Prof Fred Spoor

Prof Christiaan Spoor

Calleva Research Leader, Human Evolution

Department: Earth Sciences
Division: ES Vertebrates and Anthropology Palaeobiology
Phone: +44 20 7942 5179

Summary

I study early human evolution, predominantly in Africa during the time period between 1 and 4 million years ago. At the heart of this research are hominin fossils newly discovered during fieldwork of the Koobi Fora Research Project in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya. The new evidence these fossils provide is especially important for our understanding of (1) the early evolution of the genus Homo, and (2) the diversity of early hominin species during the middle Pliocene (3-4 million years ago). My work mostly focusses on the skull, and I explore how it is affected by brain development, chewing function, body posture and locomotion, aiming to assess the biological basis of species differences in our evolutionary past. A particular area of interest is the inner ear, and I study this structure not only in the context of human evolution, but in other vertebrate groups as well. The inner ear includes the sensory organs of balance and hearing and can provide valuable clues about a species’ locomotion and auditory capabilities.

Qualifications

Degrees

PhD, Utrecht University, Netherlands

MSc Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht

BSc Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht

Employment history

Academic

Associated researcher, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Dept of Human Evolution, Germany, 2015 - ongoing

Calleva Research Leader, Human Evolution, Natural History Museum, Dept of Earth Sciences, U.K., 2018 - ongoing

Honorary Professor, University College London, Dept of Anthropology, U.K., 2018 - ongoing

Professor, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Dept of Human Evolution, Germany, 2010 - 2014

Professor of Evolutionary Anatomy, University College London, Dept of Cell & Dev. Biology, United Kingdom, 2002 - 2017

Reader in Evolutionary Anatomy, University College London, Dept of Anatomy & Dev. Biology, United Kingdom, 1998 - 2002

Lecturer, University College London, Dept of Anatomy & Dev. Biology, United Kingdom, 1994 - 1998

Lecturer, University of Liverpool, Dept of Human Anatomy & Cell Biology, United Kingdom, 1991 - 1994

Lecturer, University of Groningen, Dept of Anatomy, Netherlands, 1987 - 1990

Associated researcher, Utrecht University, Dept. of Stratigraphy & Palaeontology, Netherlands, 1985 - 1987

Highlighted publications

Nengo I, Tafforeau P, Gilbert CC, Fleagle JG, Miller ER, et al. (2017) New infant cranium from the African Miocene sheds light on ape evolution. Nature, 548 (7666) : 169 - 174. doi: 10.1038/nature23456

David R, Stoessel A, Berthoz A, Spoor F, Bennequin D (2016) Assessing morphology and function of the semicircular duct system: introducing new in-situ visualization and software toolbox. Scientific Reports, 6 (1) : doi: 10.1038/srep32772

Spoor F, Leakey MG, O'Higgins P (2016) Middle Pliocene hominin diversity: Australopithecus deyiremeda and Kenyanthropus platyops. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371 (1698) : 20150231 - 20150231. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0231

Spoor F (2015) The middle Pliocene gets crowded. Nature, 521 (7553) : 432 - 433. doi: 10.1038/521432a

Spoor F, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Stelzer S, Scott N, et al. (2015) Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo. Nature, 519 (7541) : 83 - 86. doi: 10.1038/nature14224

Spoor F (2013) Palaeoanthropology: Small-brained and big-mouthed. NATURE, 502 (7472) : 452 - 453.

Publications

Stelzer S, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Spoor F (2018) Using the covariation of extant hominoid upper and lower jaws to predict dental arcades of extinct hominins. Journal of Human Evolution, 114 : 154 - 175. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.10.012

Nengo I, Tafforeau P, Gilbert CC, Fleagle JG, Miller ER, Feibel C, Fox DL, Feinberg J, Pugh KD, Berruyer C, Mana S, Engle Z, Spoor F (2017) New infant cranium from the African Miocene sheds light on ape evolution. Nature, 548 (7666) : 169 - 174. doi: 10.1038/nature23456

Douka K, Slon V, Stringer C, Potts R, Hübner A, Meyer M, Spoor F, Pääbo S, Higham T (2017) Direct radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis of the Darra-i-Kur (Afghanistan) human temporal bone. Journal of Human Evolution, 107 : 86 - 93. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.003

Ward CV, Nalley TK, Spoor F, Tafforeau P, Alemseged Z (2017) Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition in Australopithecus afarensis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114 (23) : 6000 - 6004. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1702229114

Stelzer S, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Spoor F (2017) Hominoid arcade shape: Pattern and magnitude of covariation. Journal of Human Evolution, 107 : 71 - 85. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.02.010

Stoessel A, David R, Gunz P, Hublin J-J, Spoor F (2017, 1 1) Shape and Function of the Hominid Auditory Region. FOLIA PRIMATOLOGICA. 88 (2) : KARGER : 154 - 155.

Stoessel A, David R, Gunz P, Schmidt T, Spoor F, Hublin J-J (2016) Morphology and function of Neandertal and modern human ear ossicles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113 (41) : 11489 - 11494. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1605881113

David R, Stoessel A, Berthoz A, Spoor F, Bennequin D (2016) Assessing morphology and function of the semicircular duct system: introducing new in-situ visualization and software toolbox. Scientific Reports, 6 (1) : doi: 10.1038/srep32772

Spoor F, Leakey MG, O'Higgins P (2016) Middle Pliocene hominin diversity: Australopithecus deyiremeda and Kenyanthropus platyops. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371 (1698) : 20150231 - 20150231. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0231

Stoessel A, Gunz P, David R, Spoor F (2016) Comparative anatomy of the middle ear ossicles of extant hominids – Introducing a geometric morphometric protocol. Journal of Human Evolution, 91 : 1 - 25. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.10.013

Gonzales LA, Benefit BR, McCrossin ML, Spoor F (2015) Cerebral complexity preceded enlarged brain size and reduced olfactory bulbs in Old World monkeys. Nature Communications, 6 (1) : doi: 10.1038/ncomms8580

Spoor F (2015) The middle Pliocene gets crowded. Nature, 521 (7553) : 432 - 433. doi: 10.1038/521432a

Ward CV, Feibel CS, Hammond AS, Leakey LN, Moffett EA, Plavcan JM, Skinner MM, Spoor F, Leakey MG (2015) Associated ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, and postcranial diversity in early Homo. Journal of Human Evolution, 81 : 48 - 67. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.01.005

Spoor F, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Stelzer S, Scott N, Kwekason A, Dean MC (2015) Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo. Nature, 519 (7541) : 83 - 86. doi: 10.1038/nature14224

Tryon CA, Crevecoeur I, Faith JT, Ekshtain R, Nivens J, Patterson D, Mbua EN, Spoor F (2015) Late Pleistocene age and archaeological context for the hominin calvaria from GvJm-22 (Lukenya Hill, Kenya). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112 (9) : 2682 - 2687. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1417909112

Gonzales LA, Benefit BR, Mccrossin ML, Gunz P, Spoor F (2014) New perspectives on cercopithecid brain evolution based on microCT scans of the Victoriapithecus cranium. 83rd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 84 4 - 8 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 153 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Calgary, CANADA. 127 - 127.

Moffett EA, Leakey LN, Leakey MG, Plavcan JM, Spoor F, Ward CV (2014) Pelvic inlet shape and sex determination from a fragmentary fossil pelvis. 83rd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 84 4 - 8 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 153 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Calgary, CANADA. 188 - 188.

Stelzer S, Gunz P, Spoor F (2014) Using an integration model to predict hominoid jaw shape. 83rd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 84 4 - 8 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 153 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Calgary, CANADA. 245 - 246.

Stoessel A, Gunz P, Spoor F (2014) Comparative anatomy of ear ossicles in African apes and modern humans - Introducing a geometric morphometric measurement protocol. 83rd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 84 4 - 8 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 153 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Calgary, CANADA. 246 - 247.

Joordens JCA, Dupont-Nivet G, Feibel CS, Spoor F, Sier MJ, van der Lubbe JHJL, Nielsen TK, Knul MV, Davies GR, Vonhof HB (2013) Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya. JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 65 (6) : 731 - 745. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.09.002

Spoor F (2013) Palaeoanthropology: Small-brained and big-mouthed. NATURE, 502 (7472) : 452 - 453.

Braga J, Thackeray JF, Dumoncel J, Descouens D, Bruxelles L, Loubes J-M, Kahn J-L, Stampanoni M, Bam L, Hoffman J (2013) A new partial temporal bone of a juvenile hominin from the site of Kromdraai B (South Africa). JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 65 (4) : 447 - 456. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.07.013

Braga J, Thackeray JF, Dumoncel J, Descouens D, Bruxelles L, Loubes J-M, Kahn J-L, Stampanoni M, Bam L, Hoffman J, de Beer F, Spoor F (2013) A new partial temporal bone of a juvenile hominin from the site of Kromdraai B (South Africa). Journal of Human Evolution, 65 (4) : 447 - 456. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.07.013

Joordens JC, Dupont-Nivet G, Feibel CS, Spoor F, Sier MJ, van der Lubbe JH, Nielsen TK, Knul MV, Davies GR, Vonhof HB (2013) Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution, 65 (6) : 731 - 745. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.09.002

Wannaprasert T, Spoor F, Jeffery N (2013) Size and shape maturation of the human cochlea. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 150 : 284 - 284.

Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Walker A, Mao X, Begun DR, Benefit BR, Gingerich PD, Kohler M, Kordos L, McCrossin ML, Moya-Sola S, Sanders WJ, Seiffert ER, Simons E, Zalmout IS, Spoor F (2012) Evolution of locomotion in Anthropoidea: the semicircular canal evidence. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279 (1742) : 3467 - 3475. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.0939

Gunz P, Ramsier M, Kuhrig M, Hublin J-J, Spoor F (2012) The mammalian bony labyrinth reconsidered, introducing a comprehensive geometric morphometric approach. Journal of Anatomy, 220 (6) : 529 - 543. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2012.01493.x

Leakey MG, Spoor F, Dean MC, Feibel CS, Anton SA, Kiarie C, Leakey LN (2012) New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo. Nature, 488 : 201 - 204.

Noback ML, Harvati K, Spoor F (2012) Testing uniqueness of Inuit cranial shape and its effect on climate-shape analysis.. 81st Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 147 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Portland, OR. 224 - 225.

Ramsier M, Cunningham AJ, Patino M, Villanea FA, Spoor F, Demes B, Larson S, Glander KE, Talebi M, Dominy NJ (2012) Hearing sensitivity and the evolution of acoustic communication in platyrrhine monkeys. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 147 : 243 - 243.

Spoor F (2011) Malapa and the genus Homo. Nature, 478 (7367) : 44 - 45. doi: 10.1038/478044a

Noback ML, Harvati K, Spoor F (2011) Climate-related variation of the human nasal cavity. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 145 (4) : 599 - 614. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21523

Spoor F, Leakey MG, Leakey LN (2010) Hominin diversity in the Middle Pliocene of eastern Africa: the maxilla of KNM-WT 40000. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365 (1556) : 3377 - 3388. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0042

Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Boyer DM, Godinot M, Ryan TM, Spoor F, Walker A (2010) Semicircular canal system in early primates (vol 56, pg 315, 2009). JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 58 (3) : 279 - 280. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2009.05.001

Gonzales L, Benefit B, Spoor F, Morrison P, Mccrossin M (2010) The combination of a small brain, large olfactory bulb and high visual acuity in the stem middle Miocene cercopithecoid Victoriapithecus macinnesi.. 79th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 144 4 - 14 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY WILEY-LISS : Albuquerque, NM. 112 - 113.

Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Boyer DM, Godinot M, Ryan TM, Spoor F, Walker A (2010) Erratum to "Semicircular canal system in early primates"[J. H. Evol. 56 (2009) 315-327] (DOI:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.10.007). Journal of Human Evolution, 58 (3) : 279 - 280. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2009.05.001

Spoor F (2009) Balance. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 76 - 78. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-373553-9.00022-5

Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Boyer DM, Godinot M, Ryan TM, Spoor F, Walker A (2009) Semicircular canal system in early primates. JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 56 (3) : 315 - 322. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.10.007

Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Boyer DM, Godinot M, Ryan TM, Spoor F, Walker A (2009) Semicircular canal system in early primates. Journal of Human Evolution, 56 (3) : 315 - 327. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.10.007

Gonzales LA, Spoor F, Morris P, Benefit B (2009) The internal basicranial morphology of Victoriapithecus macinnesi. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 136 - 136.

Gunz P, Spoor F, Tilgner R, Hublin J-J (2009) The Neanderthal bony labyrinth reconsidered, introducing a new geometric morphometric approach. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 142 - 142.

Noback ML, Spoor F (2009) The nasal cavity of Pleistocene hominins: implications of climate-related variation among modern humans. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 199 - 200.

SPOOR F, LEAKEY M, ANTON S, LEAKEY L (2008) The taxonomic status of KNM-ER 42700: A reply to Baab (2008a). Journal of Human Evolution, 55 (4) : 747 - 750. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.07.002

Jeffery N, Ryan TM, Spoor F (2008) The primate subarcuate fossa and its relationship to the semicircular canals part II: Adult interspecific variation. Journal of Human Evolution, 55 (2) : 326 - 339. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.02.010

Walker A, Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Simons EL, Spoor F (2008) The semicircular canal system and locomotion: The case of extinct lemuroids and lorisoids. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 17 (3) : 135 - 145. doi: 10.1002/evan.20165

Walker A, Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Simons EL, Spoor F (2008) The semicircular canal system and locomotion: The case of extinct lemuroids and lorisoids. EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY, 17 (3) : 135 - 145. doi: 10.1002/evan.20165

Spoor F, Thewissen JGM (2008) Comparative and functional anatomy of balance in aquatic mammals. Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates, 257 - 284.

Sipla J, Spoor F (2008) The Physics and Physiology of Balance, In: Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates, Thewissen JGM, Nummela S (Eds). University of California Press : Berkeley. 227 - 232.

Spoor F, Thewissen JGM (2008) Balance: Comparative and functional Anatomy in Aquatic Mammals, In: Sensory Evolution on the Threshold, Adaptions in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates, Thewissen JGM, Nummela S (Eds). University of California Press : Berkeley. 257 - 284.

Spoor F, Leakey MG, Gathogo PN, Brown FH, Antón SC, McDougall I, Kiarie C, Manthi FK, Leakey LN (2007) Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature, 448 (7154) : 688 - 691. doi: 10.1038/nature05986

Spoor F, Garland T, Krovitz G, Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Walker A (2007) The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (26) : 10808 - 10812. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0704250104

Antón SC, Spoor F, Fellmann CD, Swisher III CC (2007) Defining homo erectus: size considered, In: Handbook of Paleoanthropology Volume III, Henke W, Rothe H, Tattersall I (Eds). null : 1655 - 1693.

Spoor F, Garland T, Krovitz G, Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Walker A (2007) Primate locomotion and the semicircular canal system.. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 223 - 223.

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2006) The primate subarcuate fossa and its relationship to the semicircular canals part I: prenatal growth. Journal of Human Evolution, 51 (5) : 537 - 549. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.07.003

Alemseged Z, Spoor F, Kimbel WH, Bobe R, Geraads D, Reed D, Wynn JG (2006) A juvenile early hominin skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature, 443 (7109) : 296 - 301. doi: 10.1038/nature05047

Broadfield DC, Holloway RL, Spoor F, Leakey MG, Leakey LN (2006) The endocast of KNM-ER 42700 a new Homo erectus from Ileret, Kenya.. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 69 - 69.

Kimbel B, Spoor F (2005) Editorial. Journal of Human Evolution, 48 (1) : doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.11.002

Kupczik K, Spoor F, Pommert A, Dean MC (2005) Premolar root number variation in hominoids: genetic polymorphism vs. functional significance. Żądzińska E (Eds). Current Trends in Dental Morphology Research. 13th International Symposium on Dental Morphology, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Lodzkiego Lodz : Poland. 257 - 268.

Spoor F, Leakey LN, Leakey MG (2005) A comparative analysis of the KNM-ER 42700 hominin calvaria from Ileret (Kenya).. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 40 : 195 - 196.

Spoor F, Leakey MG, Leakey LN (2005) Correlation of cranial and mandibular prognathism in extant and fossil hominids. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 60 : 85 - 89.

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2004) Ossification and midline shape changes of the human fetal cranial base. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 123 (1) : 78 - 90. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10292

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2004) Prenatal growth and development of the modern human labyrinth. Journal of Anatomy, 204 (2) : 71 - 92. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2004.00250.x

Walker A, Krovitz GE, Silcox MT, Simons EL, Spoor F (2004) The semicircular canals of subfossil lemurs and their functional significance. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 202 - 202.

Kupczik K, Spoor F, Dean MC (2003) Tooth root morphology and masticatory muscle force pattern in humans and nonhuman primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36 :

Leakey MG, Spoor F, Brown FH, Gathogo PN, Leakey LN (2003) A new hominin calvaria from Ileret (Kenya).. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36 :

Spoor F (2003) The semicircular canal system and locomotor behaviour, with special reference to hominin evolution. Courier of the Forschunginstitut Senckenberg, 243 : 93 - 104.

Spoor F, Hublin J-J, Braun M, Zonneveld F (2003) The bony labyrinth of Neanderthals. Journal of Human Evolution, 44 (2) : 141 - 165. doi: 10.1016/S0047-2484(02)00166-5

Spoor F, Wright TM, Leakey MG (2003) Correlation of prognathism in fossil hominin skulls. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36 :

Walker A, Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Spoor F, Krovitz G (2003) The semicircular canals of plesiadapiform primates and their functional significance. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23 :

Spoor F, Bajpai S, Hussain ST, Kumar K, Thewissen JGM (2002) Vestibular evidence for the evolution of aquatic behaviour in early cetaceans. Nature, 417 (6885) : 163 - 166. doi: 10.1038/417163a

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2002) Brain size and the human cranial base: A prenatal perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118 (4) : 324 - 340. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10040

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2002) Morphometric shape variations associated with retroflexion of the human fetal midline cranial base. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Rae TC, Koppe T, Spoor F, Benefit B, McCrossin M (2002) Ancestral loss of the maxillary sinus in Old World monkeys and independent acquisition inMacaca. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 117 (4) : 293 - 296. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10008

Spoor F, Leakey L, Leakey M (2002) A comparative study of Pliocene hominin fossils from Lomekwi, west of Lake Turkana (Kenya).. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 34 :

Spoor F, Leakey LN, Leakey MG (2002) Bone Clones' "re-creation" of Kenyanthropus. Physical Anthropology, 3 :

Leakey MG, Spoor F, Brown FH, Gathogo PN, Kiarie C, Leakey LN, McDougall I (2001) New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages. Nature, 410 (6827) : 433 - 440. doi: 10.1038/35068500

Leakey MG, Spoor F, Leakey LN, Brown FH (2001) New hominin discoveries from the Nachukui Formation, west of Lake Turkana. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Spoor F, Leakey MG (2001) Great ape semicircular canal size: shared adaptation or phylogeny? The evidence from Theropithecus oswaldi. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Harrison T, Spoor F (2000) Editorial announcement. Journal of Human Evolution, 38 (1) : 1 - 1. doi: 10.1006/jhev.1999.0377

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2000) Fetal development and evolution of the human posterior cranial fossa.. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 188 - 189.

Spoor F (2000) Basicranial architecture of Plio-Pleistocene hominins.. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 288 - 288.

Spoor CF (2000) Radiological imaging and associated techniques, In: Encyclopedia of Palaeontology, Singer R (Eds). Fitzroy Dearborn : Chicago. 1005 - 1007.

Spoor F, Jeffery N, Zonneveld F (2000) Imaging skeletal growth and evolution, In: Development, Growth and Evolution: implications for the study of the hominid, O'Higgins P, Cohn M (Eds). Academic Press : London. 123 - 161.

SPOOR F, JEFFERY N, ZONNEVELD F (2000) Using diagnostic radiology in human evolutionary studies. Journal of Anatomy, 197 (1) : 61 - 76. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19710061.x

Jeffery N, Spoor F (1999) Human fetal cranial base flexion and brain volumes: a high resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (hrMRI) study. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Spoor F (1999) The human fossils from Corbeddu Cave, Sardinia: a reappraisal. Deinsea, 7 : 297 - 302.

Spoor F, O'Higgins P, Dean C, Lieberman DE (1999) Anterior sphenoid in modern humans. Nature, 397 (6720) : 572 - 572. doi: 10.1038/17505

Spoor F, Wood W (1999) Neck proportions in modern humans and Neanderthals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1999) CT-based 3-D imaging of hominid fossils, with notes on internal features of the Broken Hill 1 and SK47 crania, In: The paranasal sinuses of higher primates: development, function and evolution, Koppe T, Nagai H, Alt K (Eds). Quintessenz : Berlin. 207 - 226.

Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1998) Comparative review of the human bony labyrinth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 107 (SUPPL. 27) : 211 - 251.

Hublin J-J, Spoor F, Braun M, Zonneveld F, Condemi S (1998) Erratum: A late Neanderthal associated with Upper Palaeolithic artefacts. Nature, 392 (6677) : 737 - 737. doi: 10.1038/33734

Spoor F, Stringer C, Zonneveld F (1998) Rare temporal bone pathology of the Singa calvaria from Sudan. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 107 (1) : 41 - 50. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199809)107:1<41::AID-AJPA4>3.0.CO;2-G

Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1998) Comparative review of the human bony labyrinth. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 41 : 211 - 251.

Zonneveld FW, Spoor CF (1998) 3D Imaging of hominid fossils, In: Tecnologie 3D in medicina, Bianchi SD, Ramieri G (Eds). G. Gnocchi Editore : Napoli. 149 - 152.

Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1997) The bony labyrinth of Sts 5 ('Mrs Ples'). SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 93 (4) : 180 - 180.

Spoor F (1997) Basicranial architecture and relative brain size of Sts 5 (Australopithecus africanus) and other Plio-Pleistocene hominids. South African Journal of Science, 93 : 182 - 187.

Spoor F, Zonneveld FW (1997) The bony labyrinth of Sts 5. South African Journal of Science, 93 : 180 - 180.

Spoor F, Leakey M (1996) Absence of the subarcuate fossa in cercopithecids. Journal of Human Evolution, 31 (6) : 569 - 575. doi: 10.1006/jhev.1996.0081

Hublin J-J, Spoor F, Braun M, Zonneveld F, Condemi S (1996) A late Neanderthal associated with Upper Palaeolithic artefacts. Nature, 381 (6579) : 224 - 226. doi: 10.1038/381224a0

Spoor F, Wood B, Zonneveld F (1996) Evidence for a link between human semicircular canal size and bipedal behaviour. Journal of Human Evolution, 30 (2) : 183 - 187. doi: 10.1006/jhev.1996.0018

SPOOR F (1996) Evidence for a link between human semicircular canal size and bipedal behaviour. Journal of Human Evolution, 30 : 183 - 187.

SPOOR F, ZONNEVELD F (1995) MORPHOMETRY OF THE PRIMATE BONY LABYRINTH - A NEW METHOD BASED ON HIGH-RESOLUTION COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY. JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, 186 : 271 - 286.

Spoor CF, Dean MC (1995) The cranial base of hominoids; views from the inside and outside. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 20 :

Spoor F, Wood B, Zonneveld F (1994) Implications of early hominid labyrinthine morphology for evolution of human bipedal locomotion. Nature, 369 (6482) : 645 - 648. doi: 10.1038/369645a0

Spoor CF, Zonneveld FW, Macho GA (1993) Linear measurements of cortical bone and dental enamel by computed tomography: Applications and problems. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 91 (4) : 469 - 484. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330910405

Spoor C, Sondaar PY, Hussain S (1991) A new hominoid hamate and first metacarpal from the Late Miocene Nagri Formation of Pakistan. Journal of Human Evolution, 21 (6) : 413 - 424. doi: 10.1016/0047-2484(91)90092-A

Spoor CF (1989) Comparative anatomy of the osseous labyrinth of extant and fossil hominoids. Acta Morphologica Neerlando-Scandinavica, 27 (3-4) : 224 - 225.

Zonneveld FW, Spoor CF, Wind J (1989) The use of the CT in the study of the internal morphology of hominid fossils. MedicaMundi, 34 (3) : 117 - 128.

Spoor CF, Badoux DM (1989) The M. soleus in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C, 18 (1) : 27 - 31. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0264.1989.tb00577.x

SPOOR CF, BADOUX DM (1989) DESCRIPTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL-MORPHOLOGY OF THE LOCOMOTORY APPARATUS OF THE SPOTTED HYENA (CROCUTA-CROCUTA, ERXLEBEN, 1777). ANATOMISCHER ANZEIGER, 168 (3) : 261 - 266.

SPOOR CF (1988) THE BODY PROPORTIONS IN MYOTRAGUS-BALEARICUS BATE, 1909. PROCEEDINGS OF THE KONINKLIJKE NEDERLANDSE AKADEMIE VAN WETENSCHAPPEN SERIES B-PALAEONTOLOGY GEOLOGY PHYSICS CHEMISTRY ANTHROPOLOGY, 91 (3) : 285 - 293.

SPOOR CF (1988) THE LIMB BONES OF MYOTRAGUS-BALEARICUS BATE, 1909. PROCEEDINGS OF THE KONINKLIJKE NEDERLANDSE AKADEMIE VAN WETENSCHAPPEN SERIES B-PALAEONTOLOGY GEOLOGY PHYSICS CHEMISTRY ANTHROPOLOGY, 91 (3) : 295 - 309.

SPOOR CF, BADOUX DM (1988) DESCRIPTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL MYOLOGY OF THE BACK AND HINDLIMB OF THE STRIPED HYENA (HYAENA-HYAENA, L 1758). ANATOMISCHER ANZEIGER, 167 (4) : 313 - 321.

Ulrich M, Perizonius W, Spoor C, Sandberg P, Vermeer C (1987) Extraction of osteocalcin from fossil bones and teeth. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 149 (2) : 712 - 719. doi: 10.1016/0006-291X(87)90426-8

Spoor C, Germana F (1987) Proportions of the Neolithic Human Maxillae from Sardinia. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, 4 (2) : 143 - 150. doi: 10.3406/bmsap.1987.1626

Spoor CF, Badoux DM (1986) Nomenclatural review of long digital forelimb flexors in carnivores. The Anatomical Record, 216 (4) : 471 - 473. doi: 10.1002/ar.1092160403

Spoor C, Sondaar P (1986) Human fossils from the endemic island fauna of Sardinia. Journal of Human Evolution, 15 (5) : 399 - 408. doi: 10.1016/S0047-2484(86)80019-7

SPOOR CF, BADOUX DM (1986) DESCRIPTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL MYOLOGY OF THE NECK AND FORELIMB OF THE STRIPED HYENA (HYENA-HYENA, L 1758). ANATOMISCHER ANZEIGER, 161 (5) : 375 - 387.

SPOOR CF, BELTERMAN T (1986) LOCOMOTION IN HYAENIDAE. BIJDRAGEN TOT DE DIERKUNDE, 56 (1) : 24 - 28.

SPOOR CF (1985) BODY PROPORTIONS IN HYAENIDAE. ANATOMISCHER ANZEIGER, 160 (3) : 215 - 220.

Introduction

Summary

I study early human evolution, predominantly in Africa during the time period between 1 and 4 million years ago. At the heart of this research are hominin fossils newly discovered during fieldwork of the Koobi Fora Research Project in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya. The new evidence these fossils provide is especially important for our understanding of (1) the early evolution of the genus Homo, and (2) the diversity of early hominin species during the middle Pliocene (3-4 million years ago). My work mostly focusses on the skull, and I explore how it is affected by brain development, chewing function, body posture and locomotion, aiming to assess the biological basis of species differences in our evolutionary past. A particular area of interest is the inner ear, and I study this structure not only in the context of human evolution, but in other vertebrate groups as well. The inner ear includes the sensory organs of balance and hearing and can provide valuable clues about a species’ locomotion and auditory capabilities.

Qualifications

Degrees

PhD, Utrecht University, Netherlands

MSc Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht

BSc Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht

Employment history

Academic

Associated researcher, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Dept of Human Evolution, Germany, 2015 - ongoing

Calleva Research Leader, Human Evolution, Natural History Museum, Dept of Earth Sciences, U.K., 2018 - ongoing

Honorary Professor, University College London, Dept of Anthropology, U.K., 2018 - ongoing

Professor, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Dept of Human Evolution, Germany, 2010 - 2014

Professor of Evolutionary Anatomy, University College London, Dept of Cell & Dev. Biology, United Kingdom, 2002 - 2017

Reader in Evolutionary Anatomy, University College London, Dept of Anatomy & Dev. Biology, United Kingdom, 1998 - 2002

Lecturer, University College London, Dept of Anatomy & Dev. Biology, United Kingdom, 1994 - 1998

Lecturer, University of Liverpool, Dept of Human Anatomy & Cell Biology, United Kingdom, 1991 - 1994

Lecturer, University of Groningen, Dept of Anatomy, Netherlands, 1987 - 1990

Associated researcher, Utrecht University, Dept. of Stratigraphy & Palaeontology, Netherlands, 1985 - 1987

Highlighted publications

Nengo I, Tafforeau P, Gilbert CC, Fleagle JG, Miller ER, et al. (2017) New infant cranium from the African Miocene sheds light on ape evolution. Nature, 548 (7666) : 169 - 174. doi: 10.1038/nature23456

David R, Stoessel A, Berthoz A, Spoor F, Bennequin D (2016) Assessing morphology and function of the semicircular duct system: introducing new in-situ visualization and software toolbox. Scientific Reports, 6 (1) : doi: 10.1038/srep32772

Spoor F, Leakey MG, O'Higgins P (2016) Middle Pliocene hominin diversity: Australopithecus deyiremeda and Kenyanthropus platyops. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371 (1698) : 20150231 - 20150231. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0231

Spoor F (2015) The middle Pliocene gets crowded. Nature, 521 (7553) : 432 - 433. doi: 10.1038/521432a

Spoor F, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Stelzer S, Scott N, et al. (2015) Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo. Nature, 519 (7541) : 83 - 86. doi: 10.1038/nature14224

Spoor F (2013) Palaeoanthropology: Small-brained and big-mouthed. NATURE, 502 (7472) : 452 - 453.

Publications

Publications

Stelzer S, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Spoor F (2018) Using the covariation of extant hominoid upper and lower jaws to predict dental arcades of extinct hominins. Journal of Human Evolution, 114 : 154 - 175. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.10.012

Nengo I, Tafforeau P, Gilbert CC, Fleagle JG, Miller ER, Feibel C, Fox DL, Feinberg J, Pugh KD, Berruyer C, Mana S, Engle Z, Spoor F (2017) New infant cranium from the African Miocene sheds light on ape evolution. Nature, 548 (7666) : 169 - 174. doi: 10.1038/nature23456

Douka K, Slon V, Stringer C, Potts R, Hübner A, Meyer M, Spoor F, Pääbo S, Higham T (2017) Direct radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis of the Darra-i-Kur (Afghanistan) human temporal bone. Journal of Human Evolution, 107 : 86 - 93. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.003

Ward CV, Nalley TK, Spoor F, Tafforeau P, Alemseged Z (2017) Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition in Australopithecus afarensis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114 (23) : 6000 - 6004. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1702229114

Stelzer S, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Spoor F (2017) Hominoid arcade shape: Pattern and magnitude of covariation. Journal of Human Evolution, 107 : 71 - 85. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.02.010

Stoessel A, David R, Gunz P, Hublin J-J, Spoor F (2017, 1 1) Shape and Function of the Hominid Auditory Region. FOLIA PRIMATOLOGICA. 88 (2) : KARGER : 154 - 155.

Stoessel A, David R, Gunz P, Schmidt T, Spoor F, Hublin J-J (2016) Morphology and function of Neandertal and modern human ear ossicles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113 (41) : 11489 - 11494. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1605881113

David R, Stoessel A, Berthoz A, Spoor F, Bennequin D (2016) Assessing morphology and function of the semicircular duct system: introducing new in-situ visualization and software toolbox. Scientific Reports, 6 (1) : doi: 10.1038/srep32772

Spoor F, Leakey MG, O'Higgins P (2016) Middle Pliocene hominin diversity: Australopithecus deyiremeda and Kenyanthropus platyops. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371 (1698) : 20150231 - 20150231. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0231

Stoessel A, Gunz P, David R, Spoor F (2016) Comparative anatomy of the middle ear ossicles of extant hominids – Introducing a geometric morphometric protocol. Journal of Human Evolution, 91 : 1 - 25. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.10.013

Gonzales LA, Benefit BR, McCrossin ML, Spoor F (2015) Cerebral complexity preceded enlarged brain size and reduced olfactory bulbs in Old World monkeys. Nature Communications, 6 (1) : doi: 10.1038/ncomms8580

Spoor F (2015) The middle Pliocene gets crowded. Nature, 521 (7553) : 432 - 433. doi: 10.1038/521432a

Ward CV, Feibel CS, Hammond AS, Leakey LN, Moffett EA, Plavcan JM, Skinner MM, Spoor F, Leakey MG (2015) Associated ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, and postcranial diversity in early Homo. Journal of Human Evolution, 81 : 48 - 67. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.01.005

Spoor F, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Stelzer S, Scott N, Kwekason A, Dean MC (2015) Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo. Nature, 519 (7541) : 83 - 86. doi: 10.1038/nature14224

Tryon CA, Crevecoeur I, Faith JT, Ekshtain R, Nivens J, Patterson D, Mbua EN, Spoor F (2015) Late Pleistocene age and archaeological context for the hominin calvaria from GvJm-22 (Lukenya Hill, Kenya). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112 (9) : 2682 - 2687. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1417909112

Gonzales LA, Benefit BR, Mccrossin ML, Gunz P, Spoor F (2014) New perspectives on cercopithecid brain evolution based on microCT scans of the Victoriapithecus cranium. 83rd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 84 4 - 8 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 153 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Calgary, CANADA. 127 - 127.

Moffett EA, Leakey LN, Leakey MG, Plavcan JM, Spoor F, Ward CV (2014) Pelvic inlet shape and sex determination from a fragmentary fossil pelvis. 83rd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 84 4 - 8 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 153 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Calgary, CANADA. 188 - 188.

Stelzer S, Gunz P, Spoor F (2014) Using an integration model to predict hominoid jaw shape. 83rd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 84 4 - 8 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 153 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Calgary, CANADA. 245 - 246.

Stoessel A, Gunz P, Spoor F (2014) Comparative anatomy of ear ossicles in African apes and modern humans - Introducing a geometric morphometric measurement protocol. 83rd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 84 4 - 8 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 153 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Calgary, CANADA. 246 - 247.

Joordens JCA, Dupont-Nivet G, Feibel CS, Spoor F, Sier MJ, van der Lubbe JHJL, Nielsen TK, Knul MV, Davies GR, Vonhof HB (2013) Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya. JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 65 (6) : 731 - 745. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.09.002

Spoor F (2013) Palaeoanthropology: Small-brained and big-mouthed. NATURE, 502 (7472) : 452 - 453.

Braga J, Thackeray JF, Dumoncel J, Descouens D, Bruxelles L, Loubes J-M, Kahn J-L, Stampanoni M, Bam L, Hoffman J (2013) A new partial temporal bone of a juvenile hominin from the site of Kromdraai B (South Africa). JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 65 (4) : 447 - 456. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.07.013

Braga J, Thackeray JF, Dumoncel J, Descouens D, Bruxelles L, Loubes J-M, Kahn J-L, Stampanoni M, Bam L, Hoffman J, de Beer F, Spoor F (2013) A new partial temporal bone of a juvenile hominin from the site of Kromdraai B (South Africa). Journal of Human Evolution, 65 (4) : 447 - 456. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.07.013

Joordens JC, Dupont-Nivet G, Feibel CS, Spoor F, Sier MJ, van der Lubbe JH, Nielsen TK, Knul MV, Davies GR, Vonhof HB (2013) Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution, 65 (6) : 731 - 745. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.09.002

Wannaprasert T, Spoor F, Jeffery N (2013) Size and shape maturation of the human cochlea. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 150 : 284 - 284.

Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Walker A, Mao X, Begun DR, Benefit BR, Gingerich PD, Kohler M, Kordos L, McCrossin ML, Moya-Sola S, Sanders WJ, Seiffert ER, Simons E, Zalmout IS, Spoor F (2012) Evolution of locomotion in Anthropoidea: the semicircular canal evidence. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279 (1742) : 3467 - 3475. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.0939

Gunz P, Ramsier M, Kuhrig M, Hublin J-J, Spoor F (2012) The mammalian bony labyrinth reconsidered, introducing a comprehensive geometric morphometric approach. Journal of Anatomy, 220 (6) : 529 - 543. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2012.01493.x

Leakey MG, Spoor F, Dean MC, Feibel CS, Anton SA, Kiarie C, Leakey LN (2012) New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo. Nature, 488 : 201 - 204.

Noback ML, Harvati K, Spoor F (2012) Testing uniqueness of Inuit cranial shape and its effect on climate-shape analysis.. 81st Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 147 : WILEY-BLACKWELL : Portland, OR. 224 - 225.

Ramsier M, Cunningham AJ, Patino M, Villanea FA, Spoor F, Demes B, Larson S, Glander KE, Talebi M, Dominy NJ (2012) Hearing sensitivity and the evolution of acoustic communication in platyrrhine monkeys. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 147 : 243 - 243.

Spoor F (2011) Malapa and the genus Homo. Nature, 478 (7367) : 44 - 45. doi: 10.1038/478044a

Noback ML, Harvati K, Spoor F (2011) Climate-related variation of the human nasal cavity. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 145 (4) : 599 - 614. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21523

Spoor F, Leakey MG, Leakey LN (2010) Hominin diversity in the Middle Pliocene of eastern Africa: the maxilla of KNM-WT 40000. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365 (1556) : 3377 - 3388. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0042

Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Boyer DM, Godinot M, Ryan TM, Spoor F, Walker A (2010) Semicircular canal system in early primates (vol 56, pg 315, 2009). JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 58 (3) : 279 - 280. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2009.05.001

Gonzales L, Benefit B, Spoor F, Morrison P, Mccrossin M (2010) The combination of a small brain, large olfactory bulb and high visual acuity in the stem middle Miocene cercopithecoid Victoriapithecus macinnesi.. 79th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, 144 4 - 14 4 4AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY WILEY-LISS : Albuquerque, NM. 112 - 113.

Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Boyer DM, Godinot M, Ryan TM, Spoor F, Walker A (2010) Erratum to "Semicircular canal system in early primates"[J. H. Evol. 56 (2009) 315-327] (DOI:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.10.007). Journal of Human Evolution, 58 (3) : 279 - 280. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2009.05.001

Spoor F (2009) Balance. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 76 - 78. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-373553-9.00022-5

Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Boyer DM, Godinot M, Ryan TM, Spoor F, Walker A (2009) Semicircular canal system in early primates. JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 56 (3) : 315 - 322. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.10.007

Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Boyer DM, Godinot M, Ryan TM, Spoor F, Walker A (2009) Semicircular canal system in early primates. Journal of Human Evolution, 56 (3) : 315 - 327. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.10.007

Gonzales LA, Spoor F, Morris P, Benefit B (2009) The internal basicranial morphology of Victoriapithecus macinnesi. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 136 - 136.

Gunz P, Spoor F, Tilgner R, Hublin J-J (2009) The Neanderthal bony labyrinth reconsidered, introducing a new geometric morphometric approach. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 142 - 142.

Noback ML, Spoor F (2009) The nasal cavity of Pleistocene hominins: implications of climate-related variation among modern humans. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 199 - 200.

SPOOR F, LEAKEY M, ANTON S, LEAKEY L (2008) The taxonomic status of KNM-ER 42700: A reply to Baab (2008a). Journal of Human Evolution, 55 (4) : 747 - 750. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.07.002

Jeffery N, Ryan TM, Spoor F (2008) The primate subarcuate fossa and its relationship to the semicircular canals part II: Adult interspecific variation. Journal of Human Evolution, 55 (2) : 326 - 339. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.02.010

Walker A, Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Simons EL, Spoor F (2008) The semicircular canal system and locomotion: The case of extinct lemuroids and lorisoids. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 17 (3) : 135 - 145. doi: 10.1002/evan.20165

Walker A, Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Simons EL, Spoor F (2008) The semicircular canal system and locomotion: The case of extinct lemuroids and lorisoids. EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY, 17 (3) : 135 - 145. doi: 10.1002/evan.20165

Spoor F, Thewissen JGM (2008) Comparative and functional anatomy of balance in aquatic mammals. Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates, 257 - 284.

Sipla J, Spoor F (2008) The Physics and Physiology of Balance, In: Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates, Thewissen JGM, Nummela S (Eds). University of California Press : Berkeley. 227 - 232.

Spoor F, Thewissen JGM (2008) Balance: Comparative and functional Anatomy in Aquatic Mammals, In: Sensory Evolution on the Threshold, Adaptions in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates, Thewissen JGM, Nummela S (Eds). University of California Press : Berkeley. 257 - 284.

Spoor F, Leakey MG, Gathogo PN, Brown FH, Antón SC, McDougall I, Kiarie C, Manthi FK, Leakey LN (2007) Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature, 448 (7154) : 688 - 691. doi: 10.1038/nature05986

Spoor F, Garland T, Krovitz G, Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Walker A (2007) The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (26) : 10808 - 10812. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0704250104

Antón SC, Spoor F, Fellmann CD, Swisher III CC (2007) Defining homo erectus: size considered, In: Handbook of Paleoanthropology Volume III, Henke W, Rothe H, Tattersall I (Eds). null : 1655 - 1693.

Spoor F, Garland T, Krovitz G, Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Walker A (2007) Primate locomotion and the semicircular canal system.. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 223 - 223.

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2006) The primate subarcuate fossa and its relationship to the semicircular canals part I: prenatal growth. Journal of Human Evolution, 51 (5) : 537 - 549. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.07.003

Alemseged Z, Spoor F, Kimbel WH, Bobe R, Geraads D, Reed D, Wynn JG (2006) A juvenile early hominin skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature, 443 (7109) : 296 - 301. doi: 10.1038/nature05047

Broadfield DC, Holloway RL, Spoor F, Leakey MG, Leakey LN (2006) The endocast of KNM-ER 42700 a new Homo erectus from Ileret, Kenya.. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 69 - 69.

Kimbel B, Spoor F (2005) Editorial. Journal of Human Evolution, 48 (1) : doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.11.002

Kupczik K, Spoor F, Pommert A, Dean MC (2005) Premolar root number variation in hominoids: genetic polymorphism vs. functional significance. Żądzińska E (Eds). Current Trends in Dental Morphology Research. 13th International Symposium on Dental Morphology, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Lodzkiego Lodz : Poland. 257 - 268.

Spoor F, Leakey LN, Leakey MG (2005) A comparative analysis of the KNM-ER 42700 hominin calvaria from Ileret (Kenya).. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 40 : 195 - 196.

Spoor F, Leakey MG, Leakey LN (2005) Correlation of cranial and mandibular prognathism in extant and fossil hominids. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 60 : 85 - 89.

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2004) Ossification and midline shape changes of the human fetal cranial base. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 123 (1) : 78 - 90. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10292

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2004) Prenatal growth and development of the modern human labyrinth. Journal of Anatomy, 204 (2) : 71 - 92. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2004.00250.x

Walker A, Krovitz GE, Silcox MT, Simons EL, Spoor F (2004) The semicircular canals of subfossil lemurs and their functional significance. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 202 - 202.

Kupczik K, Spoor F, Dean MC (2003) Tooth root morphology and masticatory muscle force pattern in humans and nonhuman primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36 :

Leakey MG, Spoor F, Brown FH, Gathogo PN, Leakey LN (2003) A new hominin calvaria from Ileret (Kenya).. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36 :

Spoor F (2003) The semicircular canal system and locomotor behaviour, with special reference to hominin evolution. Courier of the Forschunginstitut Senckenberg, 243 : 93 - 104.

Spoor F, Hublin J-J, Braun M, Zonneveld F (2003) The bony labyrinth of Neanderthals. Journal of Human Evolution, 44 (2) : 141 - 165. doi: 10.1016/S0047-2484(02)00166-5

Spoor F, Wright TM, Leakey MG (2003) Correlation of prognathism in fossil hominin skulls. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36 :

Walker A, Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Spoor F, Krovitz G (2003) The semicircular canals of plesiadapiform primates and their functional significance. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23 :

Spoor F, Bajpai S, Hussain ST, Kumar K, Thewissen JGM (2002) Vestibular evidence for the evolution of aquatic behaviour in early cetaceans. Nature, 417 (6885) : 163 - 166. doi: 10.1038/417163a

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2002) Brain size and the human cranial base: A prenatal perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118 (4) : 324 - 340. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10040

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2002) Morphometric shape variations associated with retroflexion of the human fetal midline cranial base. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Rae TC, Koppe T, Spoor F, Benefit B, McCrossin M (2002) Ancestral loss of the maxillary sinus in Old World monkeys and independent acquisition inMacaca. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 117 (4) : 293 - 296. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.10008

Spoor F, Leakey L, Leakey M (2002) A comparative study of Pliocene hominin fossils from Lomekwi, west of Lake Turkana (Kenya).. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 34 :

Spoor F, Leakey LN, Leakey MG (2002) Bone Clones' "re-creation" of Kenyanthropus. Physical Anthropology, 3 :

Leakey MG, Spoor F, Brown FH, Gathogo PN, Kiarie C, Leakey LN, McDougall I (2001) New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages. Nature, 410 (6827) : 433 - 440. doi: 10.1038/35068500

Leakey MG, Spoor F, Leakey LN, Brown FH (2001) New hominin discoveries from the Nachukui Formation, west of Lake Turkana. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Spoor F, Leakey MG (2001) Great ape semicircular canal size: shared adaptation or phylogeny? The evidence from Theropithecus oswaldi. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Harrison T, Spoor F (2000) Editorial announcement. Journal of Human Evolution, 38 (1) : 1 - 1. doi: 10.1006/jhev.1999.0377

Jeffery N, Spoor F (2000) Fetal development and evolution of the human posterior cranial fossa.. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 188 - 189.

Spoor F (2000) Basicranial architecture of Plio-Pleistocene hominins.. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 288 - 288.

Spoor CF (2000) Radiological imaging and associated techniques, In: Encyclopedia of Palaeontology, Singer R (Eds). Fitzroy Dearborn : Chicago. 1005 - 1007.

Spoor F, Jeffery N, Zonneveld F (2000) Imaging skeletal growth and evolution, In: Development, Growth and Evolution: implications for the study of the hominid, O'Higgins P, Cohn M (Eds). Academic Press : London. 123 - 161.

SPOOR F, JEFFERY N, ZONNEVELD F (2000) Using diagnostic radiology in human evolutionary studies. Journal of Anatomy, 197 (1) : 61 - 76. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19710061.x

Jeffery N, Spoor F (1999) Human fetal cranial base flexion and brain volumes: a high resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (hrMRI) study. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Spoor F (1999) The human fossils from Corbeddu Cave, Sardinia: a reappraisal. Deinsea, 7 : 297 - 302.

Spoor F, O'Higgins P, Dean C, Lieberman DE (1999) Anterior sphenoid in modern humans. Nature, 397 (6720) : 572 - 572. doi: 10.1038/17505

Spoor F, Wood W (1999) Neck proportions in modern humans and Neanderthals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1999) CT-based 3-D imaging of hominid fossils, with notes on internal features of the Broken Hill 1 and SK47 crania, In: The paranasal sinuses of higher primates: development, function and evolution, Koppe T, Nagai H, Alt K (Eds). Quintessenz : Berlin. 207 - 226.

Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1998) Comparative review of the human bony labyrinth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 107 (SUPPL. 27) : 211 - 251.

Hublin J-J, Spoor F, Braun M, Zonneveld F, Condemi S (1998) Erratum: A late Neanderthal associated with Upper Palaeolithic artefacts. Nature, 392 (6677) : 737 - 737. doi: 10.1038/33734

Spoor F, Stringer C, Zonneveld F (1998) Rare temporal bone pathology of the Singa calvaria from Sudan. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 107 (1) : 41 - 50. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199809)107:1<41::AID-AJPA4>3.0.CO;2-G

Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1998) Comparative review of the human bony labyrinth. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 41 : 211 - 251.

Zonneveld FW, Spoor CF (1998) 3D Imaging of hominid fossils, In: Tecnologie 3D in medicina, Bianchi SD, Ramieri G (Eds). G. Gnocchi Editore : Napoli. 149 - 152.

Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1997) The bony labyrinth of Sts 5 ('Mrs Ples'). SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 93 (4) : 180 - 180.

Spoor F (1997) Basicranial architecture and relative brain size of Sts 5 (Australopithecus africanus) and other Plio-Pleistocene hominids. South African Journal of Science, 93 : 182 - 187.

Spoor F, Zonneveld FW (1997) The bony labyrinth of Sts 5. South African Journal of Science, 93 : 180 - 180.

Spoor F, Leakey M (1996) Absence of the subarcuate fossa in cercopithecids. Journal of Human Evolution, 31 (6) : 569 - 575. doi: 10.1006/jhev.1996.0081

Hublin J-J, Spoor F, Braun M, Zonneveld F, Condemi S (1996) A late Neanderthal associated with Upper Palaeolithic artefacts. Nature, 381 (6579) : 224 - 226. doi: 10.1038/381224a0

Spoor F, Wood B, Zonneveld F (1996) Evidence for a link between human semicircular canal size and bipedal behaviour. Journal of Human Evolution, 30 (2) : 183 - 187. doi: 10.1006/jhev.1996.0018

SPOOR F (1996) Evidence for a link between human semicircular canal size and bipedal behaviour. Journal of Human Evolution, 30 : 183 - 187.

SPOOR F, ZONNEVELD F (1995) MORPHOMETRY OF THE PRIMATE BONY LABYRINTH - A NEW METHOD BASED ON HIGH-RESOLUTION COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY. JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, 186 : 271 - 286.

Spoor CF, Dean MC (1995) The cranial base of hominoids; views from the inside and outside. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 20 :

Spoor F, Wood B, Zonneveld F (1994) Implications of early hominid labyrinthine morphology for evolution of human bipedal locomotion. Nature, 369 (6482) : 645 - 648. doi: 10.1038/369645a0

Spoor CF, Zonneveld FW, Macho GA (1993) Linear measurements of cortical bone and dental enamel by computed tomography: Applications and problems. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 91 (4) : 469 - 484. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330910405

Spoor C, Sondaar PY, Hussain S (1991) A new hominoid hamate and first metacarpal from the Late Miocene Nagri Formation of Pakistan. Journal of Human Evolution, 21 (6) : 413 - 424. doi: 10.1016/0047-2484(91)90092-A

Spoor CF (1989) Comparative anatomy of the osseous labyrinth of extant and fossil hominoids. Acta Morphologica Neerlando-Scandinavica, 27 (3-4) : 224 - 225.

Zonneveld FW, Spoor CF, Wind J (1989) The use of the CT in the study of the internal morphology of hominid fossils. MedicaMundi, 34 (3) : 117 - 128.

Spoor CF, Badoux DM (1989) The M. soleus in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C, 18 (1) : 27 - 31. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0264.1989.tb00577.x

SPOOR CF, BADOUX DM (1989) DESCRIPTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL-MORPHOLOGY OF THE LOCOMOTORY APPARATUS OF THE SPOTTED HYENA (CROCUTA-CROCUTA, ERXLEBEN, 1777). ANATOMISCHER ANZEIGER, 168 (3) : 261 - 266.

SPOOR CF (1988) THE BODY PROPORTIONS IN MYOTRAGUS-BALEARICUS BATE, 1909. PROCEEDINGS OF THE KONINKLIJKE NEDERLANDSE AKADEMIE VAN WETENSCHAPPEN SERIES B-PALAEONTOLOGY GEOLOGY PHYSICS CHEMISTRY ANTHROPOLOGY, 91 (3) : 285 - 293.

SPOOR CF (1988) THE LIMB BONES OF MYOTRAGUS-BALEARICUS BATE, 1909. PROCEEDINGS OF THE KONINKLIJKE NEDERLANDSE AKADEMIE VAN WETENSCHAPPEN SERIES B-PALAEONTOLOGY GEOLOGY PHYSICS CHEMISTRY ANTHROPOLOGY, 91 (3) : 295 - 309.

SPOOR CF, BADOUX DM (1988) DESCRIPTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL MYOLOGY OF THE BACK AND HINDLIMB OF THE STRIPED HYENA (HYAENA-HYAENA, L 1758). ANATOMISCHER ANZEIGER, 167 (4) : 313 - 321.

Ulrich M, Perizonius W, Spoor C, Sandberg P, Vermeer C (1987) Extraction of osteocalcin from fossil bones and teeth. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 149 (2) : 712 - 719. doi: 10.1016/0006-291X(87)90426-8

Spoor C, Germana F (1987) Proportions of the Neolithic Human Maxillae from Sardinia. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, 4 (2) : 143 - 150. doi: 10.3406/bmsap.1987.1626

Spoor CF, Badoux DM (1986) Nomenclatural review of long digital forelimb flexors in carnivores. The Anatomical Record, 216 (4) : 471 - 473. doi: 10.1002/ar.1092160403

Spoor C, Sondaar P (1986) Human fossils from the endemic island fauna of Sardinia. Journal of Human Evolution, 15 (5) : 399 - 408. doi: 10.1016/S0047-2484(86)80019-7

SPOOR CF, BADOUX DM (1986) DESCRIPTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL MYOLOGY OF THE NECK AND FORELIMB OF THE STRIPED HYENA (HYENA-HYENA, L 1758). ANATOMISCHER ANZEIGER, 161 (5) : 375 - 387.

SPOOR CF, BELTERMAN T (1986) LOCOMOTION IN HYAENIDAE. BIJDRAGEN TOT DE DIERKUNDE, 56 (1) : 24 - 28.

SPOOR CF (1985) BODY PROPORTIONS IN HYAENIDAE. ANATOMISCHER ANZEIGER, 160 (3) : 215 - 220.