Dr David Williams

David Williams
  • Researcher, Diatoms
  • Life Sciences department
  • Genomics and Microbial Biodiversity Division
Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road
London
SW7 5BD

Biography

Employment

Diatom Researcher

Education

Bachelor of Science (BSc), Biochemistry (Hons.)

Master of Science (MSc), Modern Taxonomy

Dissertation: A morphological investigation of several freshwater genera of araphid disatoms (Bacillariophyta: Fragilariales) with special reference to the girdle band structure.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Dissertation: Revision of araphid diatom genera (Bacillariophyta) closely related to the genus Fragilariforma

Professional Roles

Editorial Boards

2008--Present     Biogeography & Systematics, Editor

1992--Present     European Journal of Phycology, Editorial board (microalgal systematics)

2003--Present     Systematics and Biodiversity, Editorial Board

2009--Present    University of California Press, Species & Systematics Book Series, Editorial Board

Membership of Professional Societies

British Phycological Society; International Willi Hennig Society; International Society for Diatom Research; International Society for the History Philosophy and Social Studies of Science; The Linnean Society; Society for Systematic Biology; Systematics Association

Research

Research Programme

My research focuses on three specific areas:

(1)  The phylogenetic relationships of diatoms;

(2)  Exploration of diatom distribution with respect to the Pacific Ocean;

(3)  Systematic theory, with special reference to developing greater understanding of the concept of homology for systematic and biogeographical studies across the natural science disciplines.

Its specific aims are fourfold:

(1)  To determine interrelationships among ‘araphid’ diatom lineages;

(2)  To present a new monophyletic classification for diatoms;

(3)  To investigate the origin of the major non-pennate clades (sessile diatoms) and determine their relationships to the pennate diatoms (motile diatoms);

(4)  To develop a greater understanding of homology in determining both taxon (organism) and spatial relationships.

My general interests are to further the study of homology: refine the concept, develop the view that homology is not simply the study of similarity but one of determining relationships, a concept applicable to morphology, development, molecules and geographical areas alike. In short, homology is the cornerstone of comparative biology.

Publications

Books

Ebach, M.C. & Williams, DM. In prep. Cladistics (3rd edition of Cladistics: A Practical Manual). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sims, P.A. & Williams, DM. In prep. A Handbook of Cretaceous Fossil Diatoms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Williams, DM & Ebach, MC. 2007. The Foundations of Systematics & Biogeography. Springer [Preface by Professor Gareth Nelson]

Williams, DM. & Forey, PL., (eds) 2004. Milestones in Systematics. London, Taylor & Francis.

Williams, DM & Huxley, R. (eds). 1998. Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876): The man and his legacy. Linnean Society Special Publications no. 1, London.

Kitching, IJ., Forey, P., Humphries, CJ. & Williams, DM. 1998. Cladistics: The Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2nd edition of Cladistics: A Practical Manual).

Scotland, RW., Siebert, DJ. & Williams, DM. (eds) 1994. Models in Phylogeny Reconstruction. Systematics Association Special Volume 52, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Forey, P., Humphries, CJ. Kitching, IJ., Scotland, RW., Siebert, DJ. & Williams, DM. 1992. Cladistics: A Practical Manual. Oxford University Press (paperback published 1993; Korean translation published in 1998).

Refereed papers

 

Williams, DM. 2009. The identity of Tetracyclus constrictus (Bacillariophyceae) and a description of Tetracyclus bradburyii, a new Miocene species. Annales de Paléontologie 95: 37—51. doi:10.1016/j.annpal.2008.12.003

Williams, DM. 2009. [Letter to Linnaeus] In: Systema naturae: Letters to Linnaeus (Knapp, S. & Wheeler, Q.D., eds). Linnean Society.

Toyoda, K., Tanaka, J.  & Williams, DM. 2009. A new brackish water diatom, Achnanthes secretitaeniata sp. nov. from Japan. Journal of Japanese Botany 84: 19—26.

Stachura-Suchoples, K., Williams, DM. and Jahn, R. 2009. On extinct, freshwater taxa in the genus Thalassiosira with observations on Thalassiosira species from Pliocene deposit in Oregon, U.S.A. Diatomededelingen 33: 111-113.

Karthick B., Toyoda, K., Ramachandra, TV., & Williams, DM. 2009. A note on the identity of Ceratoneis iyengarii Gonzalves & Gandhi (Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyta). Diatom Research 24: 233—236.

Williams, DM. & Reid, G. 2009. New Species in the Genus Colliculoamphora Williams & Reid with Commentary on Species Concepts in Diatom Taxonomy. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia (Eugene Stoermer Festschrift) 135: 185—200.

Williams, DM. & Ebach, MC. 2009. What, exactly, is cladistics? Re-writing the history of systematics and biogeography. Acta Biotheoretica 57: 249-268, doi:10.1007/s10441-008-9058-5.

Stachura-Suchoples. K, and Williams, DM. 2009. Description of Conticribra tricircularis, a new genus and species of Thalassiosirales, with a discussion on its relationship to other continuous cribra species of Thalassiosira Cleve (Bacillariophyta) and its freshwater origin. European Journal of Phycology 44: 477—486. DOI: 10.1080/09670260903225431

Toyoda, K, Williams, DM, Tanaka, J., & Nagumo, T. 2008. Nomenclatural problem[s] on [in] Conferva armillaris Müller (Bacillariophyta). Bulletin of the Nippon Dental University 37: 65—70.

Reid, G. & Williams, DM. 2008.The diatom slide collection and bibliography of the Reverend Richard Fraser Bastow (c. 1888—1 October 1960). Diatom Research 23: 117—128.

Williams, DM. 2008.New names for three fossil species in the genus Tetracyclus Ralfs from Shangu County, Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. Diatom Research 23: 249—253.

Williams, DM. 2008.Paleogeographic impact of a newly described ‘cruciform’ sub-group of Tetracyclus (Bacillariophyta, Diatomaceae) Micropaleontology 53: 1—9.

Reid, G. & Williams, DM. 2008.Some commentary on molecules and morphology, species and higher taxa in diatoms, with a note on the relationships of the genus Cistula Cleve. Proceedings of the 1st Central European Diatom Meeting 2007, Kusber, W.-H. & Jahn, R. (ed.), Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universität Berlin, pp. 135—138.

Ebach, MC M.C., Morrone, J.J. & Williams, DM. 2008.An Outline of the Foundations of Systematics and Biogeography. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29:21—24.

Ebach, MC, Morrone, J.J. & Williams, DM. 2008.A new cladistics of cladists. Biology and Philosophy 23: 153—156. 10.1007/s10539-007-9069-7

Tuji, A & Williams, DM. 2008.Typification and type examination of Synedra familiaris Kütz. and related taxa. Diatom 24: 25—29.

Toyoda, K., Williams, DM., Tanaka, J. and Nagumo, T. 2008.Nomenclatural problem on Conferva armillaris Müller (Bacillariophyta). Bulletin of the Nippon Dental University 37: 65—70.

Tuji, A. & Williams, DM. 2008.Examination of type material of Fragilaria mesolepta Rabenhorst and two similar, but distinct, taxa. Diatom Research 23: 503-510.

Tuji, A. & Williams, DM. 2008.Examination of types in the Fragilaria pectinalis – capitellata species complex. Proceedings of the 19th International Diatom Symposium, (A. Witkowski, ed.), pp. 125—139. Bristol: Biopress Limited.

Williams, DM. & Reid, G. 2008.The type material of Peronia fibula: morphology, systematics and relationships. Proceedings of the 19th International Diatom Symposium, (Y. Likoshway, ed.), pp. Bristol: Biopress Limited.

Williams, DM. & Ebach, MC. 2007. Heterology – The Shadows of a Shade. Cladistics 23:84—89. 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2006.00135.x

Williams, DM. 2007. Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (1807—1873). In:- Great Natural Historians (ed. R. Huxley), Thames & Hudson, Natural History Museum, pp. 261—266.

Williams, DM. 2007. Richard Owen (1804—1892). In:- Great Natural Historians (ed. R. Huxley), Thames & Hudson, Natural History Museum, pp. 255—260.

Valdecasas, AG., Williams, DM., & Wheeler, QD. 2007. ‘Integrative taxonomy’ then and now: a response to Dayrat (2005). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 93:211—216. 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00919.x

Ebach, MC., Williams, DM. & Morrone, J.J. 2007. Getting Rid of Origins. Rivista Biologia 99:500—505.

Williams, D.M. 2007. Whatever Happened To Cladistics? The Systematist 28: 19—21.

Ebach, MC. & Williams, DM. 2007. Perspectives: Zangerl and the Zeitgeist. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28:51—54.

Toyoda, K. & Williams, DM. 2007. Diatom types and herbaria. Aquabiology 169: 124—128 [In Japanese]

Williams, DM. 2007. Classification and diatom systematics: The past, the present and the future. In: Unravelling the Algae (eds Brodie, J. & Lewis, J.), CRC Press, pp. 57—91.

Williams, DM & Kociolek, JP. 2007. Pursuit of a natural classification of diatoms: History, monophyly and the rejection of paraphyletic taxa. European Journal of Phycology 42:313—319. DOI: 10.1080/09670260701419921

Williams, DM. 2007. Diatom phylogeny: Fossils, molecules and the extinction of evidence. Compte Rendu Palevol 6: 505–514. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2007.09.016

Tuji, A. & Williams, DM. 2007. Type Examination of Japanese Diatoms Described by Friedrich Meister (1913) from Lake Suwa. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, series B (Botany) 33: 69—79.

Tanimura, Y., Tsuji, A., Sakai, T., Aita, Y., Suzuki, N., Ogane, K., Young, J., Williams, DM., Lazarus, D., Breidbach, O. and Bach, T. 2006. Joint Haeckel and Ehrenberg Project – A taxonomic re-examination of the Haeckel and Ehrenberg microfossil collections as a historical and scientific legacy. Research Report of the Museum Director General’s Support Program in 2004 -2006, The National Science Museum, Tokyo, p. 1—24.

Williams, DM & Reid, G. 2006. Fossils and the Tropics, the Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyta) Expanded: The Upper Eocene fossil diatom Eunotia reedi and the Recent marine diatom Amphora reichardtiana from the Tropics. European Journal of Phycology 41: 147—154. DOI: 10.1080/09670260600628564

Tuji, A & Williams, DM. 2006. The taxonomy and distribution of Denticula kuetzingii Grunow, observed in Izu Peninsula, Japan. Memoirs of the National Science Museum 42: 7—14.

Toyoda, K., Williams, DM. Tanaka, J., Nagumo, T. 2006. Morphological investigations of the frustule, perizonium and initial valves of the freshwater species, Achnanthes crenulata Grunow (Bacillariophyceae). Phycological Research 54:173—182. 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2006.00420.x

Williams, DM. 2006. Some notes on the classification of Fragilaria, Synedra and their sub-groups. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 130: 17—34.

Williams, DM., Khursevich, GK, Fedenya, SA, & Flower, RJ. 2006. The fossil record in Lake Baikal: Comments on the diversity and duration of some benthic species, with special reference to the genus Tetracyclus. Proceedings of the 18th International Diatom Symposium, BioPress Ltd., Bristol, pp. 465—478.

Tuji, A & Williams, DM. 2006. Examination of the type material of Synedra rumpens = Fragilaria rumpens Baciallriophyceae. Phycological Research 54: 99—103. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2006.00414.x

Williams, DM. & Ebach, MC. 2006. The data matrix. Geodiversitas 28: 409—420.

Ebach, MC. & Williams, DM. 2006. Molecular systematics is not genetics. Rivista Biologia 98: 373—6.

Williams, DM. 2006. Darwin and diatoms. Science First Hand 5(10): 21. [Russian version in: Science First Hand 4(10): 39]

Williams, DM. & Reid, G. 2006. Diatom Biogeography and Water Babies: The Search for Meaning among the Protists. Diatom Research 21: 457—462.

Levkov, Z. & & Williams, DM. 2006. Two new species of Diatoma from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Macedonia. Diatom Research 21: 281—296.

Williams, DM. 2006. [2007] Ernst Haeckel and Louis Agassiz: Trees that Bite and their Geographical Dimension. In Ebach, MC & Tangey, R (editors), Biogeography in a Changing World. Pp, 1—59. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Cox, EJ. & Williams, DM. 2006. Systematics of naviculoid diatoms (Bacillariophyta): A preliminary analysis of protoplast and frustule characters for family and order level classification. Systematics & Biodiversity 4: 385—399.

Toyoda, K., Tanaka, J. & Williams, DM. 2006. Morphological note on the marine diatom Achnanthes longipes C.A. Agardh from Japanese material. Diatom 22:27—33.

Tuji, A & Williams, DM. 2006. Type examination of the freshwater centric diatom Aulacoseira pusilla (F. Meister) Tuji et Houki. Diatom 22:70—73.

Ebach, MC., Williams, DM. & Morrone, J.J. 2006. Paraphyly is bad taxonomy. Taxon 55: 831—832.

Williams, DM & Reid, G. 2006. Dealing with large taxonomic groups: Diatoms species and geography. In Hodkinson TR. & Parnell JAN. (eds), Towards the Tree of Life: The Taxonomy and Systematics of Large and Species Rich Taxa. CRC Press, pp. 305—322.

Williams, DM. From Formenkreis to Progression Rule. 2006. Biogeographia 1: 3—9.

Toyoda, K., Nagumo, T., Tanaka, J. & Williams, DM. 2005. Taxonomy and fine structure of a marine diatom Achnanthes grunowii (Grunow) nom. nov. Japanese Journal of Botany 80: 1-8.

Ebach, MC, Humphries, CJ, Newman, RA, Williams, DM. & Walsh, SA. 2005. Assumption 2: opaque to intuition? Journal of Biogeography 32: 781—787.

Williams, DM. & Reid, G. 2005. The Sino-Siberian distribution of Eunotia clevei and its relatives, from Lake Baikal to the Mekon Delta: the union of taxonomy, biogeography and ecology. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 56:179—187.

Williams, DM. & Reid, G. 2005. Amphorotia nov. gen., a new genus in the family Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae), based on Eunotia clevei Grunow in Cleve et Grunow. Diatom Monographs, 6, 150pp, 21 pls, 5 figs.

Toyoda, K., Cox, EJ., Sims, PA., & Williams, DM. 2005. The typification of Achnanthes Bory based on Echinella stipitata Lyngbye, with an account of the morphology and fine structure of Lyngbye’s species. Diatom Research 20:375—386.

Williams, DM. & Ebach, MC. 2005. Drowning by Numbers: A new view on numerical phylogenetics. Botanical Reviews 71:355—387.

Williams, DM, Ebach, MC, Wheeler, Q. 2005. 150 reasons for paraphyly: A response. Taxon 54: 858.

Tuji, A & Williams, DM. 2005. Typification of Conferva pectinalis O.F.Müll. (Bacillariophyceae) and the identity of the type of an alleged synonym, Fragilaria capucina Desm. Taxon 55: 193—199.

Tuji, A & Williams, DM. 2005. The identity of Cyclotella glomerata Bachmann and Discostella nipponica (Skvortzov) Tuji et Williams comb. et stat. nov. (Bacillariophyceae) from Lake Kizaki, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, series B (Botany), 32: 9—14.

Tuji, A & Williams, DM. 2005. Type examination of Cyclotella wortereckii Hust. with special attention to the position of its rimoportula. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, series B (Botany) 32: 15—17.

Tuji, A. & Williams, DM. 2005. Observation of the type materials for Eunotia pectinalis (Kuetz.) Rabenh. var. pectinalis and Eunotia pectinalis var. undulata (Ralfs) Rabenh. Diatom 21: 57—60.

Williams, DM. & Humphries, CJ. 2004. Homology and character evolution. In:- T.              Stuessy, E. Hörandl and V. Mayer (eds) Deep Morphology: Toward a Renaissance of Morphology in Plant Systematics. Koeltz, Königstein, pp. 119-130.

Williams, DM. 2004. The type material of Tetracyclus japonicus (Petit) Temp. & H. Perag. and Tetracyclus eckhardii Ehrenb. (Bacillariophyceae). Cryptogamie Algologie 24:333-340.

Williams, DM. & Reid, G. 2004. Origin and diversity of the diatom genus Eunotia in Lake Baikal: Some preliminary considerations. In:- Long Continental Records From Lake Baikal, (Kashiwaya, K. ed.), pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 259-269.

Ebach, MC., Humphries, CJ. & Williams, DM. 2004. Phylogenetic biogeography deconstructed. Journal of Biogeography 30:1285-1296.

Nelson, GJ., Williams, DM. & Ebach, MC. 2004. A Question of Conflict: Three Item and Standard Parsimony Compared. Systematics & Biodiversity 1: 145-149.

Ebach, MC. & Williams, DM. 2004. Congruence and language. Taxon 53:113-118.

Williams, DM. & Ebach, MC. 2004. The Reform of palaeontology and the rise of biogeography – 25 Years after ‘Ontogeny, Phylogeny, Paleontology and the Biogenetic law’ (Nelson 1978). Journal of Biogeography 31:685-712 [special paper, with cover illustration].

Williams, DM.  2004. On diatom endemism and biogeography: Tetracyclus and Lake Baikal Endemic Species. Proceedings of the 17th International Diatom Symposium, BioPress Ltd, pp. 433-459.

Flower, RJ., Pomazkina, G., Radionova, E., & Williams, DM. 2004. Benthic diatoms from Lake Baikal: Assessing and recording local and meso-scale patterns in species diversity. Proceedings of the 17th International Diatom Symposium, BioPress Ltd, pp. 69-92.

Forey, PL. & Williams, DM. 2004. Introduction. In Williams, DM. & Forey, PL., editors, Milestones in Systematics. London: Taylor & Francis, pp. v-viii.

Williams, DM. 2004. Homology and Homologues, Cladistics and Phenetics: 150 Years of Progress. In Williams, DM. & Forey, PL., editors, Milestones in Systematics. London: Taylor & Francis, pp. 191-224.

Ebach, MC. & Williams, DM. 2004. Classification. Taxon 53:791-794.

Williams, DM. 2004. Supertrees, Components and Three-item Data. In:- Supertrees and their uses (ed. by Olaf Bininda-Emonds). Kluwer Press, pp. 389-408.

Toyoda, K., Williams, DM. 2004. Description of Achnanthes Bory (Bacillariopheceae) based on Kützing’s type slides and materials 1: New morphological information on Achnanthes brevipes var. intermedia (Kützing) Cleve. Diatom 20: 159-65.

Williams, DM. & Metzeltin, D. 2004. A new species of Synedra Ehrenb. with comments on auxospore and initial cell morphology. Diatom 20: 57-66.

Reid, G. & Williams, DM. 2003. Systematics of the genus Gyrosigma (Bacillariophyta) including a description of three new species. Phycological Research 51:126-142.

Williams, DM. & Humphries, CJ. 2003. Component coding, three-item coding and consensus methods. Systematic Biology 52: 255-259.

Ebach, MC, Newman, RA, Humphries, CJ & Williams, DM. 2003. The Biogeographers’ Guide to 3item: Three-item Analysis for Area Cladistics. The Natural History Museum, London [Software and Manual. Updated 2005].

Williams, DM., Reid, G., Flower, R., & Votyakova, NE. 2002. A new fossil species of Tetracyclus (Bacillariophyceae) from the Miocene deposit of Tunka Ridge, Lake Baikal, Siberia, Russia. Diatom Research 17:437-443.

Reid, G. & Williams, DM. 2002. The marine diatom genus Climaconeis (Berkeleyaceae: Bacillariophyta): Two new species from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirate. Diatom Research 17:309-318.

Williams, DM. 2002. Precision and parsimony. Taxon 51:143-149.

Williams, DM. & Reid, G. 2002. The diatom type slides and bibliography of John Carter (1908-1993). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Botany) 32:137-151.

Poulin, M. &Williams, DM. 2002. Conservation of diatom biodiversity: A perspective. Proceedings of the 15th International Diatom Symposium, BioPress Ltd, pp. 161-171.

Reid, G.  & Williams, DM. 2002. On Eunotia clevei var. hispida Skvortzov from Lake Baikal. p. 89-106. Proceedings of the 16th International Diatom Symposium, University of Athens, Greece, pp. 89-106.

Kitching, IJ., Forey, PL. & Williams, DM. 2001. Cladistics. In:- Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, volume 1, A-C, Academic Press, pp. 677-692.

Williams, DM. & Reid, G. 2001. A bibliography of the botanical work of Boris V. Skvortzov (1896-1980) with commentary on the publications concerning diatoms (Bacillariophyta). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Botany) 31: 89-106.

Williams, DM. 2001. Comments on the structure of ‘post-auxospore’ valves of Fragilariforma virescens. Lange–Bertalot–Festschrift, Studies on diatoms (Jahn, R., Kociolek, JP., Witkowksi, A. & Compere, P., eds): 103-117.

Williams, DM & Siebert, DJ. 2000. Characters, homology and three-item statement analysis. In: Homology and Systematics (RW Scotland & T. Pennington, eds), Chapman & Hall. pp. 183-208.

Cox, EJ & Williams, DM. 2000. Systematics of naviculoid diatoms: the interrelationships of some taxa with a stauros. European Journal of Phycology 35: 273-282.

Flower, RJ. & Williams, DM. 1999. The Natural History Museum 1999 meeting on the biodiversity of Lake Baikal and a workshop on the taxonomy of Lake Baikal diatoms: A combined Report. Research Report no. 62, Environmental Change Research Centre, University of London. 26 pp.

Williams, DM & Huxley, R. 1998. Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876): Introduction. In: Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876): The man and his legacy (Williams, DM & Huxley, R, eds), Linnean Society Special Publications no. 1, pp. 1-13.

Williams, DM, Huxley, R., & Ross, R. 1998. Unravelling Ehrenberg’s names: Applying the past to the present. In: Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876): The man and his legacy (Williams, DM & Huxley, R, eds), Linnean Society Special Publications no. 1, 49-62.

Siebert, DJ. & Williams, DM. 1998. [1999]. Recycled. Cladistics 14: 339-347.

Karpov, SA., Kersanach, R. & Williams, DM. 1998. Ultrastructure and 18s rRNA gene sequence of a small heterotrophic flagellate Siluania monomastiga gen. et sp. nov. (Bicosecida).  European Journal of Protistology 34: 415-425.

Williams DM. 1997. Notes on the diatom species Tetracyclus castellum (Ehrenb.) Grunow with a description of Tetracyclus pseudocastellum nov. sp. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 27: 1-5.

Kociolek JP, Rhode K, & Williams DM. 1997. Taxonomy, ultrastructure and biogeography of the Actinella punctata complex (Bacillariophyta: Eunotiaceae). Nova Hedwigia 65: 177-193.

Platnick, NI., Humphries CJ., Nelson, GJ. & Williams, DM. 1996. [1997]. Is Farris optimization perfect? Cladistics 12: 243-252.

Williams, DM. 1996. Notes on the genus Fragilariforma (Fragilariophyceae: Bacillariophyta) with a description of a new Miocene fossil species, Fragilariforma platensis. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 112: 283-288.

Williams DM. 1996. Fossil species of the diatom genus Tetracyclus (Bacillariophyta, ‘ellipticus’ species group): Morphology, interrelationships and the relevance of ontogeny. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, series B, 351: 1759-1782.

Williams, DM., Scotland, RW., Humphries, CJ. & Siebert, DJ. 1996. Confusion in philosophy: A comment on Williams (1992). Synthese 108: 127-136.

Williams, DM. & Embley, TM. 1996. Microbial Diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27: 569-595.

Williams, DM. 1996. Characters and cladograms. Taxon 45: 275-283.

Reid, G., Huxley, R. & Williams, DM. 1995.Preliminary efforts towards a diatom type catalogue with an example from Fragilariforma virescens. Proceedings of the 13th International Diatom Symposium, BioPress Ltd, pp. 423-429.

Williams, DM. 1995.Diatom Biogeography: Some preliminary considerations. Proceedings of the 13th International Diatom Symposium, BioPress Ltd, pp. 311-319.

Embley, TM., Hirt, RP. & Williams, DM. 1994. Biodiversity at the molecular level: the domains, kingdoms and phyla of life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 345: 21-33.

Williams, DM. 1994. Ontogeny and phylogeny in the genus Tetracyclus. Memoirs of the California Academy of Science 17: 247-256.

Williams, DM. & Round, FE. 1994. Systematics and Science: the role of authority. Nova Hedwigia 59: 219-223.

Williams, DM. 1994. Combining trees and combining data. Taxon 43: 449-453.

Medlin, LK., Williams, DM. & Sims, PA. 1993. The evolution of the diatoms (Bacillariophyta). I. Origin of the group and assessment of the monophyly of its major divisions. European Journal of Phycology 28: 261-275.

Patterson, C., Williams, DM. & Humphries, CJ. 1993. Congruence between molecular and morphological phylogenies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 24: 153-188.

Scotland, RW. & Williams, DM. 1993. Multistate characters and cladograms: When are two stamens more similar to three stamens than four? A reply to Lipscomb. Cladistics 9: 343-350.

Williams, DM. 1993. Diatom nomenclature and the future of taxonomic database studies. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 106: 21-31.

Williams, DM. 1993. A note on molecular homology: Multiple patterns from single datasets. Cladistics 9: 233-245.

Williams, DM. 1993. Hustedt’s study of the diatom species Tetracyclus ellipticus: Why history is not just a chronicle of events. Hydrobiologia 269/270: 21-30.

Round, FE. & Williams, DM. 1992. The generic status of some araphid diatom genera: a reply. Nova Hedwigia 55: 485-500.

Siebert, DJ. & Williams, DM. 1992. Report on the Nucleic Acid Sequences Systematics Meeting of 23rd April, 1992. The Linnean 8: 3-7.

Williams, DM. 1992. Report for working group: Plant Taxonomic Information Systems. European Skills in Biotechnology and Genetic Resources, Exploratory meeting.

Williams, DM. 1992. Analytical techniques for systematic molecular data. Progress in Phycological Research 8: 209-249.

Williams, DM. 1992. DNA analysis Theory. In: Cladistics: A Practical Manual. Oxford University Press, pp. 89-101.

Williams, DM. 1992. DNA analysis Methods. In: Cladistics: A Practical Manual. Oxford University Press, pp. 102-123.

Navarro, Nelson R. & Williams, DM. 1991. Hyalosira tropicalis, a new tropical marine diatom. Diatom Research 6: 327-336.

Williams, DM. 1991. Phylogenetic relationships among the Chromista: A review and preliminary analysis. Cladistics 7:141-156.

Williams, DM. 1991. Cladistic methods and chromophyte phylogeny. BioSystems 25: 101-125.

Williams, DM. 1991. Fragilaria floridana Hanna: Ultrastructure of the valve and girdle and its transference to Fragilariforma Williams and Round. Ouverage dédie à Henri Germain, Koeltz, pp. 259-265.

Williams, DM., Scotland, RW. & Blackmore, S. 1990. Is there a direct ontogenetic criterion in systematics? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 39: 99-108.

Williams, DM. & Jiaying, Li. 1990. Observations on the genus Tetracyclus Ralfs (Bacillariophyta) III. Description of two new species from Chinese fossil deposits. British phycological Journal 25: 335-338.

Williams, DM. 1990. Examination of auxospore valves in Tetracyclus from fossil specimens and the establishment of their identity. Diatom Research 5: 189-194.

Williams, DM. 1990. Distrionella D. M. Williams, nov. gen. a new araphid diatom genus closely related to Diatoma Bory. Archiv für Protistenkunde 138: 171-177.

Williams, DM. 1990. Cladistic analysis of some freshwater araphid diatoms with particular reference to Diatoma and Meridion. Plant Systematics and Evolution 171: 89-97.

Kociolek, JP., Theriot, EC. & Williams, DM. 1989. Inferring diatom phylogeny: A cladistic perspective. Diatom Research 4: 289-300.

Williams, DM. 1989. Cavitatus D. M. Williams, nov. gen.: A new genus of fossil diatom (Bacillariophyta) based on Synedra jouseana Sheshukova-Poretskaya. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 58: 357-362.

Williams, DM. 1989. Publication of new and revised taxa: A guide to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclatural. Journal of Palaeolimnology 2: 55-59.

Williams, DM. 1989. Observations on the genus Tetracyclus Ralfs (Bacillariophyta) II. Morphology and taxonomy of some species from the genus Stylobiblium. British phycological Journal 24: 317-327.

Williams, DM. & Round, FE. 1988. Phylogenetic Systematics of Synedra. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Diatom Symposium, Koenigstein & Biopress Ltd, Bristol, pp. 303-315.

Williams, DM. 1988. Tabulariopsis, a new genus of marine araphid diatom, with notes on the taxonomy of Tabularia Williams et Round. Nova Hedwigia 47:247-254.

Williams, DM. 1988. An illustrated catalogue of the type specimens in the Greville diatom herbarium. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 18: 1-148.

Williams, DM., Hartley, B., Ross, R., Munro, MAR., Juggins, S. & Battarbee, RW. 1988. A coded check-list of British diatoms, Ensis Publishing, London, 74pp.

Williams, DM. & Round, FE. 1988. Fragilariforma, nom. nov., a new generic name for Neofragilaria Williams & Round. Diatom Research 3: 265-266.

Kociolek, JP. & Williams, DM. 1987. Unicell ontogeny and phylogeny: examples from the diatoms. Cladistics 3: 274-284.

Williams, DM. & Round, FE. 1987. Revision of the genus Fragilaria. Diatom Research 2: 267-288

Williams, DM. 1987. Observations on the genus Tetracyclus Ralfs (Bacillariophyta) I. Valve and girdle structure of the extant species. British phycological Journal 22: 383-399.

Hartley, B. [In collaboration with R. Ross & Williams, DM.]. 1986. A check-list of the freshwater brackish and marine diatoms of the British Isles and adjoining coastal waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, U.K. 66: 531-610.

Williams, DM. 1986. Comparative morphology of some species of Synedra with a new definition of the genus. Diatom Research 1: 131-152.

Williams, DM. 1986. Proposal to conserve the generic name Tetracyclus against Biblarium (Bacillariophyta). Taxon 35: 730-731.

Williams, DM. & Round, FE. 1986. Revision of the genus Synedra Ehrenb. Diatom Research 1: 313-339.

Williams, DM. 1985. Morphology, taxonomy and inter-relationships of the ribbed araphid diatoms from the genera Diatoma and Meridion (Diatomaceae: Bacillariophyta). Bibliotheca Diatomologica 8: 1-228. (Reviewed by DG. Mann in Phycologia, 25: 169-170, 1986 and JP. Kociolek & EC. Theriot in Phycologia, 25: 585-586, 1986).

Williams, DM. 1985. Bacillariophyta. In: DM. John & JA. Moore. Observations on the phytobenthos of the freshwater Thames. II. The floristic composition and distribution of the smaller algae using artificial surfaces. Archiv für Hydrobiologia 103: 95-96.

Williams, DM. 1982. Bacillariophyta. In: John, DM., Champ, WST & Moore, JA. The changing status of Characeae in four marl lakes in the Irish Midlands. Journal of life sciences, Royal Dublin Society 4: 67-69.