$s1 FRS FRSE

Andrew Smith
  • $s1
  • $s1 department
  • $s1
Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road
London
SW7 5BD

Biography

Qualifications

  • B. Sc. (Geology) 1st Class, University of Edinburgh, 1976
  • Ph. D. (Biological Sciences), University of Exeter, 1979
  • D. Sc. University of Edinburgh, 1989

Employment

  • Lecturer, Department of Geology, University of Liverpool, 1981-1982
  • Research Scientist, Department of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, London, 1982-present

Awards and medals

  • McGillverie Prize and Class Medal for Zoology, University of Edinburgh, 1972
  • Linnean Society Bicentenial Medal, 1993
  • The Geological Society Bigsby Medal, 1995
  • Elected a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1996
  • Palaeontological Society Distinguished Lecturer, 2001-2003
  • The Geological Society Lyell Medal, 2002
  • Elected a fellow of the Royal Society, 2002
  • Visiting Professor, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 2003-2004
  • The Palaeontological Association, Golden Trilobite Award, 2004
  • The Linnean Society, Zoology Medal, 2005
  • Elected Korrespondierenden Mitglied of the Palaontologische Gesellschaft, 2005
  • GeoScience Information Society, Best Website Award 2010 (for The Echinoid Directory)

Professional Roles

Academic positions 

Editor in chief Palaeontology (2013- )

President: The Palaeontographical Society (2008-2013)

Editor in chief Journal of Systematic Palaeontology (2002-2009)

Executive editor: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth and Environmental Sciences

Editorial board member: Cretaceous Research

Editorial board member: Paleontological Research

Awards Committee, The Geological Society of London

Organizing Committee, International Palaeontological Congress 3

 

Courses taught: Palaeontology and cladistics modules in the M Sc in Advanced methods in taxonomy and biodiversity (Imperial College, Natural History Museum)

 

Electronic Resources Managed

The Echinoid Directory

Founder and editor

An open-community project to make high-quality taxonomic data and images of echinoids, Recent and fossil, freely available on the Web. It currently covers about 95% of all named genera. Illustrations of the type species of each genus are provided together with information on its key diagnostic characters, its stratigraphical and geographical distribution, species currently assigned with confidence to the genus (not necessarily exhaustive), and pertinent scientific publications. Dichotomous keys are provided at all levels to aid identification, and are fully illustrated. There are also sections on the morphology and biology of this group along with a taxonomic index.

Research

Current Research Interests

  • Taxonomy, palaeobiology and evolution of echinoids.  The taxonomy of British Cretaceous echinoids; establishing phylogenetic relationships of extant and fossil taxa using morphological and molecular data; evolution of body form in echinoids. 
  • Marine diversity through the Phanerozoic.  Phylogenetic approaches for establishing evolutionary patterns; the relationship between sequence stratigraphic packaging of sediments, rock record bias and perceived levels of fossil diversity; integrating molecular and palaeontological methods of dating to explore the nature of the fossil record.
  • Primitive echinoderm relationships.  Pre-radial echinoderms and the origins of the echinoderm body plan; palaeobiology and taxonomy of early Palaeozoic echinoderms.

Major funded Projects

  • 1991-1994 NERC research grant (£91,000) for 'Comparison of morphological and molecular evolution in fishes and echinoderms'.
  • 1994-1997 NERC research grant (£85,090) for 'Echinoid survivorship patterns at the end Cretaceous: a cladistic test of the role of ecological factors.'
  • 1995-1997 NERC research grant (Ancient Biomolecules Initiative with SERC) (£115,570) for 'Ancient nucleic acids from amber-entombed insects: evaluating their phylogenetic prospects'.
  • 1997-2000 NERC research grant (£96,000) for 'Sea-level change, preservation potential and patterns of marine diversity'.
  • 2001-2005 NERC research grant (£140,000) for 'Origin of the deep-sea echinoid fauna'.
  • 2005-2008 Leverhulme research grant (£116,762) for 'Testing for geological and phylogenetic biases in marine diversity'.
  • 2008-2010 NERC research grant (£267,551) for 'Comparing land-based and deep-sea rock and fossil records of microplankton to test for bias in diversity patterns through time'.
ResearcherID profile

Publications

Publications

in press

Vilhena, D. A. & Smith, A. B. in press. Spatial bias in the fossil record. PLoS one

Smith, A. B. in press. Ambulacraria. In Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford ,UK, [http://www.eolss.net]

Smith, A. B. in press The phylogeny and geological history of echinoderms. Chapter 6 in M. Byrne & M. Ruse (eds) The fauna of Australia: Echinoderms

Zamora, S., Lefebvre, B., Álvaro, J. J., Clausen, S., Elicki, O., Fatka, O., Jell, P., Kouchinsky, A., Lin, J-P., Nardin, E., Parsley, R., Rozhnov, S., Sprinkle, J., Sumrall, C. D., Vizcaïno, D. & Smith, A. B. In press. Cambrian echinoderm diversity and palaeobiogeography. In, Early Palaeozoic Palaeobiogeography and Palaeogeography (eds David Harper and Thomas Servais). Geological Society Special Publication.

2013

Alvaro, J. J., Zamora, S., Clausen, S. & Smith. A. B. 2013. The role of abiotic factors in the Cambrian substrate revolution: A review from th benthic community replacements of West Gondwana. Earth Science Reviews 18, 69-82.

Nowak, M. D., Carter, R. J., Smith, A. B., Simpson, C. & Zwicki, D. 2013. A simple method for estimating informative node age priors for the fossil calibration of molecular divergence time analysis. PLOS One 8(6), e66245, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066245.

Smith, A. B. 2013. Geological history of bathyal echinoid faunas, with a new genus from the late Cretaceous of Italy. Geological Magazine 150, 177-182: doi:10.1017/S0016756812000738.

Smith, A. B. & Benson, R. B. J. 2013. Marine diversity in the geological record and its relationship to surviving bedrock area, lithofacies diversity and original marine shelf area. Geology 41, 171-174. First published on November 13, 2012, doi:10.1130/G33773.1

Smith, A. B. & Kroh, A. 2013. Phylogeny of sea urchins. Pp. 1-14, in J. Lawence (ed.) Sea Urchins: Biology and ecology. 3rd edition. Elsevier Press.

Smith, A. B. & Reich, M. 2013. Tracing the evolution of the holothurian body plan through stem group fossils. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 109, 670-681.

Smith, A. B. & Zamora, S. 2013. Cambrian spiral plated echinoderms from Gondwana reveal the earliest pentaradial body plan. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 280, 1765, 20131197. doi 10.1098/rspb.2013.1197.

Smith, A. B., Reich, M. & Zamora, S. 2013. Comment on supposed holothurian body fossils from the Middle Ordovician of Wales (Botting & Muir, Palaeoelectronica 15.1.9A). Palaeoelectronica 16.1.2A

Smith, A. B., Zamora, S. & Alvaro, J. J. 2013. The oldest echinoderm faunas from Gondwana show that echinoderm body plan diversification was rapid. Nature Communications 4: 1358. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2391. 

Zamora, S., Rahman, I. & Smith, A. B. 2013. Ontogeny of cinctans (stem-group Echinodermata) as revealed by a new genus Graciacystis, from the Middle Cambrian of Spain. Palaeontology 56, 399-410.

2012

Coppard, S.E., Kroh, A. & Smith, A.B. 2012. The evolution of pedicellariae in echinoids: an arms race against pests and parasites. Acta Zoologica 93, 125-148.  doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6395.2010.00487.x.

Hautmann, M., Smith, A. B., McGowan, A. J. & Bucher, H. 2012. Bivalves from the Spathian (Early Triassic) of southwestern Utah: Systematics and evolutionary significance. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. Published online December, 2012DOI:10.1080/14772019.2011.637516d.

Lloyd, G. T., Pearson, P. N., Young, J. R. & Smith, A. B. 2012. Sampling bias and the fossil record of planktonic foraminifera on land and in the deep sea. Paleobiology 38, 569-584. doi:10.1666/11041.1

Lloyd, G. T., Young, J. Y. & Smith, A. B. 2012. Taxonomic structure of the fossil record is shaped by sampling bias. Systematic Biology 61, 80-89. DOI:10.1093/sysbio/syr076.

Lloyd, G. T., Young, J.R. & Smith, A.B. 2012. Comparative quality and fidelity of the deep-sea and land-based fossil records. Geology 40, 155-158. doi:10.1130/G32561.1

Pisani, D.,Feuda, R., Peterson, K.J. & Smith, A. B. 2012. Resolving phylogenetic signal from noise when divergence is rapid: a new approach to the old problem of echinoderm class relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62, 27-34 (published on line 16th Dec, 2011) doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.08.028. PDF (688 Kb)

Schlüter, N., Kutscher, M., Smith, A. B., Jagt, J. W. M. & Lees, J. A. 2012. Late Cretaceous phymosomatids and the true identity of Cidarites granulosus Goldfuss, 1829 (Echinoidea, Phymosomatoida). Zootaxa 3271, 17-30.

Smith, A. B. (ed.) 2012. British Mesozoic fossils. The Natural History Museum, London. 185 pp.

Smith, A. B. 2012. Cambrian problematica and the diversification of deuterostomes. BMC Biology 10: 79. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-79. PDF (1 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Crame, J. A. 2012. Echinoderm faunas from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of Alexander Island, Antarctica. Palaeontology 55, 305-324.

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. V. 2012. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 9, Atelostomata, 2. Spatangoida (2). Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society publication number 639, issued as part of volume 166, pp. 635-754, pls 210-253.

Smith, A. B., Lloyd, G. T. & McGowan, A. J. 2012. Phanerozoic marine diversity: rock record modelling provides independent test of large-scale trends. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279, 4489-4495. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.1793

Smith, A. B., Zamora, S. & Reich, M. 2012. Morphology and ecological setting of the basal echinoid genus Rhenechinus from the early Devonian of Spain and Germany. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica available online 08 Mar 2012 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2011.0098 PDF (3.4 Mb)

Zamora, S., Rahman, I. and Smith, A. B. 2012. Plated Cambrian bilaterians reveal the earliest stages of echinoderm evolution. PLoS ONE 7(6): e38296. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038296. PDF (1.4 Mb)

Ziegler, A., Stock, S.R., Menze, B.H. & Smith, A.B. 2012. Macro- and microstructural diversity of sea urchin teeth revealed by large-scale micro-computed tomography survey. Proceedings of SPIE 8506: 85061G, doi: 10.1117/12.930832

2011

Lloyd, G. T., Young, J. Y. & Smith, A. B. 2011. Taxonomic structure of the fossil record is shaped by sampling bias. Systematic Biology 61(1), 80-89 (first published online August 9, 2011) doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr076

Lloyd, G., Smith, A. B. & Young, J. R. 2011. Quantifying the deep-sea rock and fossil record bias using coccolithophores. Pp. 167-178 in McGowan, A. J. & Smith, A. B. (eds) Comparing the geological and fossil records: implications for biodiversity studies. Geological Society Special Publication 358. London; Geological Society Publishing House. 247 pp. ISBN 978-1-86239-336-3. PDF (536 Kb)

McGowan, A. J. & Smith, A. B. (eds) 2011. Comparing the geological and fossil records: implications for biodiversity studies. Geological Society Special Publication 358. London; Geological Society Publishing House. 247 pp. ISBN 978-1-86239-336-3.

Mihaljevic, M., Jerjen, J. & Smith, A. B. 2011. The test architecture of Clypeaster (Echinoidea, Clypeasteroida) and its phylogenetic significance. Zootaxa 2983, 21-38. PDF (3.2 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 2011. Gymnodiadema and the Jurassic roots of the Arbacioida (stirodont echinoids). Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 130, 155-171.

Smith, A. B. & Barrett, P. M. 2011. Modelling the past: new generation approaches to understanding biological patterns in the fossil record. Biology Letters published online 23 November 2011 doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.1051

Smith, A. B. & McGowan, A. J. 2011. The ties linking rock and fossil records and why they are important for palaeobiodiversity studies. Pp. 1-8 in McGowan, A. J. & Smith, A. B. (eds) Comparing the geological and fossil records: implications for biodiversity studies. Geological Society Special Publication 358. London; Geological Society Publishing House. ISBN 978-1-86239-336-3. PDF (176 Kb)

Zamora, S. & Smith. B. 2011. Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279, 293-298 doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0777

 

2010

Kroh, A. & Smith, A. B. 2010. The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids.  Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 7, 147-212. PDF (2.9 Mb)

Coppard, S.E., Kroh, A. & Smith, A.B. 2010. The evolution of pedicellariae in echinoids: an arms race against pests and parasites. Acta Zoologica doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6395.2010.00487.x. PDF (1.4 Mb) 

Smith, A. B. 2010. The Cretaceous Bagh Formation, India: a Gondwanan window onto Turonian shallow-water echinoid faunas. Cretaceous Research 31, 368-386. PDF (5 Mb)

Smith, A. B., Gale, A. S. & Milsom, C. 2010. Echinoderms. Pp.  249-260 in Young, J. R., Gale, A. S., Knight, R. I. & Smith, A. B. (eds) 2010. Fossils of the Gault Clay. Palaeontological Association Fieldguide to fossils: number 12.

Young, J. R., Gale, A. S., Knight, R. I. & Smith, A. B. (eds) 2010. Fossils of the Gault Clay. Palaeontological Association Fieldguide to fossils: number 12, 342 pp.

Zamora, S. & Smith, A. B. 2010. The oldest isorophid edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) and the evolution of attachment strategies in Cambrian edrioasteroids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55(3), 487-494. PDF (616 Kb)

Zamora, A., Clausen, S., Alvaro, J. J. & Smith, A. B. 2010. Pelmatozoan echinoderms as colonizers of carbonate firmgrounds in Mid-Cambrian high energy environments. Palaios 25, 764-768. PDF (

2009

Smith, A. B. 2009. Sea urchins (Echinoidea). Pp. 302-306. In, S. B. Hedges & S. Kumar (eds) The Timetree of Life. Oxford University Press, Oxford.  (PDF 1 Mb)

Smith, A. B.  in press. The phylogeny and geological history of echinoderms. In  M. Byrne and T. D. O’Hara (eds) Echinoderms: a southern perspective. Chapter 6.

Smith, A. B. & Gale, A. S. 2009. The pre-Messinian deep-sea Neogene echinoid fauna of the Mediterranean: surface productivity controls and biogeographical relationships. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 281, 115-125. (PDF 2.4 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Swalla, B. 2009. Deciphering deuterostome phylogeny: molecular, morphological and palaeontological perspectives. In D. T. J. Littlewood & M. Telford (eds). Animal evolution. Genomes, fossils, and trees. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Pp. 80-92.

Clausen, S., Jell, P. & Legrain, X. & Smith, A. B. 2009. Pelmatozoan arms in the Middle Cambrian: bridging the gap between brachioles and brachials? Lethaia 42, 283-296. (PDF 1 Mb)

McGowan, A. J., Smith, A. B. & Taylor, P. D. 2009. Faunal diversity, heterogeneity and body size in the Early Triassic: testing post-extinction paradigms in the Virgin Limestone of Utah, USA. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 56(6), 859-872. (PDF 1Mb)

Reich, M. & Smith. A. B. 2009. Origins and biomechanical evolution of teeth in echinoids and their relatives. Palaeontology 52, 1149-1168. (PDF 2.8 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Rader, W. 2009. Echinoid diversity, preservation potential and sequence stratigraphical cycles in the Glen Rose Formation (early Albian, Early Cretaceous), Texas, USA. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 89, 7-52. [DOI 10.1007/s12549-009-0002-8] (PDF 3.5Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Zamora, S. 2009. Rooting phylogenies of problematic fossil taxa: a case study using cinctans (stem-group echinoderms). Palaeontology 52, 803-823. (PDF 1.3Mb)

2008

Smith, A. B. 2008. Deuterostomes in a twist: the origins of a radical new body plan. Evolution and Development 10.4, 492-502. PDF (932 Kb)

Smith, A. B. & McGowan, A. J. 2008. Temporal patterns of barren intervals in the Phanerozoic. Paleobiology 34: 155-161. PDF (350 Kb)

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 2008. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 8. Atelostomata, 2. Spatangoida (1). Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London: pp. 569-635, pls 183-209.

Clausen, S. & Smith, A. B. 2008. Stem structure and evolution in the earliest pelmatozoan echinoderms. Journal of Paleontology 82: 737-748. PDF (16Mb)

McGowan, A. J. & Smith, A. B. 2008. Are global Phanerozoic marine diversity curves truly global? A study of the relationship between regional rock records and global Phanerozoic marine diversity. Paleobiology 34: 80-103. PDF (2 Mb)

Reich, M. & Smith, A. B. 2008. Scotiadiscus nom. nov., a replacement name for Actinodiscus Smith & Paul, 1982 (Cyclocystoidea), preoccupied by Actinodiscus de Blainville, 1830 (Anthozoa). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 82, 100-101.  PDF (356 Kb)

Swalla, B. J. & Smith, A. B. 2008. Deciphering deuterostome phylogeny: molecular, morphological and palaeontological perspectives. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 363, 1557-1568. PDF (500Kb)

Zamora, S. & Smith, A. B. 2008. A new Middle Cambrian stem group echinoderm from Spain convergent on stylophorans: palaeobiological implications of a highly asymmetric cinctan. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 53, 207-220. PDF (1.5Mb)

 

 

2007

McGowan, A. J. & Smith, A. B. 2007. Ammonoids across the Permian/Triassic boundary: a cladistic perspective. Palaeontology 50, 573-590.  PDF (1.1 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 2007. Marine diversity through the Phanerozoic: problems and prospects. Journal of the Geological Society 164, 731-745. PDF (516 Kb)

Smith, A. B. 2007. Intrinsic versus extrinsic biases in the fossil record: Contrasting the fossil record of echinoids in the Triassic and early Jurassic using sampling data, phylogenetic analysis and molecular clocks. Paleobiology 33, 310-323. PDF (724 Kb)

Smith, A. B. & McGowan, A. J. 2007. The shape of the Phanerozoic diversity curve. How much can be predicted from the sedimentary rock record of Western Europe? Palaeontology 50, 765-777. PDF (348 Kb)

 

 

2006

Kroh, A. & Smith, A. B. 2006. Schizechinus Pomel, 1869 (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): proposed conservation of the usage by suppression of Echinus serresii des Moulins, 1837 and validation of Psammechinus serresii Desor, 1855 as type species. Bulletin of the International Commission for Zoological Nomenclature. Case 3356 63(4)  PDF (304 Kb)

Smith, A. B., Monks, N. E. A. & Gale, A. S. 2006. Echinoid distribution and sequence stratigraphy in the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) of southern England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 117, 207-217. PDF (404Kb)

Smith, A. B., Pisani, D., Mackenzie-Dodds, J. A., Stockley, B., Webster, B. L. & Littlewood, D. T. J. 2006. Testing the molecular clock: molecular and paleontological estimates of divergence times in the Echinoidea (Echinodermata). Molecular Biology and Evolution 23, 1832-1851. PDF (552Kb)

 

2005

Smith, A. B. 2005. Growth and form in echinoids: the evolutionary interplay of plate accretion versus plate addition. Pp. 181-194 in D. E. G. Briggs (ed.) Evolving form and function – fossils and development. Yale University Press, New Haven. PDF (2.4 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & McGowan, A. J. 2005. Cyclicity in the fossil record mirrors rock outcrop area. Biological Letters. 2(10), 1-3. PDF (88 Kb)

Smith, A. B. 2005. The pre-radial history of echinoderms. Geological Journal 40, 255-280.   PDF (5.8 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Stockley, B. 2005. Fasciole pathways in spatangoid echinoids: a new source of phylogenetically informative characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144, 15-35.  PDF (1.1 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Stockley, B.  2005. The geological history of deep sea colonization by echinoids: the roles of surface productivity and deep-water ventilation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 272, 865-869.  PDF (5.2 Mb)

Clausen, S. & Smith, A. B. 2005. Palaeoanatomy and biological affinities of a Cambrian problematic deuterostome (Stylophora). Nature 438, 351-354. PDF (2.4 Mb)

Stockley, B., Smith, A. B., Littlewood, D. T. J., Lessios, H. A., MacKenzie-Dodds, J. A. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of spatangoid sea urchins (Echinoidea): taxon sampling density and congruence between morphological and molecular estimates. Zoologica Scripta 34, 447-468.  PDF (880 Kb)

 

2004

Smith, A. B. 2004. Phylogeny  and systematics of holasteroid echinoids and their migration into the deep-sea. Palaeontology 47, 123-150.  PDF (5.2Mb)

Smith, A. B. 2004. Echinoderm roots. Nature 430, 411-412. PDF (200 Kb)

Smith, A. B.2004. Echinoderms (other than Echinoids. In R. Seeley & R. Cocks (eds) Encyclopaedia of Geology. Geological Society of London. Pp. 334-341. Elsevier, Oxford. PDF (1.8 Mb)

Smith, A. B.2004. Echinoids. In R. Seeley & R. Cocks (eds) Encyclopaedia of Geology. Geological Society of London. Pp. 350-356. Elsevier, Oxford.  PDF (1.7 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 2004.  Deuterostome phylogeny and the interpretation of problematic fossil echinoderms. Pp. 543-546, in T. Heinzeller  & J. C. Nebelsick (eds). Echinoderms: Munchen. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam. PDF (1 Mb)

Smith, A. B., Peterson, K. J., Wray, G. and Littlewood D. T. J. 2004. From bilateral symmetry to pentaradiality: The phylogeny of hemichordates and echinoderms.  Chapter 22, pp. 365-383 in J. Cracraft & M. J. Donoghue (eds) Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York.  PDF (5 Mb)

Supplementary data:

 Morphological Characters (PDF data1)

 18sRNA matrix (PDF data1)

 28sRNA matrix ((PDF data2)

Forey, P. L., Fortey, R. A., Kenrick, P. & Smith, A. B. 2004. Taxonomy and fossils: a critical approach. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 359, 639-653.  PDF (428 Kb)

Ha, Y.-H., Vaia, R. A., Lynn, W. F., Costantino, J. P., Shin, J, Smith, A. B., Matsudaira, P. T. & Thomas, E. L.. 2004. Three-dimensional network photonic crystals via cyclic size reduction/infiltration of sea urchin exoskeleton. Advanced Materials 16, 1091-1094. PDF (2.3 Mb)

 

2003

Smith, A. B. 2003. Getting the measure of diversity. Paleobiology 29, 34-36. PDF (172 Kb)

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 2003. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 7, Atelostomata, 1. Holasteroida. Palaeontographical Society Monographs p. 440-568, pls 139-182.

 

2002

Smith, A. B. 2002. Stratigraphy in phylogeny reconstruction. Response and Reply. Journal of Paleontology 76, 594-595. PDF (168 Kb)

Smith, A. B. & Peterson, K. J. 2002. Dating the time of origin of major clades: molecular clocks and the fossil record. Annual Reviews in Earth and Planetary Science 30, 65-88. PDF (568 Kb)

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 2002. Echinoderms. Pp. 251-295. in Smith, A. B. & Batten, D. J. (eds). Fossils of the Chalk. Revised edition.  Palaeontographical Association, London. 374 pp.

Skelton, P. W. & Smith, A. B. 2002. Cladistics. A practical primer on CD-ROM.Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. ()

Knapp, S., Bateman, R. M., Chalmers, N. R., Humphries, C. J., Rainbow, P. S., Smith, A. B., Taylor, P. D., Vane-Wright, R. I., Wilkinson, M. 2002. Taxonomy: evolution, not revolution. Nature 419, p. 559 only. PDF (40 Kb)

 

2001

Smith, A. B. 2001. Probing the cassiduloid origins of clypeasteroid echinoids using stratigraphically restricted parsimony analysis. Paleobiology 27(1), 392-404. PDF (2.1 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 2001. Large scale heterogeneity of the fossil record: implications for biodiversity studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 356, 351-367. PDF  (284 Kb)

Smith, A. B. 2001. Stratigraphy in phylogeny reconstruction. Journal of Paleontology 74, 763-766. PDF (60 Kb)

Smith, A. B., Gale, A. S. & Monks, N. E. A. 2001. Sea-level change and rock record bias in the Cretaceous: a problem for extinction and biodiversity studies. Paleobiology 27, 241-253. PDF (420Kb)

Smith, A. B. & Savill, J. J. 2001. Bromidechinus, a new Middle Ordovician Echinozoa (Echinodermata), and its bearing on the early history of echinoids. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 92, 137-147.  PDF (1.8 Mb)

Smith, A. B.  2001. The analysis of diversity. Pp. 504-509, in D. E. G. Briggs & P. Crowther (eds) Palaeobiology 2. Oxford, Blackwell Science. PDF (1.3 Mb)

 

2000

Smith, A. B. 2000. Across Tibet by jeep, pony and foot. Pp. 1-22 in P. J. Whybrow (ed.) Travels with the Fossil Hunters. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/publishing/pubrptfh.html)

Smith, A. B. & Anzalone, L. 2000. Loriolella, a key taxon for understanding the early evolution of irregular echinoids. Palaeontology 43, 303-324. PDF (2.3 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Jeffery, C. H. 2000. Maastrichtian and Palaeocene echinoids: a key to world faunas. Special Papers in Palaeontology 63, 1-406.

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 2000. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 6, Cassiduloida. Palaeontographical Society Monographs p. 391-439, pls 130-138.

Smith, A. B. & Jeffery, C. H. 2000. Changes in diversity, taxic composition and life-history patterns of echinoids over the past 145 million years. Pp. 181-194 in S. J. Culver & P. F. Rawson (eds) Biotic response to global change. The last 145 million years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 501 pp. PDF (2.9 Mb)

Gale, A. S., Smith, A. B., Monks, N. E. A., Young, J. A., Howard, A., Wray, D. S. & Huggett, J. M. 2000. Marine biodiversity through the late Cenomanian- Early Turonian: palaeoceanographic controls and sequence stratigraphic biases. Journal of the Geological Society 157, 745-757. PDF (288Kb)

Skelton, P. W. & Smith, A. B. 2000. A preliminary phylogeny for rudist bivalves: sifting clades from grades.  In: Harper, E. M., Taylor, J. D. & Crame, J. A. (eds) The evolutionary biology of the BivalviaGeological Society London, Special Publications, 177, 97-127. PDF (5.1 Mb)

 

1999

Smith, A. B. 1999. Dating the origin of metazoan body plans. Evolution and Development 1, 1-5. PDF (964Kb)

Smith, A. B., Gallemi, J., Jeffery, C. H., Ernst, G. & Ward, P. D. 1999. Late Cretaceous - early Tertiary echinoids from northern Spain: implications for the Cretaceous - Tertiary extinction event. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, London (Geology) 55(2), 81-137. Part 1 PDF (5.1 Mb); Part 2 PDF (6.8 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Jell, P. A. 1999. A new cornute carpoid from the Upper Cambrian (Idamdean) of Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 43, 341-352. PDF (2 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 1999. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 5, Holectypoida, Echinoneoida. Palaeontographical Society Monographs p. 343-390, pls 115-129.

Dean, J. & Smith, A.B. 1999. Palaeobiology of the primitive Ordovician pelmatozoan echinoderm Cardiocystites. Palaeontology 41, 1183-1194.  PDF (2.2 Mb)

 

1998

Smith, A. B. 1998. What does palaeontology contribute to systematics in a molecular world? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9, 437-447. PDF (2.2 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 1998. It’s written in stone, but can we trust it? [book review of S.K. Donovan, S.K. & Paul, C.R.C. The adequacy of the fossil record]. Nature 395, 340-341.

Smith, A. B. & Jeffery, C. H. 1998. Selectivity of extinction among sea-urchins at the end Cretaceous period. Nature 392, 69-71. PDF (244 Kb)

Austin, J. J., Smith, A. B., Fortey, R. A. & Thomas, R. H. 1998. Ancient DNA from amber inclusions: a review of the evidence. Ancient Biomolecules 2, 167-176. PDF (5.8 Mb)

Jeffery, C. H. & Smith, A. B. 1998. Estimating extinction levels for echinoids across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Pp. 695-701 in R. Mooi & M. Telford (eds) Echinoderms, San Francisco. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam. PDF (1.7 Mb)

Littlewood, D. T. J., Smith, A. B., Clough, K. A. & Emson, R. H. 1998. Five classes of echinoderm and one school of thought. Pp. 47-50 in R. Mooi & M. Telford (eds) Echinoderms: San Francisco. Proceedings of the 9th International Echinoderms Conference. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam. PDF (728 Kb)

 

1997

Smith, A. B. 1997. Echinoderm larvae and phylogeny. Annual Reviews in Systematics and Evolution 28, 219-241. PDF (5.5 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 1997. Echinoid phylogeny: how congruent are morphological and molecular phylogenies? In J. A. Waters & C. G. Maples (eds) Geobiology of Echinoids. The Paleontological Society Papers 3, 337-355. PDF (3.1 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 1997. Phylogeny. Pp. 303-305 in McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, 1998. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Smith, A. B. & Austin, J. J. 1997. Can geologically ancient DNA be recovered from the fossil record? Geoscientist 7(5), 8-11. PDF (1 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Littlewood, D. T. J. 1997. Molecular and morphological evolution during the post-Palaeozoic diversification of echinoids. Pp. 559-583 in T. J. Givnish and K. J. Systma (eds) Molecular evolution and adaptive radiation. Cambridge University Press. PDF (4.5 Mb)

Austin, J. J., Ross, A. J., Smith, A. B., Fortey, R. A. & Thomas, R. H. 1997. Problems of reproducibility - does geologically ancient DNA survive in amber-preserved insects? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 264, 467-474. PDF (432 Kb)

Austin, J. J., Smith, A. B. & Thomas, R. H. 1997. Palaeontology in a molecular world: the search for authentic ancient DNA. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12(8), 303-306. PDF (1 Mb)

Littlewood, D. T. J., Smith, A. B., Clough, K. A. & Emson, R. H. 1997. The interrelationships of the echinoderm classes: morphological and molecular evidence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 61, 409-438. PDF (6.1 Mb)

MacLeod, N. and 16 others 1997. The Cretaceous-Tertiary Faunal Transition. Journal of the Geological Society, London 154, 265-292.

 

1996

Smith, A. B. & McGugan 1996. A new deep-water spatangoid echinoid from the Cretaceous of British Columbia, Canada. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, London (Geology Series) 52, 103-107.

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 1996. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 4, Stirodonta 3 (Phymosomatoida 2) and Camarodonta. Palaeontographical Society Monographs p. 268-341, pls 93-114.

Smith, A. B., Littlewood, D. T. J. & Wray, G. A. 1996. Comparative evolution of larval and adult life history stages and small subunit ribosomal RNA amongst post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Pp. 234-254 in P. H. Harvey, A. J. Leigh Brown, J. M. Smith & S. Nee (eds) New Uses for New Phylogenies. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Emson, R., Smith, A. B. & Campbell, A. C. (eds) 1996. Echinoderm research, 1995. Balkema, Rotterdam, 341 pp.

Wybrow, P., Smith, A. B. & Hill, A. 1996. The fossil record. Pp. 41-50 in, Natural Emirates: wildlife and environment of the United Arab Emirates. Trident Press, London.

 

1995

Smith, A. B. 1995. Late Campanian-Maastrichtian echinoids from the United Arab Emirates - Oman Borders Region. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, London (Geology Series) 51(2), 121-240.

Smith, A. B. 1995. Echinoids of the Oxford Clay. Palaeontology 38, 743-755. PDF (1.2 Mb)

Smith, A. B., Littlewood, D. T. J. & Wray, G. A. 1995. Comparing patterns of evolution: larval and adult life history stages and small subunit ribosomal RNA of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 349, 11-18.  PDF (1.4 Mb)

Smith, A. B., Morris, N. J., Gale, A. S. & Rosen, B. R. 1995. Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) macrofossil assemblages and palaeoenvironments from a Tethyan carbonate platform succession, Oman Mountains. Palaeobiogeography, Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology 119, 115-168. PDF (3 Mb)

Smith, A. B., Morris, N. J., Kennedy, W. J. & Gale, A. S.1995. Late Cretaceous carbonate platform faunas of the United Arab Emirates - Oman Borders Region. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, London (Geology Series) 51(2), 91-120.

Smith, A. B., Paterson, G. L. J. & Lafay, B. 1995. Ophiuroid phylogeny and higher taxonomy: morphological, molecular and palaeontological perspectives. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 114, 213-243.  PDF (7.3Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Wilson, M. A. 1995. A new cyclocystoid (Echinodermata) from the late Ordovician of Kentucky, U.S.A. Journal of Paleontology 69(6), 1186-1187.

Lafay, B., Smith, A. B. & Christen, R. 1995. A combined morphological and molecular approach to resolving the phylogeny of asteroids (Asteroidea: Echinodermata). Systematic Biology 44, 190-208.

Littlewood, D. T. J. & Smith, A. B. 1995. A combined morphological and molecular phylogeny for sea urchins (Echinoidea: Echinodermata). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B 347, 213-234. PDF (4.1 Mb)

 

1994

Smith, A. B. 1994. Rooting molecular trees: problems and approaches.  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 51, 279-292. PDF (4.3 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 1994. Triassic echinoids from Peru. Palaeontographica 233, 177-202.

Smith, A.B. 1994. Systematics and the fossil record: documenting evolutionary patterns.  Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 223 pp.

Smith, A. B. & Littlewood, D. T. J. 1994. Palaeontological data and molecular phylogenetic analysis. Paleobiology 20, 259-273. PDF (2.1 Mb)

Racey, A., Smith, A. B. & Dawson, O. 1994. Permian echinoderms from peninsula Thailand. Pp. 106-114 in T. Thanasuthipitak (ed.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on: Stratigraphic correlation of South East Asia, 15-20 November, 1994.  Facies and Paleontology (BIOSEA). volume 2:106-114. Chiang Mai, Thailand. PDF (2.4 Mb)

 

1993

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 1993. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 3, Stirodonta 2 (Arbacioida and Phymosomatoida 1). Palaeontographical Society Monographs p. 199-267, pls 73-92.

 

1992

Smith, A. B. 1992. Echinoid phylogeny: molecules and morphology approach accord. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7, 224-229. PDF (3.4Mb)

Smith, A. B. 1992. Echinoid distribution in the Cenomanian: an analytical study in biogeography. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology 92, 263-276.

Smith, A. B., Lafay, B. & Christen, R. 1992. Comparative variation in morphological and molecular evolution through time: 28S ribosomal RNA versus morphology in echinoids. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B 338, 365-382. PDF (2.9 Mb)

 

1991

Smith, A. B. & Bengtson, P. 1991. Cretaceous echinoids from north-eastern Brazil. Fossils and Strata 32, 1-88.

Smith, A. B. & Gallemi, J. 1991. Middle Triassic holothurians from northern Spain. Palaeontology 34, 49-76.

 

1990

Smith, A. B. 1990b. Echinoid evolution from the Triassic to the Lower Jurassic. Cahiers Université Catholique de Lyon, Series Science 3, 79-117. PDF part 1 (6.7 Mb); part 2 (6.4 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 1990. Evolutionary diversification of echinoderms during the early Palaeozoic. Pp. 265-286 in P. D. Taylor & G. P. Larwood, (eds) Major evolutionary radiations. Systematics Association Special Volume 42. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Smith, A. B. 1990. Biomineralization in echinoderms.  In Carter, J. G. (ed.) Skeletal biomineralization: patterns, processes, and evolutionary trends. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.  Pp. 413-443, Volume 1; pp. 69-71, pls 170-175, Volume 2. PDF Vol 1 (6.8Mb); PDF Vol 1 (1.7 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Hollingworth, N. T. J. 1990. Tooth structure and phylogeny of the Upper Permian echinoid Miocidaris keyserlingi. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 48, 47-60. PDF (4.1 Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Jell, P. A. 1990. Cambrian echinoderms from north-western Queensland and the origin of starfishes. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 28, 715-778. PDF (part 1) (6.5Mb); PDF (part 2) (4.2Mb)

Smith, A. B., Simmons, M. D. & Racey, A. 1990. Cenomanian echinoids, larger foraminifera and calcareous algae from the Natih Formation, central Oman Mountains. Cretaceous Research 11, 29-69.

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 1990. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 2, Echinothurioida, Diadematoida and Stirodonta (1, Calycina). Palaeontographical Society Monographs, p. 101-198, pls 33-72.

Smith, A. B. & Xu Jun-Tao 1990. Palaeontological results of the 1986 Royal Society - Academia Sinica Geological Traverse of the Tibetan Plateau. [in Chinese]: Beijing Science Press, 1990, pp. 49-106.

Carter, J.G. and 15 others 1990. Glossary of skeletal biomineralization. Pp. 337-399 in Carter, J. G. (ed.) Skeletal biomineralization: patterns, processes, and evolutionary trends.  Volume 1. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Leeder, M. R., Smith, A. B. & Yin Ji-xing 1988. Sedimentology,  palaeoecology and palaeoenvironmental evolution of the 1985 Lhasa to Golmud geotraverse. [ in Chinese] - Bejing Science Press, pp. 107-140.

 

1989

Smith, A. B. 1989. Note on an echinoid from the Upper Albian of Misburg, Hannover. Geologisher Jahrbuch A113, 397-399.

Smith, A. B. 1989. RNA sequence data in phylogenetic reconstruction: testing the limits of its resolution. Cladistics 5, 321-344.

Smith, A. B. 1989. Analysis of diversity. In Briggs, D. E. G. & Crowther, P. A. (eds) Palaeobiology: a synthesis. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 1989. British Cretaceous echinoids. Part 1, Introduction and Cidaroida. Palaeontographical Society Monographs, p. 1-101, pls 1-32.

 

1988

Smith, A. B. 1988. Phylogenetic relationships, divergence times and rates of molecular evolution for camarodont sea urchins. Molecular Biology and Evolution 5, 345-365.

Smith, A. B. 1988. Late Palaeozoic biogeography of East Asia and palaeontological constraints on plate tectonic reconstructions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London A 326, 189-227.

Smith, A. B. 1988. Patterns of diversification and extinction in early Palaeozoic echinoderms. Palaeontology 31, 799-828.

Smith, A. B. 1988. Echinoids. in Smith, A. B., Paul, C. R. C., Gale, A. S. & Donovan, S. K. Cenomanian and Lower Turonian echinoderms from Wilmington, south-east Devon, England. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series 42, 16-188, pls 1-40.

Smith, A.B. (ed.) 1988. Fossils of the Chalk. Palaeontological Association, London, 306 pp.

Smith, A. B.  1988 Fossil evidence for the relationships of extant echinoderm classes and their times of divergence. Pp. 85-97 in Paul, C. R. C. & Smith, A. B. (eds) Echinoderm phylogeny and evolutionary biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Smith, A. B. 1988. To group or not to group: the taxonomic position of Xyloplax. Pp. 17-23 in Burke, R. B., Mladenov, P. V., Lambert, P. &  Parsley, R. L. (eds) Proceedings of the 6th International Echinoderms Conference, Victoria, B.C. 1987. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Smith, A. B. & Patterson, C. 1988. The influence of taxonomic method on the perception of patterns of evolution. Evolutionary Biology 23, 127-216.

Smith, A. B., Paul, C. R. C., Gale, A.S. & Donovan, S.K. 1988. Cenomanian and Lower Turonian echinoderms from Wilmington, south-east Devon, England. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series 42, 1-245. [introductory sections on lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and geological setting].

Smith, A. B.  & Wright, C. W. 1988. Echinoderms. Pp. 201-237 in Smith, A. B. (ed.) Fossils of the Chalk. Palaeontological Association, London.

Smith, A. B. & Xu Jun-Tao 1988. Palaeontological results of the 1986 Royal Society - Academia Sinica Geological Traverse of the Tibetan Plateau. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series A 327, 53-106.

Paul, C. R. C. & Smith, A. B. (eds) 1988. Echinoderm phylogeny and evolutionary biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 373 pp.

Leeder, M. R., Smith, A. B. & Yin Ji-xing 1988. Sedimentology,  palaeoecology and palaeoenvironmental evolution of the 1985 Lhasa to Golmud geotraverse. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A 327, 107-143.

Patterson, C. & Smith, A. B. 1989. Periodicy in extinction: the role of systematics. Ecology 70, 802-811.

Rosen, B.R. & Smith, A. B. 1988. Tectonics from fossils? Analysis of reef-coral and sea-urchin distributions from late Cretaceous to Recent, using a new method. In Audley-Charles, M. G. & Hallam, A. (eds) Gondwana & Tethys. Geological Society Special Publication 37, 275-306.

 

1987

Smith, A. B. & Arbizu, M. A. 1987. Inverse larval development in a Devonian edrioasteroid from Spain and the phylogeny of Agelacrinitinae. Lethaia  20, 49-62.

Smith, A. B. 1987. Fossils in phylogeny. [Review of J. Schoch, Phylogeny reconstruction in palaeontology]. Science 235, 696.

Patterson, C. & Smith, A. B. 1987. Is the periodicity of extinctions a taxonomic artefact? Nature 330, 248-251.

 

1986

Smith, A. B. 1986. Cambrian eleutherozoan echinoderms and the early diversification of the edrioasteroids. Palaeontology 28, 715-756.

Chang Chenfa and 26 others 1986. Preliminary conclusions of the Royal Society and Academia Sinica 1985 geotraverse of Tibet. Nature 323, 501-507.

Wright, C. W. & Smith, A. B. 1986. Tylocidaris Pomel, 1883 (Echinoidea, Cidaroidea): proposed designation of Cidaris clavigera Mantell, 1822, as type species. Z.N. (S.)2505. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 43, 72-74.

 

1985

Smith, A. B. 1985. Fossils explained. 3: sea urchins. Geology Today Sept/Oct, 150-151.

Smith, A. B. 1985. Echinodermata. Pp. 153-181 in J. W. Murray (ed.) Atlas of Invertebrate Macrofossils. Longman, London.

Smith, A. B. & Paul, C. R. C. 1985. Variation in the irregular echinoid Discoides during the early Cenomanian. Special Papers in Palaeontology 33, 29-37.

Smith, A. B. & Trantor, T. H. 1985. Protremaster, a new Lower Jurassic genus of asteroid from Antarctica. Geological Magazine 122, 351-359.

Smith, A. B. & Zaghbib-Turki, D. 1985. Les Archiaciidae (Cassiduloida, Echinoidea) du Cretacé superieur de Tunisie et leur mode de vie. Annales de Paleontologie 72, 1-33.

 

1984

Smith, A. B. 1984. Classification of the Echinodermata. Palaeontology 27, 431-459.  PDF (1.8 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 1984. Echinoid Palaeobiology. George Allen & Unwin, London.199 pp.

Gutierrez-Marco, J. C., Chauvel, J., Melendez, B. & Smith, A. B. 1984. The Lower Palaeozoic echinoderms (Cystoidea, Homalozoa, Stelleroidea, Crinoidea) from the Toledo Mountains and Sierra Morena (Spain). Estudios geologicos 40, 421-453.

Paul, C. R. C. & Smith, A. B. 1984. The early radiation and phylogeny of echinoderms. Biological Reviews 59, 443-481.  PDF

 

1983

Smith, A. B. 1983. British Carboniferous Edrioasteroidea (Echinodermata). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series 37, 113-138.

Smith, A. B. & Crimes, T. P. 1983. Trace fossils formed by heart urchins - a study of Scolicia and related traces. Lethaia 16, 79-92.

 

1982

Smith, A. B. 1982. Tooth structure of the pygasteroid sea urchin Plesiechinus. Palaeontology 25, 891-896.  PDF (468 Kb)

Smith, A. B. 1982. The affinities of the Middle Cambrian Haplozoa (Echinodermata). Alcheringa 6, 93-99.

Smith, A. B. & Ghiold, J. 1982. Roles for holes in sand dollars (Echinoidea): a review of lunule function and evolution. Paleobiology 8, 242-253. PDF (4.1Mb)

Smith, A. B. & Paul, C. R. C. 1982. Revision of the Class Cyclocystoidea (Echinodermata). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B 296, 577-684.  PDF (37.2 Mb!)

Gale, A.S. & Smith, A. B. 1982. The palaeobiology of the Cretaceous irregular echinoids Infulaster and Hagenowia. Palaeontology 25, 11-42. PDF (2.6 Mb)

 

1981

Smith, A. B. 1981. Implications of lantern morphology for the phylogeny of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Palaeontology 24, 779-801. PDF (3.7 Mb)

 

1980

Smith, A. B. 1980. Floridiscus girvanensis, a new edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) from the Ordovician of Ayrshire. Scottish Journal of Geology 16, 275-279.

Smith, A. B. 1980. Stereom microstructure of the echinoid test. Special Papers in Palaeontology 25, 81 pp.

Smith, A. B. 1980. The structure, function and evolution of tube feet and ambulacral pores in irregular echinoids. Palaeontology 23, 39-83. PDF (7.1 Mb)

Smith, A. B. 1980. The structure and arrangement of echinoid tubercles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 289, 1-54. PDF (45.5 Mb!)

 

1979

Smith, A. B. 1979. Peristomial tube feet and plates of regular echinoids. Zoomorphologie 94, 647-80.

 

1978

Smith, A. B. 1978b. A functional classification of the coronal pores of regular echinoids. Palaeontology 21, 759-789. PDF (4.4Mb)

Smith, A. B. 1978a. A comparative study of the life style of two Jurassic irregular echinoids. Lethaia 11, 57-66.