Prof Beth Okamura

Beth Okamura
  • Research Leader/ Merit Researcher
  • Life Sciences department
  • Invertebrates
Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road
London
SW7 5BD

History

Employment history

  • Merit Researcher, Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, 2009-on
  • Research Leader, Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, 2007-on
  • Visiting Professor, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading, 2007-on
  • University Professor, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading, 2005-2007
  • University Reader, School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, The University of Reading, 2001-2005
  • University Lecturer, School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, The University of Reading, 1997-2001
  • University Lecturer, School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, 1993-97
  • Departmental Demonstrator in Invertebrate Zoology, Dept. of Zoology, University of Oxford, 1988-93
  • Tutorial Fellow, Magdalen College, Oxford, 1988-93

Qualifications

  • PhD in Zoology, University of California, Berkeley 1984
  • Honours B.Sc. in Biology, Concordia University, Montreal 1978

Professional Roles

Grants

My research group has received funding from a range of research council, government, industry and NGO sources to conduct projects on the ecology and evolution of the Myxozoa, the metapopulation biology of freshwater bryozoans, the use of invertebrate remains to infer palaeoclimates, the historical ecology of lakes, and the ecology and prevention of proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish.  

Research grants include:

NERC: Dispersal and biodiversity impact on community assembly and ecosystem services in shallow lake landscapes (with Carl Sayer, Univ. College London)

SynTax: Unexplored parasite diversity and fisheries disease risk (with David Bass, NHM)

The Leverhulme Trust: Ocean acidification and the responses of the marine benthos in the Southern Ocean (with Daniela Schmidt, Univ. Bristol)

NERC: Assessing the risk of an emerging salmonid disease (with Chris Secombes, Univ. Aberdeen; Environment Agency and Cefas)

Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship: Evolution and development in Myxozoa: body-plan simplification associated with endoparasitism (with Alexander Gruhl)

NERC: Polyembryony, brood-chamber initiation and sperm utilization in cyclostome bryozoans (with Roger Hughes, Univ. Wales, Bangor; John Bishop, Marine Biological Association, Andrea Waeschenbach, Natural History Museum, London)

BBSRC: Towards the development of a vaccine for proliferative kidney disease (with Chris Secombes, Univ. Aberdeen)

NERC:  Bryozoans as decoders of North Atlantic climate during the Mid Pliocene global warm period (with Mark Williams, Univ. Leicester)

NERC: The influence of propagule banks on demography and genetic diversity in freshwater invertebrates and plants (with Mark Beaumont, Univ. Bristol & Joanna Freeland, Trent Univ.)

Test Valley Trout Limited/Trafalgar Fisheries: Investigating the potential for controlled natural immunization against PKD.

BBSRC: Development and evolution of simplified body plans in the animal phylum Myxozoa. (with Peter Holland, Univ. Oxford)

Defra:  Immune gene expression during PKD infection. (with Chris Secombes, Univ. Aberdeen)

NERC:  Systematics of plumatellid freshwater bryozoans (with Tim Wood, Wright State Univ.). 

NERC: The ecology of Tetracapsula bryosalmonae (the PKX organism).                

NERC: PKX in freshwater bryozoans: survey, description, and transmission to salmonid hosts. (with Elizabeth Canning, Imperial College)

NERC: Genetic variability and population subdivision in clonal freshwater bryozoans: Continental vs. island effects. (with Les Noble, Univ. Aberdeen)                

NERC:  Molecular investigations of myxozoan phylogeny, systematics and life cycles. (with Elizabeth Canning, Imperial College)           

Current external collaborations

Dr Grant Stentiford and Dr Steve Feist, Cefas, Weymouth. eDNA sampling for eukaryotic microbial endoparasite diversity and links with diseases of marine and freshwater invertebrates.

Dr Tim Wood, Wright State University. Adaptations of tropical freshwater bryozoans. 

Prof. Chris Secombes, University of Aberdeen; Dr. Chris Williams, Environment Agency, Dr. Nick Taylor, Cefas, Weymouth. Risk assessment for PKD

Dr Carl Sayer, University College London. Shallow lake historical ecology, metacommunity dynamics and ecosystem services.

Dr Mark Beaumont, University of Bristol & Dr Joanna Freeland, Trent University, Canada. Temporal metapopulation dynamics of freshwater bryozoans.

Dr Daniela Schmidt, University of Bristol, UK. Bryozoans and ocean acidification.

Dr Stuart Humphries, University of Hull, UK. Mechanics of locomotion in Buddenbrockia.

Dr John Bishop, Marine Biological Association, Plymouth & Prof. Roger Hughes, University of Wales, Bangor. Polyembryony, brood-chamber initiation and sperm utilisation in cyclostome bryozoans.

External comittees

NERC Peer Review College. 2003-2005; 2007-2010.

NERC Freshwater Science Peer Review Committee: 2002-2003.

Member of Council, International Bryozoology Association. 2004-on.

Member of Council, Freshwater Biology Association. 2005-2008.

Fellowships

Leverhulme Trust Research Fellow, University of Reading. 2002-03.

Killam Postdoctoral Fellow, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada. 1987-88.  

NATO Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor. 1984-85.     

Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellow, Smithsonian Marine, Station at Link Port, Florida. 1985-86.

Editorial boards

Invertebrate Biology (2004-2009)

Experimental Parasitology (2003-2009)

Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B (2001-2007)

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. (2000-on)

Research

Interests

The life cycles of many animals contrast with those of traditionally studied and familiar animal systems. My research focuses on two such invertebrata taxa, the Bryozoa and the Myxozoa. Bryozoans grow as colonies that spread across surfaces in aquatic habitats, and myxozoans are endoparasitic cnidarians that have undergone a spectacular radiation to exploit marine, freshwater and terrestrial hosts. My research aims to: 1) elucidate the ecological and evolutionary consequences associated with such life cycles, and; 2) use these animals as model systems to answer general ecological and evolutionary questions. Research themes include: the metapopulation ecology of freshwater organisms; the diversity, life cycles and evolution reflected in the myxozoan radiation; interactions between colonial hosts and their parasites; the evolution of colony form; organismal responses to environmental change; and the ecology of a salmonid fish disease. My research entails the unusual combination of studying invertebrates in both freshwater and marine habitats and combines modern molecular approaches with traditional ecological studies and extensive fieldwork.

Read more about my projects on their dedicated research pages.

Current projects

 
Cristatella mucedo, a spore of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae and Buddenbrockia worm exiting bryozoan

Cristatella mucedo (left); infective spore of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (centre); Buddenbrockia worm exiting bryozoan (right)

 

 

Current research group

Dr Alexander Gruhl, Scientific Associate. The evolution and development of myxozoans.

Dr Ambroise Baker, Postdoctoral research assistant, Dispersal and biodiversity impacts on community assembly and ecosystem services in shallow lake landscapes (Univ. College London/NHM/Univ. Stirling)

Dr Federica Ragazzola, Postdoctoral research assistant, Ocean acidification and responses of the marine benthos in the Southern Ocean (Univ. Bristol/NHM)

Helen Jenkins, PhD student. Polyembryony and sperm utilisation in cyclostome bryozoans.

Ines Fontês, PhD student. Assessing the risk of an emerging salmonid disease.

Graihagh Hardinge, PhD student. Macroecology of deep-sea jellyfish.

 

Recent members

Dr Hanna Hartikainen, Postdoctoral research assistant. Environmental sampling for novel endoparasites, host-parasite interactions, byrozoan and myxozoan ecology and evolution.

Dr Alexander Gruhl, Marie Curie Fellow. The evolution and development of Buddenbrockia.

Sophia Ahmed, Postdoctoral research assistant. Temporal metapopulation dynamics of a freshwater bryozoan.

Jorge Salgado, PhD student. Metacommunity dynamics in shallow lakes.

Tanya Knowles, PhD student. Palaeoclimate of the mid Pliocene inferred from fossil bryozoans.

Samantha Hill, PhD student. Ecology and conservation of the rare freshwater bryozoan Lophopus crystallinus

Publications

Publications
2014
  • Abd-Elfattah, A., Fontes, I., Kumar, G., Soliman, H., Hartikainen, H., Okamura, B., El-Matbouli, M. ( 2014 ) Vertical transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa), the causative agent of salmonid proliferative kidney disease. Parasitology 141 : 482–490 . doi:10.1017/S0031182013001650
  • Hartikainen, H., Gruhl, A.G., Okamura, B. ( 2014 )  Diversification and repeated morphological loss in endoparasitic cnidarians (Myxozoa: Malacosporea). Molecular Biology and Evolution In press : .
  • Hartikainen, H., Humphries, S., Okamura, B. ( 2014 ) Form and metabolic scaling in colonial animals. Journal of Experimental Biology 217 : 779-786 . doi:10.1242/jeb.093484
  • Hartikainen, H., Stentiford, G.D, Bateman, K.S., Berney, C., Feist, S.W., Longshaw, M., Okamura, B., Stone, D., Ward, G., Wood, C., Bass, D. ( 2014 ) Mikrocytids: a novel radiation of parasitic protists with a broad invertebrate host range and distribution. Current Biology In press : .
2013
  • Hartikainen H, Waeschenbach A, Wöss E, Wood T and Okamura B ( 2013 ) Divergence and species discrimination in freshwater bryozoans (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society In press : .
  • Hartikainen, H. & Okamura ( 2013 ) Parasitism and phenotypic change in colonial hosts. Parasitology 140 : 1403–1412 . doi:10.1017/S0031182013000899
  • Hartikainen, H., Ashford, O.S., Berney, C., Okamura, B., Feist, S.W., Baker-Austin, C., Stentiford, G.D., Bass, D. ( 2013 ) Lineage-specific molecular probing reveals novel diversity and ecological partitioning of haplosporidians. ISME Journal 1-10 .
  • Okamura B, Ayres K, Salgado J, Davidson T A, Shaw R F, Stephens T W, Hoare D and Sayer C D ( 2013 ) Shallow lake sediments provide evidence for metapopulation dynamics: a pilot study Aquatic Ecology 47 : 163-176 . doi:10.1007/s10452-013-9432-5
  • Okamura B., O’Dea A., Taylor P.D., Taylor A. ( 2013 ) Evidence of El Niño/La Niña–Southern Oscillation Variability in the Neogene-Pleistocene of Panama Revealed by a New Bryozoan Assemblage-Based Proxy. Bulletin of Marine Science 20 : 857-876 . Bulletin of Marine Science | doi:10.5343/bms.2012.1041
2012
  • Gruhl A and Okamura B ( 2012 ) Development and myogenesis of the vermiform Buddenbrockia (Myxozoa) and implications for cnidarian body plan evolution EvoDevo 3 : 10 . doi:10.1186/2041-9139-3-10
  • Hartikainen H and Okamura B ( 2012 ) Castrating parasites and colonial hosts Parasitology . doi:10.1017/S003118201100216
2011
  • Holland J W, Okamura B, Hartikainen H and Secombes H ( 2011 ) A novel minicollagen gene links cnidarians and myxozoans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278 : 546-553 . doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1301
  • O'Dea A, Hakansson E, Taylor P and Okamura B ( 2011 ) Environmental change prior to the K-T boundary inferred from temporal variation in the morphology of cheilostome bryozoans. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 308 : 502-512 . doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.06.001
  • Okamura B and Feist S ( 2011 ) Emerging diseases in freshwater systems. Freshwater Biology 56 : 627-637 . doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2011.02578.x
  • Okamura B, Hartikainen H, Schmidt-Posthaus H and Wahli T ( 2011 ) Proliferative kidney disease as an emerging disease: the importance of life cycle complexity and environmental change. Freshwater Biology 56 : 627-637 . doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2010.02465.x
  • Okamura B, O'Dea A and Knowles T ( 2011 ) Bryozoan growth and environmental reconstruction by zooid size variation Marine Ecology Progress Series 430 : 133-146 . doi:10:3354/meps08965
2010
  • Clark N, Williams M, Okamura B, Smellie J, Nelson A, Knowles T, Taylor P, Leng M, Zalasiewicz J and Hayward A ( 2010 ) Early Pliocene Weddell Sea seasonality determined from bryozoans. Stratigraphy 7 : 199-206 .
  • Evans N M, Holder M T, Barbeitos M S, Okamura B and Cartwright P ( 2010 ) The phylogenetic position of Myxozoa: Exploring conflicting signals in phylogenomic and ribosomal datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution 27 : 2733-2746 . doi:10.1093/molbev/msq159
  • Knowles T, Leng M J, Willams M, Taylor P D, Sloane H J and Okamura B ( 2010 ) Inferring seawater temperature regimes using stable oxygen isotopes and zooid size variation in Pentapora foliacea (Bryozoa). Marine Biology 157 : 1171-1180 . doi:10.1007/s00227-010-1397-5
  • Riisgård H U, Okamura B and Funch P ( 2010 ) Particle capture in ciliary-feeding gymnolaemate and phylactolaemate bryozoans: a comparative study. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91 : 416-425 . doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2009.00417.x
2009
  • Hartikainen, H., Johnes, P., Moncrieff, C. & Okamura, B. ( 2009 ) Bryozoan populations reflect nutrient enrichment and productivity gradients in rivers Freshwater Biology 54 : 2320-2334 . doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.002262.x
  • Knowles, T., Taylor, P.D., Williams, M., Haywood, A.M. & Okamura, B. ( 2009 ) Pliocene seasonality across the North Atlantic inferred from cheilostome bryozoans. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 277 : 226-235 . doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.04.006
  • Riisgård, H.U., Okamura, B. & Funch, P. ( 2009 ) Particle capture in ciliary-feeding gymnolaemate and phylactolaemate bryozoans: a comparative study. Acta Zoologica . doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2009.00417.x
  • Tops, S., Hartikainen, H. & Okamura, B. ( 2009 ) The effects of infection by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) and temperature on Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa). International Journal for Parasitology 39 : 1003-1010 . doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.01.007
  • Williams, M., Hayward, A.M., Harper, E.M., Johnson, A.L.A., Knowles, T., Okamura, B., Taylor, P.D. & Zalasiewicz, J. ( 2009 ) Pliocene climate and seasonality in North Atlantic shelf seas Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 367 : 85-108 . doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0224
2008
  • Canning, E.U., Curry, A. & Okamura, B. ( 2008 ) Early development of the myxozoan Buddenbrockia plumatellae in the bryozoans Hyalinella punctata and Plumatella fungosa, with comments on taxonomy and systematics of the Myxozoa. Folia Parasitologica 55 : 241-255 .
2007
  • 3) Jiménez-Guri, E., Philippe, H., Okamura, B. & Holland, P.W.H. ( 2007 ) Buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm Science 317 : 116-118 . 10.1126/science.1142024
  • Canning, E.U., Curry, A., Hill, S.L.L. & Okamura, B. ( 2007 ) Ultrastructure of Buddenbrockia allmani n. sp (Myxozoa, Malacosporea), a parasite of Lophopus crystallinus (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 54 : 247-262 . doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00261.x
  • Hill, S.L.L. & Okamura, B. ( 2007 ) Endoparasitism in colonial hosts: patterns and processes. Parasitology 134 : 841-852 . doi:10.1017/S003112007002259
  • Hill, S.L.L., Sayer, C.D., Hammond, P.M., Rimmer, V., Davidson, T.A., Hoare, D.J., Burgess, A. & Okamura, B. ( 2007 ) Are rare species rare or just overlooked? Assessing the distribution of the freshwater bryozoan, Lophopus crystallinus Biological Conservation 135 : 223-234 . doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.071
  • Jiménez-Guri, E., Okamura, B. & Holland, P.W.H. ( 2007 ) Origin and evolution of a myxozoan worm Integrative and Comparative Biology 47 : 752-758 . doi:10.1093/icb/icm026
2006
  • Tops, S., Lockwood, W. & Okamura, B. ( 2006 ) Temperature-driven proliferation of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in bryozoan hosts portends salmonid declines Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 70 : 227-236 . Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
2005
  • 79) Wood, T.S. & Okamura, B. ( 2005 ) A key to the freshwater bryozoans of Europe and the British Isles with ecological notes. Freshwater Biological Association Publication Scientific Publication No. 63, Freshwater Biological Association, The Ferry House, Far Sawrey, Ambleside, Cumbria, UK .
  • Bell, J.J. & Okamura, B. ( 2005 ) Low genetic diversity in a marine nature reserve: re-evaluating diversity criteria in reserve design Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272 : 979-1082 . doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3051
  • Canning, E.U., Feist, S.W., Longshaw, M., Okamura, B., Anderson, C.L., Tse, M.T. & Curry, A. ( 2005 ) Microgemma vivaresi n. sp. (Microsporidia, Tetramicridae), infecting liver and skeletal muscle of sea scorpions, Taurulus bubalis (Euphrasen 1786) (Osteichthyes, Cottidae), an inshore, littoral fish Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 : 1-9 .
  • Hill, S. & Okamura, B. ( 2005 ) A review of the ecology of Lophopus crystallinus (Plumatellida, Lophopodidae), a rare species within the U.K. Denisia 16 : 193-201 .
  • Tops, S & Okamura, B. ( 2005 ) Malacosporean parasites (Myxozoa, Malacosporea) of freshwater bryozoans (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata): a review Denisia 16 : 287-298 .
  • Tops, S., Curry, A. & Okamura, B. ( 2005 ) Diversity and systematics of the Malacosporea (Myxozoa) Invertebrate Biology 124 : 285-295 . doi:10.1111/j.1744-7410.2005.00026.x
2004
  • Canning, E.U. & Okamura, B. ( 2004 ) Biodiversity and evolution of the Myxozoa Advances in Parasitology 56 : 43-131 .
  • Figuerola, J., Green, A.J., Black, K. & Okamura, B. ( 2004 ) The influence of gut morphology on passive transport of freshwater bryozoans by waterfowl in Doñana (southwest Spain) Canadian Journal of Zoology 82 : 835-840 . doi:10.1139/z04-055
  • Freeland, J.R., Rimmer, V.K. & Okamura, B. ( 2004 ) Evidence for a residual post-glacial founder effect in a highly dispersive freshwater invertebrate Limnology and Oceanography 49 : 879-883 . Limnology and Oceanography
  • Hedrick, R.P., Baxa, D.V., de Kinkelin, P. & Okamura, B. ( 2004 ) Malacosporean-like spores in urine of rainbow trout react with antibody and DNA probes to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Parasitology Research 92 : 81-88 . doi:10.1007/s00436-003-0986-3
  • Henderson, M.W. & Okamura, B. ( 2004 ) The phylogeography of salmonid proliferative kidney disease in Europe and North America Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 1549 : 1729-1736 . doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2677
  • Tops, S., Baxa, D.V., McDowell, T.S., Hedrick, R.P. & Okamura, B. ( 2004 ) Evaluation of malacosporean life cycles through transmission studies Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 60 : 109-121 . doi:10.3354/dao060109
  • Wood, T.S. & Okamura, B. ( 2004 ) Plumatella geimermassardi, a newly recognized freshwater bryozoan from Britain, Ireland, and continental Europe (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata) Hydrobiologia 518 : 1-7 . doi:10.1023/B:HYDR.0000025051.65713.85
2003
  • 72) Okamura, B. & Canning. ( 2003 ) Orphan worms and homeless parasites: Biodiversity and evolution of the obscure Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18 : 633-639 .
  • Freeland, J.R., Lodge, R.J. & Okamura, B. ( 2003 ) Sex and outcrossing in a sessile freshwater invertebrate Freshwater Biology 48 : 301-305 . doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2003.00996.x
  • Horton, T. & Okamura, B. ( 2003 ) Post-haemorrhagic anaemia in sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), caused by blood feeding of Ceratothoa oestroides (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) Journal of Fish Diseases 26 : 1-6 . doi:10.1046/j.1365-2761.2003.00476.x
  • Tops, S. & Okamura, B. ( 2003 ) Infection of bryozoans by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in sites endemic for salmonid proliferative kidney disease Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 31 : 221-226 .
2002
  • Canning, E.U., Refardt, D., Vossbrinck, C.R., Okamura, B. & Curry, A. ( 2002 ) New diplokaryotic microsporidia (Phylum, Microsporidia) from freshwater bryozoans (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata) European Journal of Protistology 38 : 247-265 . doi:10.1078/0932-4739-00867
  • Canning, E.U., Tops, S.A., Curry, A., Wood, T.S. & Okamura, B. ( 2002 ) Ecology, development and pathogenicity of Buddenbrockia plumatellae Schröder, 1910 (Myxozoa, Malacosporea) (syn. Tetracapsula bryozoides) and establishment of Tetracapsuloides n. gen. for Tetracapsula bryosalmonae Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 49 : 280-295 . doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2002.tb00371
  • De Meester, L., Gómez, A., Okamura, B. & Schwenk, K. ( 2002 ) The Monopolization Hypothesis and the dispersal-gene flow paradox in aquatic organisms Acta Oecologica 23 : 121-135 .
  • Hatton-Ellis, T., Hope, A., Noble, L.R. & Okamura, B. ( 2002 ) Genetic variation in a freshwater bryozoan: II: The effect of increasing spatial scale Archiv für Hydrobiologie 154 : 293-309 .
  • Horton, T. & Okamura, B. ( 2002 ) The distribution of Ceratothoa steindachneri (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitic in Echiichthys vipera in the north-east Atlantic Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 83 : 415-417 . 10.1017/S0025315402005660
  • Monteiro, A.S., Okamura, B. & Holland, P.W.H. ( 2002 ) Orphan worm finds a home: Buddenbrockia is a myxozoan Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 : 968-971 . Molecular Biology and Evolution
  • Okamura, B. & Freeland, J.R. ( 2002 ) Gene flow and the evolutionary ecology of passively dispersing aquatic invertebrates. In J.M. Bullock, R.E. Kenward, & R.S. Hails (eds.), In: Dispersal Ecology . Blackwell Publishing : Oxford , 194-216 .
  • Okamura, B. & Wood, T.S. ( 2002 ) Bryozoans as hosts for Tetracapsula bryosalmonae, the PKX organism Journal of Fish Disease 25 : 1-7 .
  • Okamura, B., Curry, A., Wood, T.S. & Canning, E.U. ( 2002 ) Ultrastructure of Buddenbrockia sp., identifies it as a myxozoan and verifies the bilaterian origin of the Myxozoa Parasitology 124 : 215-223 . doi:10.1017/S0031182001001184
  • Okamura, B., Freeland, J.R. & Hatton-Ellis, T. ( 2002 ) Clones and metapopulations. In R.N. Hughes (ed.), In: Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates. Volume XI. Progress in Asexual Reproduction . Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd : New Dehli , 283-312 .
2001
  • Bilton, D., Freeland, J.R. & Okamura, B. ( 2001 ) Dispersal in freshwater invertebrates Annual Reviews in Ecology and Systematics 32 : 159-181 .
  • Feist, S.W., Longshaw, M., Canning, E.U. & Okamura, B. ( 2001 ) Induction of Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Richardson) via the bryozoan Fredericella sultana (Blumenbach, 1779), infected with Tetracapsula bryosalmonae Canning, Curry, Feist, Longshaw & Okamura, 1999 Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 45 : 61-68 . doi:10.3354/dao045061
  • Freeland, J.R., Rimmer, V.K. & Okamura, B. ( 2001 ) Genetic changes within freshwater bryozoan populations suggest temporal gene flow from statoblast banks Limnology and Oceanography 46 : 1121-1129 . Limnology and Oceanography
  • Gay, M., Okamura, B. & de Kinkelin, P. ( 2001 ) Evidence that infectious stages of Tetracapsula bryosalmonae for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are present throughout the year Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 46 : 31-40 . doi:10.3354/dao046031
  • Horton, T. & Okamura, B. ( 2001 ) Cymothoid isopod parasites in aquaculture: a review and case study of a Turkish sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus auratus) farm Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 46 : 181-188 . Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
  • Okamura, B., Anderson, C.L., Longshaw, M., Feist, S.W. & Canning, E.U. ( 2001 ) Patterns of occurrence and 18S rDNA sequence variation of PKX (Tetracapsula bryosalmonae), the causative agent of salmonid proliferative kidney disease Journal of Parasitology 87 : 379-385 . doi:10.1645/0022-3395(2001)087[0379:POOARS]2.0.CO;2
  • Okamura, B., Harmelin, J.-G., & Jackson, J.B.C. ( 2001 ) Refuges revisited: Enemies versus flow and feeding as determinants of sessile animal distribution and form. In J.B.C. Jackson, S. Lidgard, F.K. McKinney (eds.), In: Evolutionary Patterns: Growth, Form and Tempo in the Fossil Record . University of Chicago Press : Oxford , 61-93 .
2000
  • Anderson, C.L., Canning, E.U., Schäfer, S.M., Yokoyama, H., & Okamura, B. ( 2000 ) Molecular confirmation of the life cycle of Thelohanellus hovorkai Achmerov, 1960 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 20 : 111-115 .
  • Canning, E.U., Curry, A., Feist, S.W., Longshaw, M., & Okamura, B. ( 2000 ) A new class and order of myxozoans to accommodate parasites of bryozoans with ultrastructural observations on Tetracapsula bryosalmonae (PKX organism) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 47 : 456-468 . doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2000.tb00075.x
  • Freeland, J.R., Noble, L.R. & Okamura, B. ( 2000 ) Genetic diversity of North American populations of Cristatella mucedo, inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA Molecular Ecology 9 : 1375-1389 . doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.01024.x
  • Freeland, J.R., Noble, L.R., & Okamura, B. ( 2000 ) Genetic consequences of the metapopulation biology of a facultatively sexual freshwater invertebrate Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13 : 383-395 . doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2000.00192.x
  • Freeland, J.R., Romualdi, C. & Okamura, B. ( 2000 ) Gene flow and genetic diversity: a comparison of freshwater bryozoan populations in Europe and North America Heredity 85 : 498-508 . doi:10.1046/j.1365-2540.2000.00780.x
  • O'Dea, A & Okamura, B. ( 2000 ) Intracolony variation in zooid size in cheilostome bryozoans as a new technique for investigating palaeoseasonality Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 162 : 319-332 . doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(00)00136-X
  • Okamura, B. ( 2000 ) Metapopulation biology of freshwater bryozoans. Keynote lecture in: Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference. A.H. Cubilla & J.B.C. Jackson (eds.). Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama. Pp. 316-320. Keynote Lecture .
  • O’Dea, A. & Okamura, B. ( 2000 ) Life history and environmental inference through retrospective morphometric analysis of bryozoans: a preliminary study Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 80 : 1127-1128 . Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • O’Dea, A. & Okamura, B. ( 2000 ) Cheilostome bryozoans as indicators of seasonality in the Neogene epicontinental seas of Western Europe. In A.H. Cubilla & J.B.C. Jackson (eds.), In: Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference . Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute : Balboa, Republic of Panama , 74-86 .
1999
  • Anderson, C.L., Canning, E.U. & Okamura, B. ( 1999 ) 18S rDNA sequences indicate that PKX organism parasitizes Bryozoa Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 19 : 94-97 .
  • Anderson, C.L., Canning, E.U. & Okamura, B. ( 1999 ) Molecular data implicate bryozoans as hosts for PKX (Phylum Myxozoa) and identify a clade of bryozoan parasites within the Myxozoa Parasitology 119 : 555-561 . Parasitology
  • Canning, E.U., Curry, A., Anderson, C.L., & Okamura, B. ( 1999 ) Ultrastructure of Myxidium trachinorum n. sp. from the gall bladder of the lesser weever fish Echiichthys vipera Parasitology Research 85 : 910-919 . doi:10.1007/s004360050657
  • Canning, E.U., Curry, A., Feist, S.W., Longshaw, M., & Okamura, B. ( 1999 ) Tetracapsula bryosalmonae n.sp. for PKX organism the cause of PKD in salmonid fish Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 19(2) : 203-206 .
  • Freeland, J.R., Jones, C.S., Noble, L.R. & Okamura, B. ( 1999 ) Polymorphic microsatellite loci identified in the highly clonal freshwater bryozoan, Cristatella mucedo Molecular Ecology 8 : 341-342 .
  • Longshaw, M., Feist, S.W., Canning, E.U. & Okamura, B. ( 1999 ) First identification of PKX in bryozoans from the United Kingdom - molecular evidence Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 19 : 146-149 .
  • Okamura, B. & Partridge, J.C. ( 1999 ) Suspension feeding adaptations to extreme flow environments in a marine bryozoan Biological Bulletin 196 : 205-215 . Biological Bulletin
  • O’Dea, A. & Okamura, B. ( 1999 ) The influence of seasonal variation in temperature, salinity, and food availability on module size and colony growth in the estuarine bryozoan, Conopeum seurati Marine Biology 135 : 581-588 . doi:10.1007/s002270050659
  • Wood, T.S. & Okamura, B. ( 1999 ) Asajirella gelatinosa in Panama: a bryozoan range extension in the Western Hemisphere (Ectoprocta: Phylactolaemata) Hydrobiologia 390 : 19-23 . doi:10.1023/A:1003502814572
1998
  • Anderson, C.L., Canning, E.U., & Okamura, B. ( 1998 ) A triploblast origin for Myxozoa? Nature 392 : 346-347 . doi:10.1038/32801
  • Eckman, J.E. & Okamura, B. ( 1998 ) A model of particle capture by bryozoans in turbulent flow: Significance of colony form American Naturalist 152 : 861-880 . doi:10.1086/286214
  • Hatton-Ellis, T., Noble, L.R. & Okamura, B. ( 1998 ) Genetic variation in a freshwater bryozoan. I. Populations in the Thames Basin Molecular Ecology 7 : 1575-1585 . doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00492.x
1997
  • Canning, E.U., Okamura, B, & Curry, A. ( 1997 ) A new microsporidium, Nosema cristatellae n. sp. in the bryozoan Cristatella mucedo (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata) Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 70 : 177-183 .
  • Okamura, B. ( 1997 ) The ecology of subdivided populations of a clonal freshwater bryozoan in southern England Archiv für Hydrobiologie 141 : 13-34 .
  • Okamura, B. ( 1997 ) Genetic similarity, parasitism, and metapopulation structure in a cyclically clonal bryozoan. In B. Streit, T. Stäedler, & C. Lively (eds.), In: Evolutionary Ecology of Freshwater Animals . Birkhäuser Verlag : Basel, Switzerland , 294-320 .
  • Okamura, B. & Eckman, J.E. ( 1997 ) Modelling particle capture rates by encrusting bryozoans: adaptive significance of colony form. In H.A. Lessios & I.G. MacIntyre (eds.), In: Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium Panama, June 24-29, 1996 . Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute : Balboa, Republic of Panama , 1077-1080 .
1996
  • Canning, E.U., Okamura, B. & Curry, A. ( 1996 ) Development of a myxozoan parasite Tetracapsula bryozoides n.g., n.sp. in the body cavity of Cristatella mucedo (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata) Folia Parasitologica 43 : 249-261 .
  • Okamura, B. ( 1996 ) Occurrence, prevalence, and effects of the myxozoan Tetracapsula bryozoides Canning, Okamura and Curry, 1996, parasitic in the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo Cuvier (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata) Folia Parasitologica 43 : 262-266 .
  • Vernon, J.G., Okamura, B., Jones, C.S. & Noble, L.R. ( 1996 ) Temporal patterns of clonality and parasitism in a population of freshwater bryozoans Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 263 : 1313-1318 .
1995
  • Okamura, B. & Hatton-Ellis, T. ( 1995 ) Population biology of freshwater bryozoans: correlates of sessile, colonial life histories in freshwater habitats. In: Population Biology of Freshwater Invertebrates. Experientia. 51: 510-525 .
1994
  • Jones, C.S., Okamura, B., & Noble, L.R. ( 1994 ) Parent and larval fingerprints reveal outcrossing in freshwater bryozoans Molecular Ecology 3 : 193-199 . doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.1994.tb00052.x
  • Okamura, B. ( 1994 ) Variation in local populations of the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo. In P.J. Hayward, J.S. Ryland, & P.D. Taylor (eds.), In: Biology and Palaeobiology of Bryozoans . Olsen & Olsen : Fredensborg, Denmark , 145-149 .
1993
  • Okamura, B. & Doolan, L.A. ( 1993 ) Patterns of suspension feeding in the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella repens Biological Bulletin 184 : 52-56 . Biological Bulletin
  • Okamura, B., Jones, C.S., & Noble, L.R. ( 1993 ) Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of clonal population structure and geographic variation in a freshwater bryozoan Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 253 : 147-154 . doi:10.1098/rspb.1993.0095
1992
  • Okamura, B. ( 1992 ) Microhabitat variation and patterns of colony growth and feeding in a marine bryozoan Ecology 73 : 1502-1513 . Ecology
1990
  • Okamura, B. ( 1990 ) Particle size, flow velocity, and suspension-feeding by the erect bryozoans Bugula neritina and B. stolonifera Marine Biology 105 : 33-38 . doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0812-z
  • Okamura, B. ( 1990 ) Behavioural plasticity in the suspension feeding of benthic animals. In R.N. Hughes (ed.), In: Behavioural Mechanisms of Food Selection. NATO ASI Series, Vol. G20 . Springer-Verlag : Berlin , 637-660 .
1988
  • Okamura, B. ( 1988 ) The influence of neighbours on the feeding of an epifaunal bryozoan Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 120 : 105-123 . doi:10.1016/0022-0981(88)90083-4
  • Okamura, B. & Bishop, J.D.D. ( 1988 ) Zooid size in cheilostome bryozoans as an indicator of relative palaeotemperature Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 66 : 145-152 .
1987
  • Okamura, B. ( 1987 ) Particle size and velocity induce an inferred switch in bryozoan suspension-feeding behaviour Biological Bulletin 173 : 222-229 . Biological Bulletin
  • Okamura, B. ( 1987 ) Seasonal changes in zooid size and feeding activity in epifaunal colonies of Electra pilosa. In JRP Ross (ed.), In: Bryozoa: Past and Present . Western Washington University : Bellingham, WA , 197-204 .
1986
  • Okamura, B. ( 1986 ) Formation and disruption of aggregations of Mytilus edulis in the fouling community of San Francisco Bay, California Marine Ecology Progress Series 30 : 275-282 .
  • Okamura, B. ( 1986 ) living and the effects of spatial position in aggregations of Mytilus edulis Oecologia 69 : 341-347 . doi:10.1007/BF00377054
1985
  • Okamura, B. ( 1985 ) The effects of ambient flow velocity, colony size, and upstream colonies on the feeding success of Bryozoa. II. Conopeum reticulum (Linnaeus), an encrusting species Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 89 : 69-80 . doi:10.1016/0022-0981(85)90082-6
1984
  • Okamura, B. ( 1984 ) The effects of ambient flow velocity, colony size, and upstream colonies on the feeding success of Bryozoa. I. Bugula stolonifera Ryland, an arborescent species Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 83 : 179-193 . doi:10.1016/0022-0981(84)90044-3