Dr Javier Cuadros

Dr Javier Cuadros

Researcher Clay Mineralogy

Department: Earth Sciences
Division: ES Economic and Environmental Earth Sciences
Contact: email
Phone: +44 20 7942 5543 5543


Clay mineralogy and geochemistry.


I investigate clay geochemistry and processes in all environments. Particular aspects of my research are: Clay on Mars Clay-life interaction Past environments as recorded by clays Mechanisms of clay processes Crystal-chemistry of clays



PhD, University of Granada, Spain

Graduate in Chemistry, University of Malaga, Spain

Employment history


Researcher, Natural History Museum, London, Earth Sciences, United Kingdom, 2000 - ongoing

Postdoctoral Researcher, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Granada, Spain, 1996 - 2000

Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaing, Geology, United States, 1994 - 1996


Cuadros J, Vega R, Toscano A, Arroyo X (2014) Kaolinite transformation into dickite during burial diagenesis. American Mineralogist, 99 (4): 681 - 695. doi: 10.2138/am.2014.4614

Pugliese Andrade GR, de Azevedo AC, Cuadros J, Souza VS, Correia Furquim SA, Kiyohara PK, Vidal-Torrado P (2014) Transformation of Kaolinite into Smectite and Iron-Illite in Brazilian Mangrove Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 78 (2): 655 - 655. doi: 10.2136/sssaj2013.09.0381

Cuadros J, Michalski JR, Dekov V, Bishop J, Fiore S, Dyar MD (2013) Crystal-chemistry of interstratified Mg/Fe-clay minerals from seafloor hydrothermal sites. Chemical Geology, 360 : 142 - 158. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.10.016

Wainipee W, Cuadros J, Sephton MA, Unsworth C, Gill MG, Strekopytov S, Weiss DJ (2013) The effects of oil on As(V) adsorption on illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and chlorite. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 121 : 487 - 502. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2013.07.018

Cuadros J, Afsin B, Jadubansa P, Ardakani M, Ascaso C, Wierzchos J (2013) Pathways of volcanic glass alteration in laboratory experiments through inorganic and microbially-mediated processes. Clay Minerals, 48 (3): 423 - 445. doi: 10.1180/claymin.2013.048.3.01

MICHALSKI JR, CUADROS J, Niles PB, Parnell J, Rogers AD, Wright SP, et al. (2013) Groundwater activity on Mars and implications for a deep biosphere. Nature Geoscience, 6 (2): 133 - 138. doi: 10.1038/ngeo1706

CUADROS J, AFSIN B, Jadubansa P, Ardakani M, Ascaso C, Wierzchos J (2013) Microbial and inorganic control on the composition of clay from volcanic glass alteration experiments. American Mineralogist, 98 : 319 - 334. doi: 10.2138/am.2013.4272

CUADROS J, MICHALSKI JR (2013) Investigation of Al-rich clays on Mars: Evidence for kaolinite-smectite mixed-layer versus mixture of end-member phases. Icarus, 222 (1): 296 - 306. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.11.006

Michalski JR, Niles PB, Cuadros J, Baldridge AM (2013) Multiple working hypotheses for the formation of compositional stratigraphy on Mars: Insights from the Mawrth Vallis region. Icarus, 226 (1): 816 - 840. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.05.024

CUADROS J, AFSIN B, MICHALSKI JR, Ardakani M (2012) Fast, microscale-controlled weathering of rhyolitic obsidian to quartz and alunite. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 353 : 156 - 162. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.08.009

CUADROS J (2012) Clay crystal-chemical adaptability and transformation mechanisms. Clay Minerals, 47 (2): 147 - 164. doi: 10.1180/claymin.2012.047.2.01

McKeown NK, Bishop JL, CUADROS J, Hillier S, Amador E, Makarewicz HD, Parente M, Silver EA (2011) Interpretation of reflectance spectra of clay mineral-silica mixtures: implications for Martian clay mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis. Clays and Clay Minerals, 59 (4): 400 - 415. doi: 10.1346/ccmn.2011.0590404

CUADROS J, Dekov VM, Arroyo X, Nieto F (2011) Smectite formation in submarine hydrothermal sediments: samples from the HMS Challenger expedition (1872-1876). Clays and Clay Minerals, 59 (2): 147 - 164. doi: 10.1346/ccmn.2011.0590204

Ferrage E, Vidal O, Mosser-Ruck R, Cathelineau M, CUADROS J (2011) A reinvestigation of smectite illitization in experimental hydrothermal conditions. Part 1. Results from X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. American Mineralogist, 96 (1): 207 - 223. doi: 10.2138/am.2011.3587

CUADROS J, SPIRO B, DUBBIN W, JADUBANSA P (2010) Rapid microbial stabilization of unconsolidated sediment against wind erosion and dust generation. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10 (7): 1415 - 1426. doi: 10.1007/s11368-010-0273-8

DEKOV V, CUADROS J, Kamenov G, WEISS D, ARNOLD T, Basak C, Rochette P (2010) Metalliferous sediments from the HMS Challenger voyage (1872-1876). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74 (17): 5019 - 5038. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2010.06.001

HUGGETT JM, CUADROS J (2010) Glauconite formation in lacustrine/palaeosol sediments, Isle of Wight (Hampshire Basin), UK. Clay Minerals, 45 (1): 35 - 49. doi: 10.1180/claymin.2010.045.1.35

Pascua CS, Ohnuma M, Matsushita Y, Tamura K, Yamada H, CUADROS J, Ye J (2010) Synthesis of monodisperse Zn-smectite. Applied Clay Science, 48 : 55 - 59. doi: 10.1016/j.clay.2009.12.016

Cuadros J, Nieto F, Wing-Dudek T (2009) Crystal-chemical changes of mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite with progressive kaolinization, as investigated by TEM-AEM and HRTEM. Clays and Clay Minerals, 57 (6): 742 - 750. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2009.0570607

Deocampo DM, CUADROS J, WING-DUDEK T, Olives J, Amouric M (2009) Saline lake diagenesis as revealed by coupled mineralogy and geochemistry of multiple ultrafine clay phases: Pliocene Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. American Journal of Science, 309 (9): 834 - 868. doi: 10.2475/09.2009.03

Aldega L, CUADROS J, Laurora A, Rossi A (2009) Weathering of phlogopite to beidellite in a karstic environment. American Journal of Science, 309 (8): 689 - 710. doi: 10.2475/08.2009.03

CUADROS J, ALDEGA L, VETTERLEIN J, Drickamer K, DUBBIN W (2009) Reactions of lysine with montmorillonite at 80 ºC: implications for optical activity, H+ transfer and lysine-montmorillonite binding. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 333 (1): 78 - 84. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2009.01.031

CUADROS J, Gorniak K, Bahranovsky K, Labrincha J (2009) MECC'08 - A window into the Mid-European Clay Community. Clay Minerals, 44 : 417 - 419.

CUADROS J, Nieto F, WING-DUDEK T (2009) Crystal-chemical changes of kaolinite-smectite mixed-layer with progressive kaolinization, as investigated by TEM-AEM and HRTEM. Clays and Clay Minerals, 57 : 742 - 750.

Dekov VM, Scholten J, Garbe-Schönberg CD, Botz R, CUADROS J, Schmidt M, Stoffers P (2008) Hydrothermal sediment alteration at a seafloor vent field: Grimsey Graben, Tjörnes Fracture Zone, north of Iceland. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113 doi: 10.1029/2007JB005526

Dekov V, CUADROS J, Shanks W, Koski R (2008) Deposition of talc—kerolite-smectite—smectite at seafloor hydrothermal vent fields: Evidence from mineralogical, geochemical and oxygen isotope studies. Chemical Geology, 247 : 171 - 194. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.10.022

CUADROS J, DEKOV VM, Fiore S (2008) Crystal-chemistry of the mixed-layer sequence talc-talc-smectite-smectite from submarine hydrothermal vents. American Mineralogist, 93 : 1338 - 1348. doi: 10.2138/am.2008.2692

CUADROS J (2008) Clay as sealing material in nuclear waste repositories. Geology Today, 24 : 99 - 103.

PARBHAKAR A, CUADROS J, Sephton M, DUBBIN W, COLES B, WEISS D (2007) Adsorption of L-lysine on montmorillonite. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 307 : 142 - 149. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2007.05.022

FERRAGE E, KIRK CA, CRESSEY G, CUADROS J (2007) Dehydration of Ca-montmorillonite at the crystal scale. Part I: Structure evolution. American Mineralogist, 92 (7): 994 - 1006. doi: 10.2138/am.2007.2396

FERRAGE E, KIRK CA, CRESSEY G, CUADROS J (2007) Dehydration of Ca-montmorillonite at the crystal scale. Part 2: Mechanisms and kinetics. American Mineralogist, 92 (7): 1007 - 1017. doi: 10.2138/am.2007.2397

CUADROS J, WING-DUDEK T (2007) MAS NMR investigation of kaolinite-smectite structure using 6Li and 29Si with Mn exchange. Clay Minerals, 42 (2): 181 - 186. doi: 10.1180/claymin.2007.042.2.04

DUDEK T, CUADROS J, Huertas J (2007) Structure of mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite and smectite-to-kaolinite transformation mechanism from synthesis experiments. American Mineralogist, 92 (1): 179 - 192. doi: 10.2138/am.2007.2218

CUADROS J (2006) Modeling of smectite illitization in burial diagenesis environments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70 (16): 4181 - 4195. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2006.06.1372

Needham SJ, Worden RH, CUADROS J (2006) Sediment ingestion by worms and the production of bio-clays: a study of macrobiologically enhanced weathering and early diagenetic processes. Sedimentology, 53 (3): 567 - 579. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2006.00781.x

CUADROS J, DUDEK T (2006) FTIR investigation of the evolution of the octahedral sheet of kaolinite-smectite with progressive kaolinization. Clays and Clay Minerals, 54 (1): 1 - 11. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2006.0540101

WILSON J, CRESSEY G, Cressey BA, CUADROS J, Ragnarsdottir KV, Savage D, Shibata M (2006) The effect of iron on montmorillonite stability. (II) Experimental investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70 (2): 323 - 336. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2005.09.023

WILSON J, Savage D, CUADROS J, Shibata M, Ragnarsdottir K (2006) The effect of iron on montmorillonite stability. (I) Background and thermodynamic considerations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70 (2): 306 - 322. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2005.10.003

DUDEK T, CUADROS J, Fiore S (2006) Interstratified kaolinite-smectite: Nature of the layers and mechanism of smectite kaolinization. American Mineralogist, 91 (1): 159 - 170. doi: 10.2138/am.2006.1897

HUGGETT JM, CUADROS J (2005) Low-temperature illitization of smectite in the late Eocene and early Oligocene of the Isle of Wight (Hampshire basin), UK. American Mineralogist, 90 (7): 1192 - 1202. doi: 10.2138/am.2005.1674

Di Leo P, Schiattarella M, CUADROS J, Cullers R (2005) Clay mineralogy, geochemistry and structural setting of the ophiolite-bearing units from southern Italy: a multidisciplinary approach to assess tectonic history and exhumation modalities. Atti Ticinensi di Scienze della Terra, Serie Spec., 10 : 87 - 93.

WILSON J, CUADROS J, CRESSEY G (2004) An in situ time-resolved XRD-PSD investigation into Na-montmorillonite interlayer and particle rearrangement during dehydration. Clays and Clay Minerals, 52 (2): 180 - 191. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2004.0520204

Di Leo P, Cuadros J (2003) Cd-113, H-1 MAS NMR and FTIR analysis of Cd2+ adsorption on dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectite. CLAYS AND CLAY MINERALS, 51 (4): 403 - 414. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2003.0510406

Joseph J, CRESSEY G, Styles JR, Yuen STS, CUADROS J (2003) Observations of the impacts of some landfill leachates with clays. Environmental Technology, 24 (4): 419 - 428. doi: 10.1080/09593330309385576

Aldega L, Cello G, Corrado S, CUADROS J, Di Leo P, Giampaolo C, Invernizzi C, Martino C, Mazzoli S, Schiattarella M, Zattin M, Zuffa G (2003) Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the southern Apennines (Italy): Thermal constraints and modelling. Atti Ticinensi di Scienze della Terra, Series Speciale (Pavia), 9 : 135 - 140.

Di Leo P, CUADROS J (2003) 113Cd, 1H NMR and FTIR analysis of Cd2+ adsorption on dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 51 : 403 - 414.