There are no obvious social courtship rituals.
Nests are made in sheltered locations such as:
Eggs are laid late August to October (or December if the first brood fails). Broods of 3–7 (usually 6) white eggs are laid and incubated by the female for 33–35 days.
About half (54%) of nesting attempts lead to successful hatching of ducklings. Flooding or mammalian predation can lead to nest failure.
60% of ducklings survive to fledging.
Both parents care for the young throughout a 70–82 day fledging period.
Mean lifespan: 6–7 years.