper of Zoology

2011                     Natural History Museum - Interim Director of Science

2012 -  present  Natural History Museum – Head of Department of Life Sciences

 

1995 - present   The Swire Institute of Marine Science, University of Hong Kong - Research
                               Fellow

1997 - present   Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London - Visiting Professor

2003 - 2009         DEFRA - Darwin Initiative Advisory Committee

Qualifications

1972   University of Cambridge - BA (Hons)

1975   University of Wales, Bangor - PhD

1994   University of Wales - DSc

Awards

2002   The Mellanby Review Award, Environmental Pollution (2002)

Research

Interests

  • The biology of essential and non-essential trace metals in estuarine and marine crustaceans, particularly with respect to the significance of body concentrations of toxic metals, phylogeny and ecology, uptake mechanisms, biodynamic modelling of accumulation and detoxification via metaliferous granules and metallothioneins.
  • The biomonitoring of trace metals in aquatic environments.
  • The ecotoxicology of metaliferous nanoparticles.
  • The biology of barnacles.
  • The biology of chinese mitten crabs

 

Project: Biodynamic modelling and the significance of trace metal concentrations in invertebrates

Department of Life Sciences: P S Rainbow, B D Smith, S N Luoma, J Kalman

External collaborators: J-C Amiard, C Amiard-Triquet, (both University of Nantes, France), M Bennet-Chambers (Curtin University, W Australia), C Casado-Martinez (Eawag, Lausanne, Switzerland), W Maher (Canberra, Australia), W-X Wang (HKUST, Hong Kong).

Objectives: Different aquatic organisms have very different accumulated metal concentrations. The application of biodynamic modelling and an understanding of the processes and kinetics of detoxification are key to understanding the ecophysiology and ecotoxicology of trace metals. Subject organisms include polychaete worms (Nereis diversicolor, Arenicola marina), bivalve molluscs (Scrobicularia plana), barnacles and decapod crustaceans (crayfish).

 

Project: Trophic transfer of trace metals along marine and estuarine food chains

Department of Life Sciences: P S Rainbow, B D Smith, S N Luoma.

External collaborator: W-X Wang (HKUST, Hong Kong)

Objectives: It has only recently been recognised that the uptake of trace metals from the diet represents an ecotoxicologically significant route for the entry of metals into coastal animals. We are seeking explanation of the fundamental principles that control the dietary availability of metals in food to carnivores feeding on invertebrate prey.

 

Project: Biomonitoring of trace metal contamination in aquatic environments

Department of Life Sciences: P S Rainbow, B D Smith, S N Luoma.

External collaborators: W Fialkowski, Z Awrahman (both Jagellonian University, Poland), A Hildrew (Queen Mary London), I Marsden (University of Canterbury, New Zealand).

Objectives: Biomonitoring is the most direct and meaningful method of measuring temporal and spatial variation in trace metal bioavailabilities to aquatic organisms, in effect of monitoring trace metal pollution. We are developing a suite of cosmopolitan biomonitors of known biology to decipher the different sources of bioavailable toxic metals to aquatic organisms, with case studies in the Baltic Sea, Brazil, Montana (USA), New Zealand, Silesia (Poland) and SW England. We are also pioneering the use of accumulated metal concentrations in selected biomonitors as correlates of biomarkers in metal-sensitive species, using the caddis flies Hydropsyche and Plectrocnemia in mine waste-affected streams in Europe.

 

Project: Reactivity and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles: risks to the aquatic environment

Department of Life Sciences: P S Rainbow, F Khan, B D Smith, S N Luoma.

External collaborators: E Valsami-Jones (Birmingham), T Tetley (Imperial College London), V Forbes (Roskilde, Denmark), C Mouneyrac (Angers, France), M Romeo (Nice, France), M Cajaraville (Bilbao, Spain), L Migliore (Pisa, Italy).

Objectives: Commercially engineered nanoparticles containing toxic metals are on the market and therefore entering aquatic environments, with unknown potential ecotoxicological consequences. We are part of a multidisciplinary international team, making and assessing the ecotoxicity of well-defined nanoparticles. Our objective is to understand the mechanisms and degree of uptake, accumulation and toxicity of metaliferous nanoparticles by model aquatic invertebrates, and thereby assess the hazard potential of these nanoparticles in aquatic environments.

 

Research Staff

  • Professor Phil Rainbow
  • Dr Sam Luoma (Scientific Associate)
  • Brian Smith
  • Dr Farhan Khan (Postdoctoral Researcher)
  • Dr Judit Kalman (Marie Curie Research Fellow)

 

Sam Luoma and Phil Rainbow in Restronguet Creek

Sam Luoma and Phil Rainbow in Restronguet Creek

Brian Smith in the Blackwater Estuary

Brian Smith in the Blackwater Estuary.

 
Scrobicularia plana in the Gannel Estuary

Scrobicularia plana in the Gannel Estuary

Publications

Recent publications

Books

D.J.H. Phillips and P.S. Rainbow (1994). Biomonitoring of Trace Aquatic Contaminants. (2nd edition). Chapman and Hall, London. 371 pp.

S.N. Luoma and P.S. Rainbow (2008). Metal Contamination in Aquatic Environments: Science and Lateral Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Metal Contamination in Aquatic Environments

Metal Contamination in Aquatic Environments

 

C. Amiard-Triquet and P.S. Rainbow (eds.) (2009) Environmental Assessment of Estuarine Ecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. 355pp.

 C. Amiard-Triquet, P.S. Rainbow and M. Roméo (eds.) (2011) Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants. Taylor and Francis Books, Boca Raton, FL, USA. 446pp.

C. Amiard-Triquet, J.-C. Amiard and P.S. Rainbow (eds.) (2012) Ecological Biomarkers: Indicators of Ecotoxicological Effects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Reviews

P.S. Rainbow (2002). Trace metal concentrations in aquatic invertebrates: why and so what? Environ. Pollut. 120, 497-507.

I.D. Marsden and P.S. Rainbow (2004). Does the accumulation of trace metals in crustaceans affect their ecology – the amphipod example? J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 300, 343-371.

S.N. Luoma and P.S. Rainbow (2005). Why is metal bioaccumulation so variable? Biodynamics as a unifying concept. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 1921-1931.

W.-X. Wang and P.S. Rainbow (2005). Influence of pre-exposure on trace metal uptake in marine invertebrates. Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety 61, 145-159.

J.-C. Amiard, C. Amiard-Triquet, S. Barka, J. Pellerin and P.S. Rainbow (2006). Metallothioneins in aquatic invertebrates: their role in metal detoxification and their use as biomarkers. Aquat. Toxicol. 76, 160-202.

W.-X. Wang and P.S. Rainbow (2006). Subcellular partitioning and the prediction of cadmium toxicity to aquatic organisms. Env. Chem. 3, 395-399.

P.S. Rainbow (2006). Biomonitoring of trace metals in estuarine and marine environments. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology 12, 107-122.

P.S. Rainbow (2007). Trace metal bioaccumulation: models, metabolic availability and toxicity. Environment International 33, 576-582.

W.-X. Wang and P.S. Rainbow (2008). Comparative approaches to understand metal bioaccumulation in aquatic animals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C 148, 315-323.

W.-X. Wang and P.S. Rainbow (2010). Significance of metallothioneins in metal accumulation kinetics in marine animals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C 152, 1-8.

S.N. Luoma and P.S. Rainbow (2010). Linking new science frontiers in metal ecotoxicology to better risk management: lateral thinking. In 'Surface Chemistry, Bioavailability and Metal Homeostasis in Aquatic Organisms: An integrated approach' (eds. N.R. Bury and R.D. Handy), Essential reviews in Experimental Biology, vol. 2, Society for Experimental Biology (SEB) London, UK, pp. 1 - 28.

W.J. Adams, R. Blust, U. Borgmann, K.V. Brix, D.K. DeForest, A.S. Green, J. Meyer, J.C. McGeer, P. Paquin, P.S. Rainbow and C. Wood (2010). Utility of tissue residues for predicting effects of metals on aquatic organisms. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 7, 75 - 98.

 

Biodynamic modelling and the significance of bioaccumulated trace metal concentrations

P.S. Rainbow, G. Blackmore and W.X. Wang (2003). Effects of previous field exposure history on the uptake of trace metals from water and food by the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 259, 201 - 213.

T.Y.-T. Ng, P.S. Rainbow, C. Amiard-Triquet, J.C. Amiard and W.-X. Wang (2007). Metallothionein turnover, cytosolic distribution and the uptake of Cd by the green mussel Perna viridis. Aquat. Toxicol. 84, 153 - 161.

T.Y.-T. Ng, P.S. Rainbow, C. Amiard-Triquet, J.-C. Amiard and W.-X. Wang (2008). Decoupling of cadmium biokinetics and metallothionein turnover in a marine polychaete after metal exposure. Aquatic Toxicology 89, 47 - 54.

P.S. Rainbow, B.D. Smith and S.N. Luoma (2009). Differences in the trace metal bioaccumulation kinetics among populations of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor from metal-contaminated estuaries. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 376, 173 - 184.

M.C. Casado-Martinez, B.D. Smith, T.A. Del Valls and P.S. Rainbow (2009). Pathways of trace metal uptake in the lugworm Arenicola marina. Aquat. Toxicol. 92, 9-17

M.C. Casado-Martinez, B.D. Smith, T.A. Del Valls, S.N. Luoma and P.S. Rainbow (2009). Biodynamic modelling and the prediction of accumulated trace metal concentrations in the polychaete Arenicola marina. Environ. Pollut. 157, 2743 - 2750.

P.S. Rainbow, B.D. Smith and S.N. Luoma (2009). Biodynamic modelling and the prediction of Ag, Cd and Zn accumulation from solution and sediment by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 390, 145 - 155.

M.C. Casado-Martinez, B.D. Smith, S.N. Luoma and P.S. Rainbow (2010). Bioaccumulation of arsenic from water and sediment by a deposit-feeding polychaete (Arenicola marina): a biodynamic modelling approach. Aquat. Toxicol. 98, 34 - 43.

J. Kalman, B.D. Smith, I. Riba, J. Blasco and P.S. Rainbow (2010). Biodynamic modelling of the accumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn by the deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor: inter-population variability and a generalised predictive model. Mar. Environ. Res. 69, 363-373.

M.C. Casado-Martinez, B.D. Smith, S.N. Luoma and P.S. Rainbow (2010). Metal toxicity in a sediment-dwelling polychaete: threshold body concentrations or overwhelming accumulation rates? Environ. Pollut. 158, 3071-3076.

P.S. Rainbow and S.N. Luoma (2010). Trace metals in aquatic invertebrates. In 'Environmental Contaminants in Biota: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations' (eds. W.N. Beyer and J.P. Meador), Taylor and Francis Books, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 231 - 252.

P.S. Rainbow and S.N. Luoma (2010). Biodynamic parameters of the accumulation of toxic metals, detoxification and the acquisition of metal tolerance. In 'Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants' (eds. C. Amiard-Triquet, P.S. Rainbow and M. Roméo), Taylor and Francis Books, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 127 - 151.

C. Amiard-Triquet and P.S. Rainbow (2011). Tolerance and the trophic transfer of contaminants. In 'Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants' (eds. C. Amiard-Triquet, P.S. Rainbow and M. Roméo), Taylor and Francis Books, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 299 - 332.

P.S. Rainbow, B.D. Smith and M.C. Casado-Martinez (2011). Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of arsenic by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Environ. Chem. 8, 1 - 8.

P.S. Rainbow and S.N. Luoma (2011). Metal toxicity, uptake and bioaccumulation in aquatic invertebrates – modelling zinc in crustaceans. Aquat. Toxicol. 105, 455 - 465.

M.C. Casado-Martinez, E. Duncan. B.D. Smith, W. Maher and P.S. Rainbow (2012). Arsenic toxicity in a sediment-dwelling polychaete: detoxification and arsenic metabolism. Ecotoxicology 21, 576 - 590.

M.C. Casado-Martinez, B.D. Smith, P.S. Rainbow (2013). Assessing metal bioaccumulation from estuarine sediments: comparative experimental results for the polychaete Arenicola marina. J Soils Sediments 13, 429 - 440.

F. Liu, P.S. Rainbow and W.-X. Wang (2013). Inter-site differences of zinc susceptibility of the oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. Aquatic Toxicol. 132 - 133, 26 - 33.

 

Trophic transfer

W.-X. Wang and P.S. Rainbow (2000). Dietary uptake of Cd, Cr, and Zn in the barnacle Balanus trigonus: influence of diet composition. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 204, 159 - 168.

P.S. Rainbow and W.-X. Wang (2001). Comparative assimilation of Cr, Cr, Se, and Zn by the barnacle Elminius modestus from phytoplankton and zooplankton diets. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 218, 239 - 248.

P.S. Rainbow, G. Blackmore and W.X. Wang (2003). Effects of previous field exposure history on the uptake of trace metals from water and food by the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 259, 201 - 213.

P.S. Rainbow, A. Geffard, A.-Y. Jeantet, B.D. Smith, J.C. Amiard and C. Amiard-Triquet (2004). Enhanced food chain transfer of copper from a diet of copper-tolerant estuarine worms. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 271, 183 - 191.

P.S. Rainbow, T.Y.-T. Ng, D. Shi and W.-X. Wang (2004). Acute dietary pre-exposure and trace metal bioavailability to the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 311, 315 - 337.

T. Y.-T. Ng, C. Amiard-Triquet, P.S. Rainbow, J.-C. Amiard and W.-X. Wang (2005). Physico-chemical form of trace metals accumulated by phytoplankton and their assimilation by filter-feeding invertebrates. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 299, 179 - 191.

P.S. Rainbow, L. Poirier, B.D. Smith, K V. Brix and S.N. Luoma (2006). Trophic transfer of trace metals: subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 308, 91 - 100.

P.S. Rainbow, L. Poirier, B.D. Smith, K.V. Brix and S.N. Luoma (2006). Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete Nereis virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 321, 167 - 181.

P.S. Rainbow, J.-C. Amiard, C. Amiard-Triquet, M.-S. Cheung, L. Zhang, H. Zhong and W.-X. Wang (2007). Trophic transfer of trace metals: subcellular compartmentalization in bivalve prey, assimilation by a gastropod predator and in vitro digestion simulations. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 348, 125 - 138.

J.-C. Amiard, C. Amiard-Triquet, L. Charbonnier, A. Mesnil, P.S. Rainbow and W.-X. Wang (2008). Bioaccessibility of essential and non-essential metals in commercial shellfish from Western Europe and Asia. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46, 2010 - 2022.

P.S. Rainbow and B.D. Smith (2010). Trophic transfer of trace metals: subcellular compartmentalisation in bivalve prey and comparative assimilation efficiencies of two invertebrate predators. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 390, 143 - 148.

C. Amiard-Triquet and P.S. Rainbow (2010). Tolerance and the trophic transfer of contaminants. In 'Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants' (eds. C. Amiard-Triquet, P.S. Rainbow and M. Roméo), Taylor and Francis Books, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 299 - 332.

P.S. Rainbow, S. N. Luoma and W.-X. Wang (2011). Trophically available metal – a variable feast.  Environ. Pollut. 159, 2347 - 2349.

F. Dang, W.-X. Wang and P.S. Rainbow (2012). Unifying prolonged copper exposure, accumulation and toxicity from food and water in a marine fish. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 3465 - 3471.

F. Dang, W.-X. Wang and P.S. Rainbow (2012). Dietary toxicity of field-collected invertebrates to marine fish: Effects of metal doses and subcellular metal distribution. Aquatic Toxicology 120 - 121, 1 -10.

Biomonitoring

P.S. Rainbow and G. Blackmore (2001). Barnacles as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailabilities in Hong Kong coastal waters: changes in space and time. Mar. Env. Res. 51, 441 - 463.

P.S. Rainbow, B.D. Smith and S.S. Lau (2002). Biomonitoring of trace metal availabilities in the Thames estuary using a suite of littoral biomonitors. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 82, 793 - 799.

W. Fialkowski, M. Klonowska-Olejnik, B.D. Smith and P.S. Rainbow (2003). Mayfly larvae (Baetis rhodani and B. vernus) as biomonitors of trace metal pollution in streams of a catchment draining a zinc and lead mining area of Upper Silesia, Poland. Environ. Pollut. 121, 253 - 267

W. Fialkowski, E. Fialkowska, B.D. Smith and P.S. Rainbow (2003). Biomonitoring survey of trace metal pollution in streams of a catchment draining a zinc and lead mining area of Upper Silesia, Poland using the amphipod Gammarus fossarum. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 88, 187 - 200.

I.D. Marsden, P.S. Rainbow and B.D. Smith (2003). Trace metal concentrations in two New Zealand talitrid amphipods: effects of gender and reproductive state, and implications for biomonitoring. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 290, 93 - 113.

C.A.R. Silva, P.S. Rainbow and B.D. Smith (2003). Biomonitoring of trace metal contamination in mangrove-lined Brazilian coastal systems using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae: comparative study of regions affected by oil, salt pond and shrimp farming activities. Hydrobiologia 501, 199 - 206.

P.S. Rainbow, W. Fialkowsk, M. Wolowicz, B.D.Smith and A. Sokolowski (2004). Geographical and seasonal variation of trace metal bioavailabilities in the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland using mussels (Mytilus trossulus) and barnacles (Balanus improvisus) as biomonitors. Mar. Biol. 144, 271 - 286.

C.A.R. Slva, B.D. Smith and P.S. Rainbow (2006). Comparative biomonitors of coastal trace metal contamination in tropical South America (N. Brazil). Mar. Env. Res. 61, 439 - 455.

W. Fialkowski and P.S. Rainbow (2006). The discriminatory power of two biomonitors of trace metal bioavailabilities in freshwater streams. Wat. Res. 40, 1805 - 1810.

P.S. Rainbow (2006). Biomonitoring of trace metals in estuarine and marine environments. Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology 12, 107 - 122.

W. Fialkowski, P. Calosi, S. Dahlke, A. Dietrich, P.G. Moore, S. Olenin, L.­E. Persson, B.D. Smith, M. Špegys and P.S. Rainbow (2009). The sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) as a biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities in European coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 58, 39-44.

S.N. Luoma, D.J. Cain and P.S. Rainbow (2010). Calibrating biomonitors to ecological disturbance: a new technique for deciphering metal effects in natural waters. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 6, 199 - 209.

P.S. Rainbow & S.N. Luoma (2010). The legacy lies in the sediment. Learned Discourse. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6: 505 - 506.

P.S. Rainbow, S. Kriefman, B.D. Smith and S.N. Luoma (2011). Have the bioavailailities of trace metals to a suite of biomonitors changed over three decades in SW England estuaries historically affected by mining? Sci. Total Environ. 409, 1589 - 1602.

 P.S. Rainbow, A.G. Hildrew, B.D. Smith, T. Geatches and S.N. Luoma (2012). Caddisflies as biomonitors identifying thresholds of toxic metal bioavailability that affect the stream benthos. Environmental Pollution 166, 196-207.

T.K. Collier, M.W.L. Chiang, D.W.T. Au and P.S. Rainbow (2012). Biomarkers currently used in environmental monitoring. Chapter 15 in Ecological Biomarkers: Indicators of Ecotoxicological Effects (eds. C. Amiard-Triquet, J.-C. Amiard and P.S. Rainbow), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

C. Amiard-Triquet, J.-C. Amiard and P.S. Rainbow (2012). Conclusions. Biomarkers in environmental risk assessment. Chapter 16 in Ecological Biomarkers: Indicators of Ecotoxicological Effects (eds. C. Amiard-Triquet, J.-C. Amiard and P.S. Rainbow), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

 

Uptake: physicochemistry vs physiology

P.S. Rainbow, C. Amiard-Triquet, J.C. Amiard, B.D. Smith, S.L. Best, Y. Nassiri and W.J. Langston (1999). Trace metal uptake rates in crustaceans (amphipods and crabs) from coastal sites in NW Europe differentially enriched with trace metals.  Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 183, 189-203.

P.S. Rainbow, C. Amiard-Triquet, J.C. Amiard, B.D. Smith and W.J. Langston (2000). Observations on the interaction of zinc and cadmium uptake rates in crustaceans (amphipods and crabs) differentially enriched with trace metals. Aquatic Toxicol. 50, 189-204.

P.S. Rainbow and W.H. Black (2001). Effects of changes in salinity on the apparent water permeability of three crab species: Carcinus maenas, Eriocheir sinensis and Necora puber. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 264, 1-13.

P.S. Rainbow and W.H. Black (2002). Effects of changes in salinity and osmolality on the rate of uptake of zinc by three crabs of different ecologies. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 244, 205-217.

P.S. Rainbow and W.H. Black (2005). Physicochemistry or physiology: cadmium uptake and the effects of salinity and osmolality in three crabs of different ecologies. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 286, 217-229.

P.S. Rainbow and W.H. Black (2005). Cadmium, zinc and the uptake of calcium by two crabs, Carcinus maenas and Eriocheir sinensis. Aquatic Toxicol. 72, 45-65.

 

Nanoparticles

J. García-Alonso, F.R. Khan, S.K. Misra, M. Turmaine, B.D. Smith, P.S. Rainbow, S.N. Luoma, E. Valsami-Jones (2011). Cellular internalization of silver nanoparticles in gut epithelia of the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 4630 - 4636.

F.R. Khan, J. García-Alonso, S.K. Misra, B.D. Smith, S. Strekopytov, P.S. Rainbow, S.N. Luoma and E. Valsami-Jones (2012). Bioaccumulation dynamics and modeling in an estuarine invertebrate following aqueous exposure to nanosized and dissolved silver. Environ. Sci. Technol.

 

Chinese mitten crabs

P.F. Clark, P.S. Rainbow, R.S. Robbins, B.D. Smith, W.E. Yeomans, M. Thomas and G. Dobson (1998). The alien Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) in the Thames catchment. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 78, 1215 - 1221.

P.F. Clark, D.N. Mortimer, R.J. Law, J.M. Averns, B.A. Cohen, D. Wood, M.D. Rose, A.R. Fernandes and P.S. Rainbow (2009). Dioxin and PCB contamination in Chinese mitten crabs: human consumption as a control mechanism for an invasive species. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 1624 - 1629.

M.D. Rose, P.F. Clark, P.S. Rainbow, D.N. Mortimer, J.M. Averns, F. Smith, A.R. Fernandes and S. Panton (2009). Chinese mitten crabs in European rivers: contamination with dioxins, PCBs, PBBs and PBDEs and implications for human consumption. Organohalogen Compounds 71, 901 - 904.

 

Others

P. S. Rainbow (2011). Charles Darwin and marine biology. Marine Ecology 32 (Suppl. 1), 130 - 134.

J.R. Stewart, S. Aspinall, M. Beech, P. Fenberg, P. Hellyer, N. Larkin, S.W. Lokier, F.G. Marx, M. Meyer, R. Miller, P.S. Rainbow, J.D. Taylor, J.E. Whittaker and C.J. Strohmenger (2011). Biotically constrained palaeoenvironmental conditions of a Mid-Holocene intertidal lagoon in Abu Dhabi: Evidence associated with a whale skeleton at Musaffah, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 3675 - 3690.