Prof Paul Williams

Prof Paul Williams

Researcher, Entomology

Department: Life Sciences
Division: LS Insects Division
Phone: 02079425442
ResearchGate

Specialisms

biodiversity, biogeography, bumblebees, conservation, ecology, phylogeny, species declines, taxonomy

Summary

My interest is in the ecology of bumblebee declines. A first quantitative description in the 1980s linked regional declines of bumblebees in Britain with an interaction between, on the one hand, the role of climate through global distributions of species, and on the other, the role of the local availability of changing densities of suitable flowers. Bumblebee declines have since being reported in many parts of the world, involving an increasing breadth of factors. I am now working with many colleagues around the world towards IUCN Red List assessment of the threat status of all bumblebees. This has led to comparison of susceptibility to climate warming between specialist high alpine and high arctic bumblebees, which is being explored through collaborations and student projects. This is helping in developing new Red List protocols for assessing the threats from climate change. Second I also have a long-standing interest in the history of spread and speciation of bumblebees, covering their taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography world-wide. This involves the application of molecular data to help resolve difficult species complexes, especially within the largest and least well known bumblebee fauna, in Asia (with more than half of the world's bumblebee species). It is contributing to an understanding of the early evolution of bumblebees, as they followed the uplift of corridors of mountains, combined with the effects of climate changes and climate-niche evolution. For a complete list of publications on bumblebees, see: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/bombus/publications.html

Qualifications

Degrees

PhD, University of Cambridge, UK, 1982 - 1985

MA, Trinity College, University of Cambridge, UK, 1978 - 1982

Employment history

Academic

Visiting Professor, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Apiculture, Beijing, China, 2013 - 2018

Institute for Advanced Study, Berlin, Research Fellow, Natural History Museum, Entomology, UK, 1993 - 1997

NERC Research Fellow, Natural History Museum, Entomology, UK, 1992 - 1993

NHM Interdisciplinary Research Fellow, Natural History Museum, Entomology, UK, 1990 - 1992

NERC Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Natural History Museum, Entomology, UK, 1985 - 1987

Highlighted publications

Williams PH, Lobo JM, Meseguer AS (2017) Bumblebees take the high road: climatically integrative biogeography shows that escape from Tibet, not Tibetan uplift, is associated with divergences of present-day Mendacibombus . Ecography, doi: 10.1111/ecog.03074

Williams PAULH, Huang JIAXING, Rasmont PIERRE, An JIANDONG (2016) Early-diverging bumblebees from across the roof of the world: the high-mountain subgenus Mendacibombus revised from species’ gene coalescents and morphology (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Zootaxa, 4204 (1) : 1 - 1. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4204.1.1

Williams PH, Byvaltsev AM, Cederberg B, Berezin MV, Ødegaard F, et al. (2015) Genes Suggest Ancestral Colour Polymorphisms Are Shared across Morphologically Cryptic Species in Arctic Bumblebees. PLOS ONE, 10 (12) : e0144544 - e0144544. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144544

Williams PH, Bystriakova N, Huang J, Miao Z, An J-D (2015) Bumblebees, climate, and glaciers across the Tibetan plateau (Apidae: Bombus Latreille). Systematics and Biodiversity, 13 (2) : 164 - 181.

Williams PH, Thorp RW, Richardson LL, Colla SR (2014) Bumble bees of North America. An identification guide.. Princeton University Press : Princeton New Jersey.

Williams PH, Brown MJF, Carolan JC, An J, Goulson D, et al. (2012) Unveiling cryptic species of the bumblebee subgenus Bombus s. str. worldwide with COI barcodes (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Systematics and Biodiversity, 10 (1) : 21 - 56. doi: 10.1080/14772000.2012.664574

Grants

Guide to the bumblebees of North China
Role: Principal investigatorWilliams P
Co-investigator: An J
Funding: Royal Society
Total value £11,916 (to Museum £11,916)
Dates: 2012 - 2014

Resolving cryptic bumblebees of the lucorum-group
Role: Principal investigatorWilliams P
Co-investigator: Goulson D
Funding: Linnean Society
Total value £29,035 (to Museum £29,035)
Dates: 2010 - 2011

Collaboration on Bumblebee Research with CAAS
Funding: CAAS Institute of Apicultural Research
Total value £7,500 (to Museum £4,096.67)
Dates: 2013 - 2018

Partnership

Bumblebees of China
2007 - 2014.

Fieldwork

China
1991 - 2014.

External Positions

Chair, IUCN Bumblebee Specialist Group, Chair 2011 - 2014.

Publications

Arbetman MP, Gleiser G, Morales CL, Williams P, Aizen MA (2017) Global decline of bumblebees is phylogenetically structured and inversely related to species range size and pathogen incidence.. Proceedings. Biological sciences, 284 (1859) : doi: 10.1098/rspb.2017.0204

Williams PH (2017) Bumblebees on top: research on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. 31 : 22 - 27.

Williams PH, Huang J, An J (2017) Bear wasps of the Middle Kingdom: a decade of discovering China's bumblebees. 41 (1) : 21 - 24.

Williams PH, Lobo JM, Meseguer AS (2017) Bumblebees take the high road: climatically integrative biogeography shows that escape from Tibet, not Tibetan uplift, is associated with divergences of present-day Mendacibombus . Ecography, doi: 10.1111/ecog.03074

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2017) Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2016. London. 1 - 16.

Williams PH, Cannings SG, Sheffield CS (2016) Cryptic subarctic diversity: a new bumblebee species from the Yukon and Alaska (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Natural History, 50 (45-46) : 2881 - 2893. doi: 10.1080/00222933.2016.1214294

Williams PAULH, Huang JIAXING, Rasmont PIERRE, An JIANDONG (2016) Early-diverging bumblebees from across the roof of the world: the high-mountain subgenus Mendacibombus revised from species’ gene coalescents and morphology (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Zootaxa, 4204 (1) : 1 - 1. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4204.1.1

Sheffield CS, Richardson L, Cannings S, Ngo H, Heron J, Williams PH (2016) Biogeography and designatable units of Bombus occidentalis Greene and B. terricola Kirby (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with implications for conservation status assessments. Journal of Insect Conservation, 20 (2) : 189 - 199. doi: 10.1007/s10841-016-9853-2

Lozier JD, Cameron SA, Duennes MA, Strange JP, Williams PH, Goulson D, Brown MJF, Morales C, Jepsen S (2015) Relocation risky for bumblebee colonies. Science, 350 (6258) : 286 - 287. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6258.286-b

Prys-jones OE, Williams PH (2015) New bumblebee records for Orkney and Fair Isle. BWARS Newsletter, 2015 : 14 - 16.

Williams PH (2016) Family or Fashion? Colour Patterns in Arctic Bumblebees. Barcode Bulletin, 7 (1) : 18 - 19.

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2016) Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2015. 1 - 20.

Williams PH, Spevak E, Jepsen S (2016) Bumblebee conservation worldwide within the IUCN framework, In: Pollination services to agriculture, Gemmill-Herren B (Eds). FAO of the United Nations and Routledge : Abingdon, Oxfordshire. 180 - 199.

Williams PH, Byvaltsev AM, Cederberg B, Berezin MV, Ødegaard F, Rasmussen C, Richardson LL, Huang J, Sheffield CS, Williams ST (2015) Genes Suggest Ancestral Colour Polymorphisms Are Shared across Morphologically Cryptic Species in Arctic Bumblebees. PLOS ONE, 10 (12) : e0144544 - e0144544. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144544

Huang J, An J, Wu J, Williams PH (2015) Extreme Food-Plant Specialisation in Megabombus Bumblebees as a Product of Long Tongues Combined with Short Nesting Seasons. PLOS ONE, 10 (8) : e0132358 - e0132358. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132358

Li J, Powell JE, Guo J, Evans JD, Wu J, Williams P, Lin Q, Moran NA, Zhang Z (2015) Two gut community enterotypes recur in diverse bumblebee species. Current Biology, 25 (15) : R652 - R653. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.031

Woodard SH, Lozier JD, Goulson D, Williams PH, Strange JP, Jha S (2015) Molecular tools and bumble bees: revealing hidden details of ecology and evolution in a model system. Molecular Ecology, 24 (12) : 2916 - 2936. doi: 10.1111/mec.13198

Williams PH (2015) Bombus rubriventris : type locality, different histories of bumblebees in the New World, and a likely invertebrate extinction. Journal of Natural History, 49 (19-20) : 1159 - 1171. doi: 10.1080/00222933.2014.954022

Zhang H, Huang J, Williams PH, Vaissière BE, Zhou Z, Gai Q, Dong J, An J (2015) Managed Bumblebees Outperform Honeybees in Increasing Peach Fruit Set in China: Different Limiting Processes with Different Pollinators. PLOS ONE, 10 (3) : e0121143 - e0121143. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121143

Huang J, Wu J, An J, Williams PH (2015) Newly discovered colour-pattern polymorphism of Bombus koreanus females (Hymenoptera: Apidae) demonstrated by DNA barcoding. Apidologie, 46 (2) : 250 - 261. doi: 10.1007/s13592-014-0319-9

Williams PH, Bystriakova N, Huang J, Miao Z, An J-D (2015) Bumblebees, climate, and glaciers across the Tibetan plateau (Apidae: Bombus Latreille). Systematics and Biodiversity, 13 (2) : 164 - 181.

Scriven JJ, Woodall LC, Tinsley MC, Knight ME, Williams PH, Carolan JC, Brown MJF, Goulson D (2015) Revealing the hidden niches of cryptic bumblebees in Great Britain: Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation, 182 : 126 - 133. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.11.027

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2015) Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2014. 1 - 15.

Gerlach J, Samways MJ, Hochkirch A, Seddon M, Cardoso P, Clausnitzer V, Cumberlidge N, Daniel BA, Black SH, Ott J, Williams PH (2014) Prioritizing non-marine invertebrate taxa for Red Listing. Journal of Insect Conservation, 18 (4) : 573 - 586. doi: 10.1007/s10841-014-9660-6

An J, Huang J, Shao Y, Zhang S, Wang B, Liu X, Wu J, Williams PH (2014) The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille). ZOOTAXA, 3830 (1) : 1 - +.

Williams PH, Thorp RW, Richardson LL, Colla SR (2014) Bumble bees of North America. An identification guide.. Princeton University Press : Princeton New Jersey.

Williams PH (2014) One of the oldest and rarest bumblebees rediscovered. 26 : 5 - 5.

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2014) IUCN BBSG - Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2013.

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2013) IUCN BBSG - Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2012. : Natural History MuseumLondon.

Carolan JC, Murray TE, Fitzpatrick Ú, Crossley J, Schmidt H, Cederberg B, Mcnally L, Paxton RJ, Williams PH, Brown MJF (2012) Colour Patterns Do Not Diagnose Species: Quantitative Evaluation of a DNA Barcoded Cryptic Bumblebee Complex. PLoS ONE, 7 (1) : e29251 - e29251. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029251

Hines HEATHERM, Williams PAULH (2012) Mimetic colour pattern evolution in the highly polymorphic Bombus trifasciatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) species complex and its comimics. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 166 (4) : 805 - 826. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00861.x

Koch J, Strange J, Williams PH (2012) Bumble bees of the western United States. null :

Pellissier L, Pradervand J-N, Williams PH, Litsios G, Cherix D, Guisan A (2013) Phylogenetic relatedness and proboscis length contribute to structuring bumblebee communities in the extremes of abiotic and biotic gradients. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22 (5) : 577 - 585. doi: 10.1111/geb.12026

Williams PH, An J, Brown MJF, Carolan JC, Goulson D, Huang J, Ito M (2012) Cryptic Bumblebee Species: Consequences for Conservation and the Trade in Greenhouse Pollinators. PLoS ONE, 7 (3) : e32992 - e32992. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032992

Williams PH, Brown MJF, Carolan JC, An J, Goulson D, Aytekin AM, Best LR, Byvaltsev AM, Cederberg B, Dawson R, Huang J, Ito M, Monfared A, Raina RH, Schmid-hempel P, Sheffield CS, Šima P, Xie Z (2012) Unveiling cryptic species of the bumblebee subgenus Bombus s. str. worldwide with COI barcodes (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Systematics and Biodiversity, 10 (1) : 21 - 56. doi: 10.1080/14772000.2012.664574

Williams PH, Byvaltsev A, Sheffield C, Rasmont P (2013) Bombus cullumanus—an extinct European bumblebee species?. Apidologie, 44 (2) : 121 - 132. doi: 10.1007/s13592-012-0161-x

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2012) IUCN Bumblebee Specialist Group .

An J, Williams PH, Zhou B, Miao Z, Qi W (2011) The bumblebees of Gansu, Northwest China (Hymenoptera, Apidae). ZOOTAXA, 1 - 36.

Colla S, Richardson L, Williams PH (2011) Bumble bees of the eastern United States. United States Forest Service and the Pollinator Partnership :

Sheffield CS, Williams PH (2011) Discovery of Bombus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in continental North America. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 142 : 53 - 56.

Williams PH (2011) Bumblebees collected by the Kyushu University Expeditions to Central Asia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, genus Bombus). Esakia, 50 : 27 - 36.

Williams PAULH, An JIANDONG, Huang JIAXING (2011) The bumblebees of the subgenus Subterraneobombus: integrating evidence from morphology and DNA barcodes (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163 (3) : 813 - 862. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00729.x

An J-D, Huang J-X, Williams PH, Wu J, Zhou B-F (2010) Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 21 : 1542 - 1550.

Martin SJ, Carruthers JM, Williams PH, Drijfhout FP (2010) Host Specific Social Parasites (Psithyrus) Indicate Chemical Recognition System in Bumblebees. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 36 (8) : 855 - 863. doi: 10.1007/s10886-010-9805-3

Williams P, An J, Huang J, Yao J (2010) BBCI: A new initiative to document Chinese bumble bees for pollination research. Journal of Apicultural Research, 49 (2) : 221 - 222. doi: 10.3896/IBRA.1.49.2.15

Williams PH, Ito M, Matsumura T, Kudo I (2010) The bumblebees of the Nepal Himalaya (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Insecta Matsumurana, 66 : 115 - 151.

Williams PAUL, Colla SHEILA, Xie ZHENGHUA (2009) Bumblebee Vulnerability: Common Correlates of Winners and Losers across Three Continents. Conservation Biology, 23 (4) : 931 - 940. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01176.x

Williams PH, Osborne JL (2009) Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide. Apidologie, 40 (3) : 367 - 387. doi: 10.1051/apido/2009025

Williams P, Tang Y, Yao J, Cameron S (2009) The bumblebees of Sichuan (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Systematics and Biodiversity, 7 (2) : 101 - 189. doi: 10.1017/S1477200008002843

Hannah L, Araujo MB, Midgley G, Andelman S, Martinez-meyer E, Pearson R, Williams P, Lovejoy TE (2008) Terrestrial biodiversity, In: A climate for life: meeting the global challenge, Mittermeier RA, Totten M, Ledwith Pennypacker L, Boltz F, Mittermeier CG, Midgley G, Rodríguez CM, Prickett G, Gascon C, Seligmann PA, Langrand O (Eds). CEMEX Conservation Book Series; ILCP, Arlington, VA : 189 - 216.

Phillips SJ, Williams P, Midgley G, Archer A (2008) OPTIMIZING DISPERSAL CORRIDORS FOR THE CAPE PROTEACEAE USING NETWORK FLOW. Ecological Applications, 18 (5) : 1200 - 1211. doi: 10.1890/07-0507.1

Williams PH (2008) Do the parasitic Psithyrus resemble their host bumblebees in colour pattern?. Apidologie, 39 (6) : 637 - 649. doi: 10.1051/apido:2008048

Williams PH, Cameron SA, Hines HM, Cederberg B, Rasmont P (2008) A simplified subgeneric classification of the bumblebees (genus ). Apidologie, 39 (1) : 46 - 74. doi: 10.1051/apido:2007052

Xie Z, Williams PH, Tang Y (2008) The effect of grazing on bumblebees in the high rangelands of the eastern Tibetan Plateau of Sichuan. Journal of Insect Conservation, 12 (6) : 695 - 703. doi: 10.1007/s10841-008-9180-3

Cameron SA, Hines HM, Williams PH (2007) A comprehensive phylogeny of the bumble bees (Bombus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 91 (1) : 161 - 188. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00784.x

Burgess ND, Balmford A, Cordeiro NJ, Fjeldså J, Küper W, Rahbek C, Sanderson EW, Scharlemann JPW, Sommer JH, Williams PH (2007) Correlations among species distributions, human density and human infrastructure across the high biodiversity tropical mountains of Africa. Biological Conservation, 134 (2) : 164 - 177. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2006.08.024

Hannah L, Midgley G, Andelman S, Araújo M, Hughes G, Martinez-meyer E, Pearson R, Williams P (2007) Protected area needs in a changing climate. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 5 : 131 - 138.

Hawkins BA, Albuquerque FS, Araújo MB, Beck J, Bini LM, Cabrero-sañudo FJ, Castro-parga I, Diniz-filho JAF, Ferrer-castán D, Field R, Gómez JF, Hortal J, Kerr JT, Kitching IJ, León-cortés JL, Lobo JM, Montoya D, Moreno JC, Olalla-tárraga MÁ, Pausas JG, Qian H, Rahbek C, Rodríguez MÁ, Sanders NJ, Williams P (2007) A GLOBAL EVALUATION OF METABOLIC THEORY AS AN EXPLANATION FOR TERRESTRIAL SPECIES RICHNESS GRADIENTS. Ecology, 88 (8) : 1877 - 1888. doi: 10.1890/06-1444.1

Kark S, Allnutt TF, Levin N, Manne LL, Williams PH (2007) The role of transitional areas as avian biodiversity centres. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16 (2) : 187 - 196. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2006.00274.x

Manne LL, Williams PH, Midgley GF, Thuiller W, Rebelo T, Hannah L (2007) Spatial and temporal variation in species-area relationships in the Fynbos biological hotspot. Ecography, 30 (6) : 852 - 861. doi: 10.1111/j.2007.0906-7590.05121.x

Monfared A, Asghar TalebiA, Tahmasbi G, Williams PH, Ebrahimi E, Taghavi A (2008) A Survey of the Localities and Food-Plants of the Bumblebees of Iran (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Entomologia Generalis, 30 (4) : 283 - 299. doi: 10.1127/entom.gen/30/2008/283

Williams PH (2007) Bumble bees - and their decline in Britain, In: Aspects of sociality in insects, Carreck NL, Johnson TW (Eds). Central Association of Bee-Keepers : Ilford. 161 - 176.

Williams PH, Araújo MB, Rasmont P (2007) Can vulnerability among British bumblebee (Bombus) species be explained by niche position and breadth?. Biological Conservation, 138 (3-4) : 493 - 505. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.001

Williams PAUL (2007) The distribution of bumblebee colour patterns worldwide: possible significance for thermoregulation, crypsis, and warning mimicry. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 92 (1) : 97 - 118. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00878.x

Williams P (2007) Places to see bumblebees: Dungeness. 4 : 4 - 7.

Williams P, Manne L (2007) Complementarity, In: null, Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-226865-6 : 4666 pp. 1 - 12.

Hines HM, Cameron SA, Williams PH (2006) Molecular phylogeny of the bumble bee subgenus Pyrobombus (Hymenoptera�:�Apidae�:� Bombus ) with insights into gene utility for lower-level analysis. Invertebrate Systematics, 20 (3) : 289 - 289. doi: 10.1071/IS05028

Sarkar S, Pressey RL, Faith DP, Margules CR, Fuller T, Stoms DM, Moffett A, Wilson KA, Williams KJ, Williams PH, Andelman S (2006) Biodiversity Conservation Planning Tools: Present Status and Challenges for the Future. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31 (1) : 123 - 159. doi: 10.1146/annurev.energy.31.042606.085844

Williams P, Faith D, Manne L, Sechrest W, Preston C (2006) Complementarity analysis: Mapping the performance of surrogates for biodiversity. Biological Conservation, 128 (2) : 253 - 264. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.047

Araujo MB, Thuiller W, Williams PH, Reginster I (2005) Downscaling European species atlas distributions to a finer resolution: implications for conservation planning. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14 (1) : 17 - 30. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-822X.2004.00128.x

Bhagwat SA, Kushalappa CG, Williams PH, Brown ND (2005) The role of informal protected areas in maintaining biodiversity in the Western Ghats of India. ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY, 10 (1) :

Bhagwat SHONILA, Kushalappa CHEPPUDIRAG, Williams PAULH, Brown NICKD (2005) A Landscape Approach to Biodiversity Conservation of Sacred Groves in the Western Ghats of India. Conservation Biology, 19 (6) : 1853 - 1862. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00248.x

Jones AC, White RJ, Gray WA, Bisby FA, Caithness N, Pittas N, Xu XB, Sutton T, Fiddian NJ, Culham A, Scoble M, Williams P, Bromley O, Brewer P, Yesson C, Bhagwat S (2005) Building a biodiversity GRID. GRID COMPUTING IN LIFE SCIENCE 3370 : 140 - 151.

Tushabe HERBERT, Kalema JAMES, Byaruhanga ACHILLES, Asasira JOSEPHINE, Ssegawa PAUL, Balmford ANDREW, Davenport TIM, Fjeldså JON, Friis IB, Pain DEBORAH, Pomeroy DEREK, Williams PAUL, Williams CHARLES (2006) A Nationwide Assessment of the Biodiversity Value of Uganda's Important Bird Areas Network. Conservation Biology, 20 (1) : 85 - 99. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00318.x

Williams P (2005) Does specialization explain rarity and decline among British bumblebees? A response to Goulson et al.. Biological Conservation, 122 (1) : 33 - 43. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.06.019

Williams PH, Thomas JC (2005) A bumblebee new to the new world: Bombus distinguendus (Hymenoptera : Apidae). CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 137 (2) : 158 - 162.

Williams PAUL, Hannah LEE, Andelman SANDY, Midgley GUY, Araújo MIGUEL, Hughes GREG, Manne LISA, Martinez-meyer ENRIQUE, Pearson RICHARD (2005) Planning for Climate Change: Identifying Minimum-Dispersal Corridors for the Cape Proteaceae. Conservation Biology, 19 (4) : 1063 - 1074. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00080.x

Araujo MB, Cabeza M, Thuiller W, Hannah L, Williams PH (2004) Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods. Global Change Biology, 10 (9) : 1618 - 1626. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00828.x

Araujo MB, Densham PJ, Williams PH (2004) Representing species in reserves from patterns of assemblage diversity. Journal of Biogeography, 31 (7) : 1037 - 1050. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01051.x

Edwards M, Williams PH (2004) Where have all the bumblebees gone, and could they ever return?. British Wildlife, 15 : 305 - 312.

Williams PH (2004) Genus Bombus Latreille. Gupta RK (Eds). Jai Narain Vyas University : Jodhpur.

Williams PH, Margules C (2004) Grid cells, polygons, and ecoregions in biogeography and in biodiversity priority-area selection, In: Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa, a conservation assessment, Island Press : 29 - 32.

Williams PH, Moore JL, Toham AK, Brooks TM, Strand H, D'amico J, Wisz M, Burgess ND, Balmford A, Rahbek C (2003) Integrating biodiversity priorities with conflicting socio-economic values in the Guinean-Congolian forest region. BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION, 12 (6) : 1297 - 1320. doi: 10.1023/A:1023092100942

Cameron SA, Williams PH (2003) Phylogeny of bumble bees in the New World subgenus Fervidobombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae): congruence of molecular and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 28 (3) : 552 - 563. doi: 10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00056-3

Loiselle BETTEA, Howell CHRISTINEA, Graham CATHERINEH, Goerck JAQUELINEM, Brooks THOMAS, Smith KIMBERLYG, Williams PAULH (2003) Avoiding Pitfalls of Using Species Distribution Models in Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology, 17 (6) : 1591 - 1600. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00233.x

Manne LL, Williams PH (2003) Building indicator groups based on species characteristics can improve conservation planning. Animal Conservation, 6 (4) : 291 - 297. doi: 10.1017/S1367943003003354

Moore JL, Balmford A, Brooks T, Burgess ND, Hansen LA, Rahbek C, Williams PH (2003) Performance of Sub-Saharan Vertebrates as Indicator Groups for Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation. Conservation Biology, 17 (1) : 207 - 218. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.01126.x

Moore JL, Folkmann M, Balmford A, Brooks T, Burgess N, Rahbek C, Williams PH, Krarup J (2003) Heuristic and optimal solutions for set-covering problems in conservation biology. Ecography, 26 (5) : 595 - 601. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0587.2003.03467.x

Väre H, Lampinen R, Humphries C, Williams PH (2003) Taxonomic diversity of vascular plants in the European alpine areas, In: Alpine Biodiversity in Europe. Ecological studies 167, Nagy L, Grabherr G, Körner C, Thompson DBA (Eds). Springer : Berlin. 133 - 148.

Williams PH, Wisz M, Rahbek C, Moore J, Hansen L, Burgess N, Brooks T, Balmford A (2003) Quantitative methods of priority setting, In: Biological priorities for conservation in the Guinean-Congolian forest and freshwater region, Kamdem-Toham A, D'Amico J, Olson D, Blom A, Trowbridge L, Burgess N, Thieme M, Abell R, Carroll RW, Gartlan S, Langrand O, Mikala Mussavu R, O'Hara D, Strand H (Eds). WWF- CARPO : Libreville, Gabon. 57 - 71.

Burgess ND, Rahbek C, Larsen FW, Williams P, Balmford A (2002) How much of the vertebrate diversity of sub-Saharan Africa is catered for by recent conservation proposals?. Biological Conservation, 107 (3) : 327 - 339. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00071-X

Moore JL, Manne L, Brooks T, Burgess ND, Davies R, Rahbek C, Williams P, Balmford A (2002) The distribution of cultural and biological diversity in Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 269 (1501) : 1645 - 1653. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2002.2075

Margules CR, Pressey RL, Williams PH (2002) Representing biodiversity: Data and procedures for identifying priority areas for conservation. Journal of Biosciences, 27 (4) : 309 - 326. doi: 10.1007/BF02704962

Williams PH, Margules CR, Hilbert DW (2002) Data requirements and data sources for biodiversity priority area selection. Journal of Biosciences, 27 (4) : 327 - 338. doi: 10.1007/BF02704963

Williams PH, Araujo MB (2002) Apples, oranges, and probabilities: Integrating multiple factors into biodiversity conservation with consistency. ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING & ASSESSMENT, 7 (2) : 139 - 151. doi: 10.1023/A:1015657917928

Araújo MB, Williams PH (2001) The Bias of Complementarity Hotspots toward Marginal Populations. Conservation Biology, 15 (6) : 1710 - 1720. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.99450.x

Balmford A, Moore J, Brooks T, Burgess N, Hansen LA, Lovett JC, Tokumine S, Williams P, Woodward FI, Rahbek C (2001) People and biodiversity in Africa - Response. SCIENCE, 293 (5535) : 1591 - 1592.

Brooks THOMAS, Balmford ANDREW, Burgess NEIL, Fjeldså JON, Hansen LOUISA, Moore JOSLIN, Rahbek CARSTEN, Williams PAUL (2001) Toward a Blueprint for Conservation in Africa. BioScience, 51 (8) : 613 - 613. doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0613:TABFCI]2.0.CO;2

Balmford A (2001) Conservation Conflicts Across Africa. Science, 291 (5513) : 2616 - 2619. doi: 10.1126/science.291.5513.2616

Araújo MB, Williams PH (2000) Selecting areas for species persistence using occurrence data. Biological Conservation, 96 (3) : 331 - 345. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00074-4

Hopkinson P, Travis JMJ, Prendergast JR, Evans J, Gregory RD, Telfer MG, Williams PH (2000) A preliminary assessment of the contribution of nature reserves to biodiversity conservation in Great Britain. Animal Conservation, 3 (4) : 311 - 320. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2000.tb00116.x

Williams PH, Araejo MB (2000) Using probability of persistence to identify important areas for biodiversity conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 267 (1456) : 1959 - 1966. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2000.1236

Williams PH, Burgess ND, Rahbek C (2000) Flagship species, ecological complementarity and conserving the diversity of mammals and birds in sub-Saharan Africa. Animal Conservation, 3 (3) : 249 - 260. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2000.tb00110.x

Mace GM, Balmford A, Boitani L, Cowlishaw G, Dobson AP, Faith DP, Gaston KJ, Humphries CJ, Vane-wright RI, Williams PH, Lawton JH, Margules CR, May RM, Nicholls AO, Possingham HP, Rahbek C, Van JaarsveldAS (2000) It's time to work together and stop duplicating conservation efforts .... NATURE, 405 (6785) : 393 - 393. doi: 10.1038/35013247

Williams PH (2000) Some properties of rarity scores used in site quality assessment. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 13 : 73 - 86.

Williams PH (2000) Are Bombus lucorum and magnus separate species?. BWARS Newsletter, 2000 : 15 - 17.

Williams PH (2000) Bumblebees of the world .

Williams PH, Hernández LM (2000) Distinguishing females of the bumble bees Bombus ruderatus (F.) from Bombus hortorum (L.) in Britain: a preliminary application of quantitative techniques. : The Natural History MuseumLondon.

Williams PH, Klerk HM, Crowe TM (1999) Interpreting biogeographical boundaries among Afrotropical birds: spatial patterns in richness gradients and species replacement. Journal of Biogeography, 26 (3) : 459 - 474. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00294.x

Pressey RL, Possingham HP, Logan VS, Day JR, Williams PH (1999) Effects of data characteristics on the results of reserve selection algorithms. Journal of Biogeography 26 (1) : 179 - 191. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00258.x

Williams PH (1998) Biodiversity indicators: graphical techniques, smoothing and searching for what makes relationships work. Ecography, 21 (5) : 551 - 560. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.1998.tb00447.x

Chown SL, Gaston KJ, Williams PH (1998) Global patterns in species richness of pelagic seabirds: the Procellariiformes. Ecography, 21 (4) : 342 - 350. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.1998.tb00399.x

Hacker JE, Cowlishaw G, Williams PH (1998) Patterns of African primate diversity and their evaluation for the selection of conservation areas. Biological Conservation, 84 (3) : 251 - 262. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00115-8

Williams PH (1998) An annotated checklist of bumble bees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bulletin of The Natural History Museum (Entomology), 67 :

Williams PH, Gaston KJ (1998) Biodiversity indicators: graphical techniques, smoothing and searching for what makes relationships work. Ecography, 21 : 559 - 568.

Williams P, Humphries C, Vane-wright D, Gaston K (1997) Descriptive and predictive approaches to biodiversity measurement. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 12 (11) : 444 - 445. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(97)85749-7

Csuti B, Polasky S, Williams PH, Pressey RL, Camm JD, Kershaw M, Kiester AR, Downs B, Hamilton R, Huso M, Sahr K (1997) A comparison of reserve selection algorithms using data on terrestrial vertebrates in Oregon. Biological Conservation, 80 (1) : 83 - 97. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(96)00068-7

Muriuki JN, Deklerk HM, Williams PH, Bennun LA, Crowe TM, Vandenberge E (1997) Using patterns of distribution and diversity of Kenyan birds to select and prioritize areas for conservation. BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION, 6 (2) : 191 - 210. doi: 10.1023/A:1018340002756

Williams P, Gaston K, Humphries C, Vanewright D (1997) Biodiversity, biospecifics, and ecological services - Reply. TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, 12 (2) : 66 - 67. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(97)82678-X

Williams PH, Gaston KJ, Humphries CJ (1997) Mapping biodiversity value worldwide: combining higher-taxon richness from different groups. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 264 (1378) : 141 - 148. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1997.0021

Plowright CMS, Plowright RC, Williams PH (1997) Replacement of Bombus muscorum by Bombus pascuorum in northern Britain. CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 129 (6) : 985 - 990.

Williams PH (1997) Worldmap .

Williams P, Humphries C, Vane-wright D, Gaston K (1996) Value in biodiversity, ecological services and consensus. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 11 (9) : 385 - 385. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(96)81143-8

Parga IC, Saiz JCM, Humphries CJ, Williams PH (1996) Strengthening the natural and national park system of Iberia to conserve vascular plants. BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, 121 (3) : 189 - 206.

Williams PH, Prance GT, Humphries CJ, Edwards KS (1996) Promise and problems in applying quantitative complementary areas for representing the diversity of some Neotropical plants (families Dichapetalaceae, Lecythidaceae, Caryocaraceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Proteaceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 58 (2) : 125 - 157. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1996.tb01428.x

Williams PH (1996) Mapping Variations in the Strength and Breadth of Biogeographic Transition Zones Using Species Turnover. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 263 (1370) : 579 - 588. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1996.0087

Williams P, Gibbons D, Margules C, Rebelo A, Humphries C, Pressey R (1996) A Comparison of Richness Hotspots, Rarity Hotspots, and Complementary Areas for Conserving Diversity of British Birds. Conservation Biology, 10 (1) : 155 - 174. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10010155.x

Williams PH (1996) Biodiversity value and taxonomic relatedness, In: The genesis and maintenance of biological diversity, Hochberg ME, Clobert J, Barbault R (Eds). null : Oxford. 261 - 277.

Williams PH, Humphries CJ (1996) Comparing character diversity among biotas, In: Biodiversity, a biology of numbers and difference, Gaston KJ (Eds). null : Oxford. 54 - 76.

Gaston KJ, Williams PH, Eggleton P, Humphries CJ (1995) Large Scale Patterns of Biodiversity: Spatial Variation in Family Richness. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 260 (1358) : 149 - 154. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1995.0072

Kershaw M, Mace GM, Williams PH (1995) Threatened Status, Rarity, and Diversity as Alternative Selection Measures for Protected Areas: A Test Using Afrotropical Antelopes. Conservation Biology, 9 (2) : 324 - 334. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.9020324.x

Williams P (1995) The WORLDMAP debate. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10 (2) : 82 - 82. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88984-3

Humphries CJ, Williams PH, Wright RIV (1995) Measuring Biodiversity Value for Conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26 (1) : 93 - 111. doi: 10.1146/annurev.es.26.110195.000521

Williams PAULH (1994) Phylogenetic relationships among bumble bees (Bombus Latr.): a reappraisal of morphological evidence. Systematic Entomology, 19 (4) : 327 - 344. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1994.tb00594.x

Eggleton P, Williams PH, Gaston KJ (1994) Explaining global termite diversity: productivity or history?. Biodiversity and Conservation, 3 (4) : 318 - 330. doi: 10.1007/BF00056505

Williams PH, Humphries CJ, Gaston KJ (1994) Centres of Seed-Plant Diversity: The Family Way. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 256 (1345) : 67 - 70. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1994.0050

Williams PH, Gaston KJ (1994) Measuring more of biodiversity: Can higher-taxon richness predict wholesale species richness?. Biological Conservation, 67 (3) : 211 - 217. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(94)90612-2

Pressey RL, Humphries CJ, Margules CR, Vane-wright RI, Williams PH (1993) Beyond opportunism: Key principles for systematic reserve selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 8 (4) : 124 - 128. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(93)90023-I

Williams PH (1993) Measuring more of biodiversity for choosing conservation areas, using taxonomic relatedness, In: International Symposium on Biodiversity and Conservation (KEI), Moon TY (Eds). null : Seoul. 194 - 227.

Williams PH, Cameron SA (1993) Bumble bee (Bombus Latr.) records from the Valley of Flowers, Uttar Pradesh. Bulletin of Entomology, 31 : 125 - 127.

Williams PH, Seddon A (1993) Mongolian bumble bee survey, In: Raleigh International Mongolia 92D expedition: June-August 1992 preliminary scientific reports., Belbin S (Eds). null : London.

Vane-wright RI, Humphries CJ, Williams PH (1991) What to protect?—Systematics and the agony of choice. Biological Conservation, 55 (3) : 235 - 254. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(91)90030-D

Williams PH (1991) The bumble bees of the Kashmir Himalaya (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology), 60 : 1 - 204.

Williams PH (1989) Why are there so many species of bumble bees at Dungeness?. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 101 : 31 - 44.

Williams PH (1989) Bumble bees - and their decline in Britain. Central Association of Bee-Keepers : Ilford.

Williams PH (1988) Habitat use by bumble bees (Bombus spp.). Ecological Entomology, 13 : 223 - 237.

Williams PH (1988) Worldmap.

Williams PH (1986) ENVIRONMENTAL-CHANGE AND THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF BRITISH BUMBLE BEES (BOMBUS LATR). BEE WORLD, 67 (2) : 50 - 61.

Williams PH (1985) Nuclearbombus fallout Reply to Menke & Carpenter, 1984. Sphecos. 10 : :

Williams PH (1985) On the distribution of bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae) with particular regard to patterns within the British Isles. null.

Williams PH (1985) A preliminary cladistic investigation of relationships among the bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Systematic Entomology, 10 : 239 - 255.

Williams PH (1982) The distribution and decline of British bumble bees (Bombus Latr.). Journal of Apicultural Research, 21 : 236 - 245.

Contributed Publications

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2017) Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2016. London. 1 - 16.

Supervision

Master's Joint supervisor to Thanoosing C
Co supervisor(s): Williams PH
Status of Bombus kluanensis and close relatives adding nuclear markers
, London, United Kingdom
Funding: Thai Government

Master's Joint supervisor to Emms P
Co supervisor(s): Williams PH
Climate change impact on IUCN Red List assessment of bumblebees
, London, United Kingdom

Master's Joint supervisor to Lee C
Co supervisor(s): Williams PH
Climate change impacts on arctic and alpine bumblebees
, London, United Kingdom

Media

Broadcasts

The Bee-All and End-All, Bee declines world-wide, BBC World Service, McGavin G, 3/4/2017.

Introduction

Summary

My interest is in the ecology of bumblebee declines. A first quantitative description in the 1980s linked regional declines of bumblebees in Britain with an interaction between, on the one hand, the role of climate through global distributions of species, and on the other, the role of the local availability of changing densities of suitable flowers. Bumblebee declines have since being reported in many parts of the world, involving an increasing breadth of factors. I am now working with many colleagues around the world towards IUCN Red List assessment of the threat status of all bumblebees. This has led to comparison of susceptibility to climate warming between specialist high alpine and high arctic bumblebees, which is being explored through collaborations and student projects. This is helping in developing new Red List protocols for assessing the threats from climate change. Second I also have a long-standing interest in the history of spread and speciation of bumblebees, covering their taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography world-wide. This involves the application of molecular data to help resolve difficult species complexes, especially within the largest and least well known bumblebee fauna, in Asia (with more than half of the world's bumblebee species). It is contributing to an understanding of the early evolution of bumblebees, as they followed the uplift of corridors of mountains, combined with the effects of climate changes and climate-niche evolution. For a complete list of publications on bumblebees, see: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/bombus/publications.html

Qualifications

Degrees

PhD, University of Cambridge, UK, 1982 - 1985

MA, Trinity College, University of Cambridge, UK, 1978 - 1982

Employment history

Academic

Visiting Professor, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Apiculture, Beijing, China, 2013 - 2018

Institute for Advanced Study, Berlin, Research Fellow, Natural History Museum, Entomology, UK, 1993 - 1997

NERC Research Fellow, Natural History Museum, Entomology, UK, 1992 - 1993

NHM Interdisciplinary Research Fellow, Natural History Museum, Entomology, UK, 1990 - 1992

NERC Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Natural History Museum, Entomology, UK, 1985 - 1987

Highlighted publications

Williams PH, Lobo JM, Meseguer AS (2017) Bumblebees take the high road: climatically integrative biogeography shows that escape from Tibet, not Tibetan uplift, is associated with divergences of present-day Mendacibombus . Ecography, doi: 10.1111/ecog.03074

Williams PAULH, Huang JIAXING, Rasmont PIERRE, An JIANDONG (2016) Early-diverging bumblebees from across the roof of the world: the high-mountain subgenus Mendacibombus revised from species’ gene coalescents and morphology (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Zootaxa, 4204 (1) : 1 - 1. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4204.1.1

Williams PH, Byvaltsev AM, Cederberg B, Berezin MV, Ødegaard F, et al. (2015) Genes Suggest Ancestral Colour Polymorphisms Are Shared across Morphologically Cryptic Species in Arctic Bumblebees. PLOS ONE, 10 (12) : e0144544 - e0144544. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144544

Williams PH, Bystriakova N, Huang J, Miao Z, An J-D (2015) Bumblebees, climate, and glaciers across the Tibetan plateau (Apidae: Bombus Latreille). Systematics and Biodiversity, 13 (2) : 164 - 181.

Williams PH, Thorp RW, Richardson LL, Colla SR (2014) Bumble bees of North America. An identification guide.. Princeton University Press : Princeton New Jersey.

Williams PH, Brown MJF, Carolan JC, An J, Goulson D, et al. (2012) Unveiling cryptic species of the bumblebee subgenus Bombus s. str. worldwide with COI barcodes (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Systematics and Biodiversity, 10 (1) : 21 - 56. doi: 10.1080/14772000.2012.664574

Projects

Grants

Guide to the bumblebees of North China
Role: Principal investigatorWilliams P
Co-investigator: An J
Funding: Royal Society
Total value £11,916 (to Museum £11,916)
Dates: 2012 - 2014

Resolving cryptic bumblebees of the lucorum-group
Role: Principal investigatorWilliams P
Co-investigator: Goulson D
Funding: Linnean Society
Total value £29,035 (to Museum £29,035)
Dates: 2010 - 2011

Collaboration on Bumblebee Research with CAAS
Funding: CAAS Institute of Apicultural Research
Total value £7,500 (to Museum £4,096.67)
Dates: 2013 - 2018

Partnership

Bumblebees of China
2007 - 2014.

Fieldwork

China
1991 - 2014.

Professional activities

External Positions

Chair, IUCN Bumblebee Specialist Group, Chair 2011 - 2014.

Publications

Publications

Arbetman MP, Gleiser G, Morales CL, Williams P, Aizen MA (2017) Global decline of bumblebees is phylogenetically structured and inversely related to species range size and pathogen incidence.. Proceedings. Biological sciences, 284 (1859) : doi: 10.1098/rspb.2017.0204

Williams PH (2017) Bumblebees on top: research on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. 31 : 22 - 27.

Williams PH, Huang J, An J (2017) Bear wasps of the Middle Kingdom: a decade of discovering China's bumblebees. 41 (1) : 21 - 24.

Williams PH, Lobo JM, Meseguer AS (2017) Bumblebees take the high road: climatically integrative biogeography shows that escape from Tibet, not Tibetan uplift, is associated with divergences of present-day Mendacibombus . Ecography, doi: 10.1111/ecog.03074

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2017) Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2016. London. 1 - 16.

Williams PH, Cannings SG, Sheffield CS (2016) Cryptic subarctic diversity: a new bumblebee species from the Yukon and Alaska (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Natural History, 50 (45-46) : 2881 - 2893. doi: 10.1080/00222933.2016.1214294

Williams PAULH, Huang JIAXING, Rasmont PIERRE, An JIANDONG (2016) Early-diverging bumblebees from across the roof of the world: the high-mountain subgenus Mendacibombus revised from species’ gene coalescents and morphology (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Zootaxa, 4204 (1) : 1 - 1. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4204.1.1

Sheffield CS, Richardson L, Cannings S, Ngo H, Heron J, Williams PH (2016) Biogeography and designatable units of Bombus occidentalis Greene and B. terricola Kirby (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with implications for conservation status assessments. Journal of Insect Conservation, 20 (2) : 189 - 199. doi: 10.1007/s10841-016-9853-2

Lozier JD, Cameron SA, Duennes MA, Strange JP, Williams PH, Goulson D, Brown MJF, Morales C, Jepsen S (2015) Relocation risky for bumblebee colonies. Science, 350 (6258) : 286 - 287. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6258.286-b

Prys-jones OE, Williams PH (2015) New bumblebee records for Orkney and Fair Isle. BWARS Newsletter, 2015 : 14 - 16.

Williams PH (2016) Family or Fashion? Colour Patterns in Arctic Bumblebees. Barcode Bulletin, 7 (1) : 18 - 19.

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2016) Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2015. 1 - 20.

Williams PH, Spevak E, Jepsen S (2016) Bumblebee conservation worldwide within the IUCN framework, In: Pollination services to agriculture, Gemmill-Herren B (Eds). FAO of the United Nations and Routledge : Abingdon, Oxfordshire. 180 - 199.

Williams PH, Byvaltsev AM, Cederberg B, Berezin MV, Ødegaard F, Rasmussen C, Richardson LL, Huang J, Sheffield CS, Williams ST (2015) Genes Suggest Ancestral Colour Polymorphisms Are Shared across Morphologically Cryptic Species in Arctic Bumblebees. PLOS ONE, 10 (12) : e0144544 - e0144544. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144544

Huang J, An J, Wu J, Williams PH (2015) Extreme Food-Plant Specialisation in Megabombus Bumblebees as a Product of Long Tongues Combined with Short Nesting Seasons. PLOS ONE, 10 (8) : e0132358 - e0132358. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132358

Li J, Powell JE, Guo J, Evans JD, Wu J, Williams P, Lin Q, Moran NA, Zhang Z (2015) Two gut community enterotypes recur in diverse bumblebee species. Current Biology, 25 (15) : R652 - R653. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.031

Woodard SH, Lozier JD, Goulson D, Williams PH, Strange JP, Jha S (2015) Molecular tools and bumble bees: revealing hidden details of ecology and evolution in a model system. Molecular Ecology, 24 (12) : 2916 - 2936. doi: 10.1111/mec.13198

Williams PH (2015) Bombus rubriventris : type locality, different histories of bumblebees in the New World, and a likely invertebrate extinction. Journal of Natural History, 49 (19-20) : 1159 - 1171. doi: 10.1080/00222933.2014.954022

Zhang H, Huang J, Williams PH, Vaissière BE, Zhou Z, Gai Q, Dong J, An J (2015) Managed Bumblebees Outperform Honeybees in Increasing Peach Fruit Set in China: Different Limiting Processes with Different Pollinators. PLOS ONE, 10 (3) : e0121143 - e0121143. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121143

Huang J, Wu J, An J, Williams PH (2015) Newly discovered colour-pattern polymorphism of Bombus koreanus females (Hymenoptera: Apidae) demonstrated by DNA barcoding. Apidologie, 46 (2) : 250 - 261. doi: 10.1007/s13592-014-0319-9

Williams PH, Bystriakova N, Huang J, Miao Z, An J-D (2015) Bumblebees, climate, and glaciers across the Tibetan plateau (Apidae: Bombus Latreille). Systematics and Biodiversity, 13 (2) : 164 - 181.

Scriven JJ, Woodall LC, Tinsley MC, Knight ME, Williams PH, Carolan JC, Brown MJF, Goulson D (2015) Revealing the hidden niches of cryptic bumblebees in Great Britain: Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation, 182 : 126 - 133. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.11.027

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2015) Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2014. 1 - 15.

Gerlach J, Samways MJ, Hochkirch A, Seddon M, Cardoso P, Clausnitzer V, Cumberlidge N, Daniel BA, Black SH, Ott J, Williams PH (2014) Prioritizing non-marine invertebrate taxa for Red Listing. Journal of Insect Conservation, 18 (4) : 573 - 586. doi: 10.1007/s10841-014-9660-6

An J, Huang J, Shao Y, Zhang S, Wang B, Liu X, Wu J, Williams PH (2014) The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille). ZOOTAXA, 3830 (1) : 1 - +.

Williams PH, Thorp RW, Richardson LL, Colla SR (2014) Bumble bees of North America. An identification guide.. Princeton University Press : Princeton New Jersey.

Williams PH (2014) One of the oldest and rarest bumblebees rediscovered. 26 : 5 - 5.

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2014) IUCN BBSG - Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2013.

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2013) IUCN BBSG - Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2012. : Natural History MuseumLondon.

Carolan JC, Murray TE, Fitzpatrick Ú, Crossley J, Schmidt H, Cederberg B, Mcnally L, Paxton RJ, Williams PH, Brown MJF (2012) Colour Patterns Do Not Diagnose Species: Quantitative Evaluation of a DNA Barcoded Cryptic Bumblebee Complex. PLoS ONE, 7 (1) : e29251 - e29251. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029251

Hines HEATHERM, Williams PAULH (2012) Mimetic colour pattern evolution in the highly polymorphic Bombus trifasciatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) species complex and its comimics. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 166 (4) : 805 - 826. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00861.x

Koch J, Strange J, Williams PH (2012) Bumble bees of the western United States. null :

Pellissier L, Pradervand J-N, Williams PH, Litsios G, Cherix D, Guisan A (2013) Phylogenetic relatedness and proboscis length contribute to structuring bumblebee communities in the extremes of abiotic and biotic gradients. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22 (5) : 577 - 585. doi: 10.1111/geb.12026

Williams PH, An J, Brown MJF, Carolan JC, Goulson D, Huang J, Ito M (2012) Cryptic Bumblebee Species: Consequences for Conservation and the Trade in Greenhouse Pollinators. PLoS ONE, 7 (3) : e32992 - e32992. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032992

Williams PH, Brown MJF, Carolan JC, An J, Goulson D, Aytekin AM, Best LR, Byvaltsev AM, Cederberg B, Dawson R, Huang J, Ito M, Monfared A, Raina RH, Schmid-hempel P, Sheffield CS, Šima P, Xie Z (2012) Unveiling cryptic species of the bumblebee subgenus Bombus s. str. worldwide with COI barcodes (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Systematics and Biodiversity, 10 (1) : 21 - 56. doi: 10.1080/14772000.2012.664574

Williams PH, Byvaltsev A, Sheffield C, Rasmont P (2013) Bombus cullumanus—an extinct European bumblebee species?. Apidologie, 44 (2) : 121 - 132. doi: 10.1007/s13592-012-0161-x

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2012) IUCN Bumblebee Specialist Group .

An J, Williams PH, Zhou B, Miao Z, Qi W (2011) The bumblebees of Gansu, Northwest China (Hymenoptera, Apidae). ZOOTAXA, 1 - 36.

Colla S, Richardson L, Williams PH (2011) Bumble bees of the eastern United States. United States Forest Service and the Pollinator Partnership :

Sheffield CS, Williams PH (2011) Discovery of Bombus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in continental North America. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 142 : 53 - 56.

Williams PH (2011) Bumblebees collected by the Kyushu University Expeditions to Central Asia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, genus Bombus). Esakia, 50 : 27 - 36.

Williams PAULH, An JIANDONG, Huang JIAXING (2011) The bumblebees of the subgenus Subterraneobombus: integrating evidence from morphology and DNA barcodes (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163 (3) : 813 - 862. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00729.x

An J-D, Huang J-X, Williams PH, Wu J, Zhou B-F (2010) Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 21 : 1542 - 1550.

Martin SJ, Carruthers JM, Williams PH, Drijfhout FP (2010) Host Specific Social Parasites (Psithyrus) Indicate Chemical Recognition System in Bumblebees. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 36 (8) : 855 - 863. doi: 10.1007/s10886-010-9805-3

Williams P, An J, Huang J, Yao J (2010) BBCI: A new initiative to document Chinese bumble bees for pollination research. Journal of Apicultural Research, 49 (2) : 221 - 222. doi: 10.3896/IBRA.1.49.2.15

Williams PH, Ito M, Matsumura T, Kudo I (2010) The bumblebees of the Nepal Himalaya (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Insecta Matsumurana, 66 : 115 - 151.

Williams PAUL, Colla SHEILA, Xie ZHENGHUA (2009) Bumblebee Vulnerability: Common Correlates of Winners and Losers across Three Continents. Conservation Biology, 23 (4) : 931 - 940. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01176.x

Williams PH, Osborne JL (2009) Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide. Apidologie, 40 (3) : 367 - 387. doi: 10.1051/apido/2009025

Williams P, Tang Y, Yao J, Cameron S (2009) The bumblebees of Sichuan (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Systematics and Biodiversity, 7 (2) : 101 - 189. doi: 10.1017/S1477200008002843

Hannah L, Araujo MB, Midgley G, Andelman S, Martinez-meyer E, Pearson R, Williams P, Lovejoy TE (2008) Terrestrial biodiversity, In: A climate for life: meeting the global challenge, Mittermeier RA, Totten M, Ledwith Pennypacker L, Boltz F, Mittermeier CG, Midgley G, Rodríguez CM, Prickett G, Gascon C, Seligmann PA, Langrand O (Eds). CEMEX Conservation Book Series; ILCP, Arlington, VA : 189 - 216.

Phillips SJ, Williams P, Midgley G, Archer A (2008) OPTIMIZING DISPERSAL CORRIDORS FOR THE CAPE PROTEACEAE USING NETWORK FLOW. Ecological Applications, 18 (5) : 1200 - 1211. doi: 10.1890/07-0507.1

Williams PH (2008) Do the parasitic Psithyrus resemble their host bumblebees in colour pattern?. Apidologie, 39 (6) : 637 - 649. doi: 10.1051/apido:2008048

Williams PH, Cameron SA, Hines HM, Cederberg B, Rasmont P (2008) A simplified subgeneric classification of the bumblebees (genus ). Apidologie, 39 (1) : 46 - 74. doi: 10.1051/apido:2007052

Xie Z, Williams PH, Tang Y (2008) The effect of grazing on bumblebees in the high rangelands of the eastern Tibetan Plateau of Sichuan. Journal of Insect Conservation, 12 (6) : 695 - 703. doi: 10.1007/s10841-008-9180-3

Cameron SA, Hines HM, Williams PH (2007) A comprehensive phylogeny of the bumble bees (Bombus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 91 (1) : 161 - 188. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00784.x

Burgess ND, Balmford A, Cordeiro NJ, Fjeldså J, Küper W, Rahbek C, Sanderson EW, Scharlemann JPW, Sommer JH, Williams PH (2007) Correlations among species distributions, human density and human infrastructure across the high biodiversity tropical mountains of Africa. Biological Conservation, 134 (2) : 164 - 177. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2006.08.024

Hannah L, Midgley G, Andelman S, Araújo M, Hughes G, Martinez-meyer E, Pearson R, Williams P (2007) Protected area needs in a changing climate. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 5 : 131 - 138.

Hawkins BA, Albuquerque FS, Araújo MB, Beck J, Bini LM, Cabrero-sañudo FJ, Castro-parga I, Diniz-filho JAF, Ferrer-castán D, Field R, Gómez JF, Hortal J, Kerr JT, Kitching IJ, León-cortés JL, Lobo JM, Montoya D, Moreno JC, Olalla-tárraga MÁ, Pausas JG, Qian H, Rahbek C, Rodríguez MÁ, Sanders NJ, Williams P (2007) A GLOBAL EVALUATION OF METABOLIC THEORY AS AN EXPLANATION FOR TERRESTRIAL SPECIES RICHNESS GRADIENTS. Ecology, 88 (8) : 1877 - 1888. doi: 10.1890/06-1444.1

Kark S, Allnutt TF, Levin N, Manne LL, Williams PH (2007) The role of transitional areas as avian biodiversity centres. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16 (2) : 187 - 196. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2006.00274.x

Manne LL, Williams PH, Midgley GF, Thuiller W, Rebelo T, Hannah L (2007) Spatial and temporal variation in species-area relationships in the Fynbos biological hotspot. Ecography, 30 (6) : 852 - 861. doi: 10.1111/j.2007.0906-7590.05121.x

Monfared A, Asghar TalebiA, Tahmasbi G, Williams PH, Ebrahimi E, Taghavi A (2008) A Survey of the Localities and Food-Plants of the Bumblebees of Iran (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Entomologia Generalis, 30 (4) : 283 - 299. doi: 10.1127/entom.gen/30/2008/283

Williams PH (2007) Bumble bees - and their decline in Britain, In: Aspects of sociality in insects, Carreck NL, Johnson TW (Eds). Central Association of Bee-Keepers : Ilford. 161 - 176.

Williams PH, Araújo MB, Rasmont P (2007) Can vulnerability among British bumblebee (Bombus) species be explained by niche position and breadth?. Biological Conservation, 138 (3-4) : 493 - 505. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.001

Williams PAUL (2007) The distribution of bumblebee colour patterns worldwide: possible significance for thermoregulation, crypsis, and warning mimicry. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 92 (1) : 97 - 118. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00878.x

Williams P (2007) Places to see bumblebees: Dungeness. 4 : 4 - 7.

Williams P, Manne L (2007) Complementarity, In: null, Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-226865-6 : 4666 pp. 1 - 12.

Hines HM, Cameron SA, Williams PH (2006) Molecular phylogeny of the bumble bee subgenus Pyrobombus (Hymenoptera�:�Apidae�:� Bombus ) with insights into gene utility for lower-level analysis. Invertebrate Systematics, 20 (3) : 289 - 289. doi: 10.1071/IS05028

Sarkar S, Pressey RL, Faith DP, Margules CR, Fuller T, Stoms DM, Moffett A, Wilson KA, Williams KJ, Williams PH, Andelman S (2006) Biodiversity Conservation Planning Tools: Present Status and Challenges for the Future. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31 (1) : 123 - 159. doi: 10.1146/annurev.energy.31.042606.085844

Williams P, Faith D, Manne L, Sechrest W, Preston C (2006) Complementarity analysis: Mapping the performance of surrogates for biodiversity. Biological Conservation, 128 (2) : 253 - 264. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.047

Araujo MB, Thuiller W, Williams PH, Reginster I (2005) Downscaling European species atlas distributions to a finer resolution: implications for conservation planning. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14 (1) : 17 - 30. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-822X.2004.00128.x

Bhagwat SA, Kushalappa CG, Williams PH, Brown ND (2005) The role of informal protected areas in maintaining biodiversity in the Western Ghats of India. ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY, 10 (1) :

Bhagwat SHONILA, Kushalappa CHEPPUDIRAG, Williams PAULH, Brown NICKD (2005) A Landscape Approach to Biodiversity Conservation of Sacred Groves in the Western Ghats of India. Conservation Biology, 19 (6) : 1853 - 1862. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00248.x

Jones AC, White RJ, Gray WA, Bisby FA, Caithness N, Pittas N, Xu XB, Sutton T, Fiddian NJ, Culham A, Scoble M, Williams P, Bromley O, Brewer P, Yesson C, Bhagwat S (2005) Building a biodiversity GRID. GRID COMPUTING IN LIFE SCIENCE 3370 : 140 - 151.

Tushabe HERBERT, Kalema JAMES, Byaruhanga ACHILLES, Asasira JOSEPHINE, Ssegawa PAUL, Balmford ANDREW, Davenport TIM, Fjeldså JON, Friis IB, Pain DEBORAH, Pomeroy DEREK, Williams PAUL, Williams CHARLES (2006) A Nationwide Assessment of the Biodiversity Value of Uganda's Important Bird Areas Network. Conservation Biology, 20 (1) : 85 - 99. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00318.x

Williams P (2005) Does specialization explain rarity and decline among British bumblebees? A response to Goulson et al.. Biological Conservation, 122 (1) : 33 - 43. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.06.019

Williams PH, Thomas JC (2005) A bumblebee new to the new world: Bombus distinguendus (Hymenoptera : Apidae). CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 137 (2) : 158 - 162.

Williams PAUL, Hannah LEE, Andelman SANDY, Midgley GUY, Araújo MIGUEL, Hughes GREG, Manne LISA, Martinez-meyer ENRIQUE, Pearson RICHARD (2005) Planning for Climate Change: Identifying Minimum-Dispersal Corridors for the Cape Proteaceae. Conservation Biology, 19 (4) : 1063 - 1074. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00080.x

Araujo MB, Cabeza M, Thuiller W, Hannah L, Williams PH (2004) Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods. Global Change Biology, 10 (9) : 1618 - 1626. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00828.x

Araujo MB, Densham PJ, Williams PH (2004) Representing species in reserves from patterns of assemblage diversity. Journal of Biogeography, 31 (7) : 1037 - 1050. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01051.x

Edwards M, Williams PH (2004) Where have all the bumblebees gone, and could they ever return?. British Wildlife, 15 : 305 - 312.

Williams PH (2004) Genus Bombus Latreille. Gupta RK (Eds). Jai Narain Vyas University : Jodhpur.

Williams PH, Margules C (2004) Grid cells, polygons, and ecoregions in biogeography and in biodiversity priority-area selection, In: Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa, a conservation assessment, Island Press : 29 - 32.

Williams PH, Moore JL, Toham AK, Brooks TM, Strand H, D'amico J, Wisz M, Burgess ND, Balmford A, Rahbek C (2003) Integrating biodiversity priorities with conflicting socio-economic values in the Guinean-Congolian forest region. BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION, 12 (6) : 1297 - 1320. doi: 10.1023/A:1023092100942

Cameron SA, Williams PH (2003) Phylogeny of bumble bees in the New World subgenus Fervidobombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae): congruence of molecular and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 28 (3) : 552 - 563. doi: 10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00056-3

Loiselle BETTEA, Howell CHRISTINEA, Graham CATHERINEH, Goerck JAQUELINEM, Brooks THOMAS, Smith KIMBERLYG, Williams PAULH (2003) Avoiding Pitfalls of Using Species Distribution Models in Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology, 17 (6) : 1591 - 1600. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00233.x

Manne LL, Williams PH (2003) Building indicator groups based on species characteristics can improve conservation planning. Animal Conservation, 6 (4) : 291 - 297. doi: 10.1017/S1367943003003354

Moore JL, Balmford A, Brooks T, Burgess ND, Hansen LA, Rahbek C, Williams PH (2003) Performance of Sub-Saharan Vertebrates as Indicator Groups for Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation. Conservation Biology, 17 (1) : 207 - 218. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.01126.x

Moore JL, Folkmann M, Balmford A, Brooks T, Burgess N, Rahbek C, Williams PH, Krarup J (2003) Heuristic and optimal solutions for set-covering problems in conservation biology. Ecography, 26 (5) : 595 - 601. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0587.2003.03467.x

Väre H, Lampinen R, Humphries C, Williams PH (2003) Taxonomic diversity of vascular plants in the European alpine areas, In: Alpine Biodiversity in Europe. Ecological studies 167, Nagy L, Grabherr G, Körner C, Thompson DBA (Eds). Springer : Berlin. 133 - 148.

Williams PH, Wisz M, Rahbek C, Moore J, Hansen L, Burgess N, Brooks T, Balmford A (2003) Quantitative methods of priority setting, In: Biological priorities for conservation in the Guinean-Congolian forest and freshwater region, Kamdem-Toham A, D'Amico J, Olson D, Blom A, Trowbridge L, Burgess N, Thieme M, Abell R, Carroll RW, Gartlan S, Langrand O, Mikala Mussavu R, O'Hara D, Strand H (Eds). WWF- CARPO : Libreville, Gabon. 57 - 71.

Burgess ND, Rahbek C, Larsen FW, Williams P, Balmford A (2002) How much of the vertebrate diversity of sub-Saharan Africa is catered for by recent conservation proposals?. Biological Conservation, 107 (3) : 327 - 339. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00071-X

Moore JL, Manne L, Brooks T, Burgess ND, Davies R, Rahbek C, Williams P, Balmford A (2002) The distribution of cultural and biological diversity in Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 269 (1501) : 1645 - 1653. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2002.2075

Margules CR, Pressey RL, Williams PH (2002) Representing biodiversity: Data and procedures for identifying priority areas for conservation. Journal of Biosciences, 27 (4) : 309 - 326. doi: 10.1007/BF02704962

Williams PH, Margules CR, Hilbert DW (2002) Data requirements and data sources for biodiversity priority area selection. Journal of Biosciences, 27 (4) : 327 - 338. doi: 10.1007/BF02704963

Williams PH, Araujo MB (2002) Apples, oranges, and probabilities: Integrating multiple factors into biodiversity conservation with consistency. ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING & ASSESSMENT, 7 (2) : 139 - 151. doi: 10.1023/A:1015657917928

Araújo MB, Williams PH (2001) The Bias of Complementarity Hotspots toward Marginal Populations. Conservation Biology, 15 (6) : 1710 - 1720. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.99450.x

Balmford A, Moore J, Brooks T, Burgess N, Hansen LA, Lovett JC, Tokumine S, Williams P, Woodward FI, Rahbek C (2001) People and biodiversity in Africa - Response. SCIENCE, 293 (5535) : 1591 - 1592.

Brooks THOMAS, Balmford ANDREW, Burgess NEIL, Fjeldså JON, Hansen LOUISA, Moore JOSLIN, Rahbek CARSTEN, Williams PAUL (2001) Toward a Blueprint for Conservation in Africa. BioScience, 51 (8) : 613 - 613. doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0613:TABFCI]2.0.CO;2

Balmford A (2001) Conservation Conflicts Across Africa. Science, 291 (5513) : 2616 - 2619. doi: 10.1126/science.291.5513.2616

Araújo MB, Williams PH (2000) Selecting areas for species persistence using occurrence data. Biological Conservation, 96 (3) : 331 - 345. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00074-4

Hopkinson P, Travis JMJ, Prendergast JR, Evans J, Gregory RD, Telfer MG, Williams PH (2000) A preliminary assessment of the contribution of nature reserves to biodiversity conservation in Great Britain. Animal Conservation, 3 (4) : 311 - 320. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2000.tb00116.x

Williams PH, Araejo MB (2000) Using probability of persistence to identify important areas for biodiversity conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 267 (1456) : 1959 - 1966. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2000.1236

Williams PH, Burgess ND, Rahbek C (2000) Flagship species, ecological complementarity and conserving the diversity of mammals and birds in sub-Saharan Africa. Animal Conservation, 3 (3) : 249 - 260. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2000.tb00110.x

Mace GM, Balmford A, Boitani L, Cowlishaw G, Dobson AP, Faith DP, Gaston KJ, Humphries CJ, Vane-wright RI, Williams PH, Lawton JH, Margules CR, May RM, Nicholls AO, Possingham HP, Rahbek C, Van JaarsveldAS (2000) It's time to work together and stop duplicating conservation efforts .... NATURE, 405 (6785) : 393 - 393. doi: 10.1038/35013247

Williams PH (2000) Some properties of rarity scores used in site quality assessment. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 13 : 73 - 86.

Williams PH (2000) Are Bombus lucorum and magnus separate species?. BWARS Newsletter, 2000 : 15 - 17.

Williams PH (2000) Bumblebees of the world .

Williams PH, Hernández LM (2000) Distinguishing females of the bumble bees Bombus ruderatus (F.) from Bombus hortorum (L.) in Britain: a preliminary application of quantitative techniques. : The Natural History MuseumLondon.

Williams PH, Klerk HM, Crowe TM (1999) Interpreting biogeographical boundaries among Afrotropical birds: spatial patterns in richness gradients and species replacement. Journal of Biogeography, 26 (3) : 459 - 474. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00294.x

Pressey RL, Possingham HP, Logan VS, Day JR, Williams PH (1999) Effects of data characteristics on the results of reserve selection algorithms. Journal of Biogeography 26 (1) : 179 - 191. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00258.x

Williams PH (1998) Biodiversity indicators: graphical techniques, smoothing and searching for what makes relationships work. Ecography, 21 (5) : 551 - 560. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.1998.tb00447.x

Chown SL, Gaston KJ, Williams PH (1998) Global patterns in species richness of pelagic seabirds: the Procellariiformes. Ecography, 21 (4) : 342 - 350. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.1998.tb00399.x

Hacker JE, Cowlishaw G, Williams PH (1998) Patterns of African primate diversity and their evaluation for the selection of conservation areas. Biological Conservation, 84 (3) : 251 - 262. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00115-8

Williams PH (1998) An annotated checklist of bumble bees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bulletin of The Natural History Museum (Entomology), 67 :

Williams PH, Gaston KJ (1998) Biodiversity indicators: graphical techniques, smoothing and searching for what makes relationships work. Ecography, 21 : 559 - 568.

Williams P, Humphries C, Vane-wright D, Gaston K (1997) Descriptive and predictive approaches to biodiversity measurement. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 12 (11) : 444 - 445. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(97)85749-7

Csuti B, Polasky S, Williams PH, Pressey RL, Camm JD, Kershaw M, Kiester AR, Downs B, Hamilton R, Huso M, Sahr K (1997) A comparison of reserve selection algorithms using data on terrestrial vertebrates in Oregon. Biological Conservation, 80 (1) : 83 - 97. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(96)00068-7

Muriuki JN, Deklerk HM, Williams PH, Bennun LA, Crowe TM, Vandenberge E (1997) Using patterns of distribution and diversity of Kenyan birds to select and prioritize areas for conservation. BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION, 6 (2) : 191 - 210. doi: 10.1023/A:1018340002756

Williams P, Gaston K, Humphries C, Vanewright D (1997) Biodiversity, biospecifics, and ecological services - Reply. TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, 12 (2) : 66 - 67. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(97)82678-X

Williams PH, Gaston KJ, Humphries CJ (1997) Mapping biodiversity value worldwide: combining higher-taxon richness from different groups. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 264 (1378) : 141 - 148. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1997.0021

Plowright CMS, Plowright RC, Williams PH (1997) Replacement of Bombus muscorum by Bombus pascuorum in northern Britain. CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST, 129 (6) : 985 - 990.

Williams PH (1997) Worldmap .

Williams P, Humphries C, Vane-wright D, Gaston K (1996) Value in biodiversity, ecological services and consensus. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 11 (9) : 385 - 385. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(96)81143-8

Parga IC, Saiz JCM, Humphries CJ, Williams PH (1996) Strengthening the natural and national park system of Iberia to conserve vascular plants. BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, 121 (3) : 189 - 206.

Williams PH, Prance GT, Humphries CJ, Edwards KS (1996) Promise and problems in applying quantitative complementary areas for representing the diversity of some Neotropical plants (families Dichapetalaceae, Lecythidaceae, Caryocaraceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Proteaceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 58 (2) : 125 - 157. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1996.tb01428.x

Williams PH (1996) Mapping Variations in the Strength and Breadth of Biogeographic Transition Zones Using Species Turnover. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 263 (1370) : 579 - 588. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1996.0087

Williams P, Gibbons D, Margules C, Rebelo A, Humphries C, Pressey R (1996) A Comparison of Richness Hotspots, Rarity Hotspots, and Complementary Areas for Conserving Diversity of British Birds. Conservation Biology, 10 (1) : 155 - 174. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10010155.x

Williams PH (1996) Biodiversity value and taxonomic relatedness, In: The genesis and maintenance of biological diversity, Hochberg ME, Clobert J, Barbault R (Eds). null : Oxford. 261 - 277.

Williams PH, Humphries CJ (1996) Comparing character diversity among biotas, In: Biodiversity, a biology of numbers and difference, Gaston KJ (Eds). null : Oxford. 54 - 76.

Gaston KJ, Williams PH, Eggleton P, Humphries CJ (1995) Large Scale Patterns of Biodiversity: Spatial Variation in Family Richness. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 260 (1358) : 149 - 154. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1995.0072

Kershaw M, Mace GM, Williams PH (1995) Threatened Status, Rarity, and Diversity as Alternative Selection Measures for Protected Areas: A Test Using Afrotropical Antelopes. Conservation Biology, 9 (2) : 324 - 334. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.9020324.x

Williams P (1995) The WORLDMAP debate. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10 (2) : 82 - 82. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88984-3

Humphries CJ, Williams PH, Wright RIV (1995) Measuring Biodiversity Value for Conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26 (1) : 93 - 111. doi: 10.1146/annurev.es.26.110195.000521

Williams PAULH (1994) Phylogenetic relationships among bumble bees (Bombus Latr.): a reappraisal of morphological evidence. Systematic Entomology, 19 (4) : 327 - 344. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1994.tb00594.x

Eggleton P, Williams PH, Gaston KJ (1994) Explaining global termite diversity: productivity or history?. Biodiversity and Conservation, 3 (4) : 318 - 330. doi: 10.1007/BF00056505

Williams PH, Humphries CJ, Gaston KJ (1994) Centres of Seed-Plant Diversity: The Family Way. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 256 (1345) : 67 - 70. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1994.0050

Williams PH, Gaston KJ (1994) Measuring more of biodiversity: Can higher-taxon richness predict wholesale species richness?. Biological Conservation, 67 (3) : 211 - 217. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(94)90612-2

Pressey RL, Humphries CJ, Margules CR, Vane-wright RI, Williams PH (1993) Beyond opportunism: Key principles for systematic reserve selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 8 (4) : 124 - 128. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(93)90023-I

Williams PH (1993) Measuring more of biodiversity for choosing conservation areas, using taxonomic relatedness, In: International Symposium on Biodiversity and Conservation (KEI), Moon TY (Eds). null : Seoul. 194 - 227.

Williams PH, Cameron SA (1993) Bumble bee (Bombus Latr.) records from the Valley of Flowers, Uttar Pradesh. Bulletin of Entomology, 31 : 125 - 127.

Williams PH, Seddon A (1993) Mongolian bumble bee survey, In: Raleigh International Mongolia 92D expedition: June-August 1992 preliminary scientific reports., Belbin S (Eds). null : London.

Vane-wright RI, Humphries CJ, Williams PH (1991) What to protect?—Systematics and the agony of choice. Biological Conservation, 55 (3) : 235 - 254. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(91)90030-D

Williams PH (1991) The bumble bees of the Kashmir Himalaya (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology), 60 : 1 - 204.

Williams PH (1989) Why are there so many species of bumble bees at Dungeness?. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 101 : 31 - 44.

Williams PH (1989) Bumble bees - and their decline in Britain. Central Association of Bee-Keepers : Ilford.

Williams PH (1988) Habitat use by bumble bees (Bombus spp.). Ecological Entomology, 13 : 223 - 237.

Williams PH (1988) Worldmap.

Williams PH (1986) ENVIRONMENTAL-CHANGE AND THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF BRITISH BUMBLE BEES (BOMBUS LATR). BEE WORLD, 67 (2) : 50 - 61.

Williams PH (1985) Nuclearbombus fallout Reply to Menke & Carpenter, 1984. Sphecos. 10 : :

Williams PH (1985) On the distribution of bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae) with particular regard to patterns within the British Isles. null.

Williams PH (1985) A preliminary cladistic investigation of relationships among the bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Systematic Entomology, 10 : 239 - 255.

Williams PH (1982) The distribution and decline of British bumble bees (Bombus Latr.). Journal of Apicultural Research, 21 : 236 - 245.

Contributed Publications

Williams PH, Jepsen S (2017) Bumblebee Specialist Group Report 2016. London. 1 - 16.

Teaching and students

Supervision

Master's Joint supervisor to Thanoosing C
Co supervisor(s): Williams PH
Status of Bombus kluanensis and close relatives adding nuclear markers
, London, United Kingdom
Funding: Thai Government

Master's Joint supervisor to Emms P
Co supervisor(s): Williams PH
Climate change impact on IUCN Red List assessment of bumblebees
, London, United Kingdom

Master's Joint supervisor to Lee C
Co supervisor(s): Williams PH
Climate change impacts on arctic and alpine bumblebees
, London, United Kingdom

Impact and outreach

Media

Broadcasts

The Bee-All and End-All, Bee declines world-wide, BBC World Service, McGavin G, 3/4/2017.