Dr Caroline Smith

Dr Caroline Smith

Head of Mineralogy Collections/ Principal Curator

Department: Earth Sciences
Division: ES Mineral and Planetary Sciences Division
Contact: email

Specialisms

Geochemistry, Media, Meteorites, Microscopy, Mineralogy, Public outreach

Summary

I am Curator of Meteorites and Head of Mineralogy Collections at the Natural History Museum and I have been researching meteorites for the last 17 years. My experience and expertise in curation and collections care has been recognised by the award of a prestigious Aurora Fellowship from the UK Space Agency and consultancy work with industrial and academic partners studying and planning for future Solar System sample return missions. In 2011 I was selected as one of seven European scientists invited to participate in the ESA/NASA Joint Science Working Group planning for a proposed Mars exploration mission, where I provided input and advice related to sample curation and containment during collection, caching and on return to Earth. In 2014 I was chosen to be the UK representative for iMARS Phase 2 and was selected to be the Co-Chair of the Science Team. I have studied a wide range of different meteorite types and my main research interests are planetary differentiation and extraterrestrial and terrestrial alteration processes. I regularly use a a number of analytical techniques for studying precious meteoritic materials including electron and ion-beam instrumentation for sample preparation and analyses, mass spectrometry and CT-scanning.

Qualifications

Degrees

PhD, The Open University, United Kingdom, 1998 - 2002

BSc (Hons) Geology, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom, 1994 - 1998

Employment history

Academic

Honorary Research Fellow, The University of Glasgow, School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, United Kingdom, 2012 - ongoing

Publications

Downes H, Abernethy FAJ, Smith CL, Ross AJ, Verchovsky AB, Grady MM, Jenniskens P, Shaddad MH (2015) Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in ureilitic fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50 (2): 255 - 272. doi: 10.1111/maps.12413

Hezel DC, Poole GM, Hoyes J, Coles BJ, Unsworth C, Albrecht N, Smith C, Rehkämper M, Pack A, Genge M, Russell SS (2015) Fe and O isotope composition of meteorite fusion crusts: Possible natural analogues to chondrule formation?. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50 (2): 229 - 242. doi: 10.1111/maps.12414

Bridgestock LJ, Williams H, Rehkämper M, Larner F, Giscard MD, Hammond S, Coles B, Andreasen R, Wood BJ, Theis KJ, Smith CL, Benedix GK, Schönbächler M (2014) Unlocking the zinc isotope systematics of iron meteorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 400 : 153 - 164. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.029

Lee MR, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Stuart FM, SMITH CL (2013) Evidence for silicate dissolution on Mars from the Nakhla meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48 (2): 224 - 240. doi: 10.1111/maps.12053

Bryant DE, Greenfield D, Walshaw RD, Johnson BRG, Herschy B, Smith C, Pasek MA, Telford R, Scowen I, Munshi T, Edwards HGM, Cousins CR, Crawford IA, Kee TP (2013) Hydrothermal modification of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite under low pH geothermal environments. A plausibly prebiotic route to activated phosphorus on the early Earth. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 109 : 90 - 112. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.12.043

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Smith CL (2013) Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation. Nature Communications, 4 doi: 10.1038/ncomms3662

Aoudjehane HC, Avice G, Barrat JA, Boudouma O, Chen G, Duke MJM, Franchi IA, Gattacceca J, GRADY MM, Greenwood RC, Herd CDK, Hewins R, Jambon A, Marty B, Rochette P, SMITH CL, Sautter V, Verchovsky A, Weber P, Zanda B (2012) Tissint Martian Meteorite: A Fresh Look at the Interior, Surface, and Atmosphere of Mars. Science, 338 (6108): 785 - 788. doi: 10.1126/science.1224514

ROSS AJ, Steele A, Fries MD, Kater L, DOWNES H, Jones AP, SMITH CL, Jenniskens PM, Zolensky ME, Shaddad MH (2011) MicroRaman spectroscopy of diamond and graphite in Almahata Sitta and comparison with other ureilites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 46 (3): 364 - 378. doi: 10.1111/j.1945-5100.2010.01157.x

Weisberg MK, SMITH CL, BENEDIX G, Herd CDK, Righter K, Haack H, Yamaguchi A, Chennaoui Aoudjehane H, Grossman JN (2010) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No.97. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, 45 : 449 - 493.

Weisberg MK, SMITH CL, Herd C, Haack H, Yamaguchi A, Aoudjehane HC, Welzenbach L, Grossman JN (2010) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 98, September 2010. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, 45 : 1530 - 1551.

Needham AW, Smith CL, Howard KT, Benedix GK, Sephton MA, Martins Z, Foster NJ, Franchi IA, Russell SS (2009) GAMMA IRRADIATION EFFECTS IN MARS ANALOGUES. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 44

Bryant DE, Greenfield D, Walshaw RD, Evans SM, Nimmo AE, SMITH CL, Wang LM, Pasek MA, Kee TP (2009) Electrochemical studies of iron meteorites: phosphorus redox chemistry on the early Earth. International Journal of Astrobiology, 8 : 27 - 36.

SMITH CL, BENEDIX G, RUSSELL SS. , (2009) Meteorites. Natural History Museum. null.

Weisberg MK, SMITH CL, BENEDIX G, Folco L, Righter K, Zipfel J, Yamaguchi A, Aoudjehane HC (2009) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 44 : 429 - 462.

Weisberg MK, SMITH CL, BENEDIX G, Herd CDK, Righter K, Haack H, Yamaguchi A, Chennaoui Aoudjehane H, Grossman JN (2009) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 96. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 44 : 1355 - 1397.

Lee MR, Hodson ME, Brown DJ, MacKenzie M, SMITH CL (2008) The composition and crystallinity of the near-surface regions of weathered alkali feldspars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72 : 4962 - 4975.

Wade J, SMITH CL, JAMES S, Verchovsky A, GRADY MM (-1) Revising the elemental composition of the enstatite chondrites.. Meteoritics & Planetary Science., 42

Connolly HC, SMITH CL, BENEDIX G, Folco L, Righter K, Zipfel J, Yamaguchi A, Chennaoui , Aoudjehane H (2007) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 92, 2007 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 42 : 1647 - 1694.

Lee MR, Brown DJ, SMITH CL, Hodson ME, MacKenzie M, Hellmann R (2007) Characterization of mineral surfaces using FIB and TEM: A case study of naturally weathered alkali feldspars. American Mineralogist, 92 : 1383 - 1394.

Lee MR, SMITH CL (2006) Scanning transmission electron microscopy using a SEM: Applications to mineralogy and petrology. Mineralogical Magazine, 70 (5): 579 - 590. doi: 10.1180/0026461067050351

Lee MR, SMITH CL, Gordon SH, Hodson ME (2006) Laboratory simulation of terrestrial meteorite weathering using the Bensour (LL6) ordinary chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41 : 1123 - 1138.

SMITH CL, Lee MR, MacKenzie M (2006) New opportunities for nanomineralogy using FIB, STEM/EDX and TEM. Microscopy and Analysis, 20 : 17 - 20.

SMITH CL, Welzenbach LC (2006) The Curator's Dilemma' Revisited - Challenges for Meteorite Collections in the 21st Century. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41

Gordon SH, Lee MR, SMITH CL, Hodson ME (2005) Laboratory simulation of meteorite weathering. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 40

SMITH CL, Lee MR (2005) Investigating fine-grained constituents of meteorites using FIB and SEM-STEM. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 40

SMITH CL, Lee MR, MacKenzie M, Hodson ME (2005) Weathering of feldspar; a FIB and TEM investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69

SMITH CL, RUSSELL SS, Gounelle M, Greenwood RC, Franchi IA (2004) NWA 1152 and Sahara 00182: New primitive carbonaceous chondrites with affinities to the CR and CV groups. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 39 : 2009 - 2032.

Highlighted publications

Lee MR, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Stuart FM, SMITH CL (2013) Evidence for silicate dissolution on Mars from the Nakhla meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48 (2): 224 - 240. doi: 10.1111/maps.12053

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Smith CL (2013) Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation. Nature Communications, 4 doi: 10.1038/ncomms3662

Aoudjehane HC, Avice G, Barrat JA, Boudouma O, Chen G, et al (2012) Tissint Martian Meteorite: A Fresh Look at the Interior, Surface, and Atmosphere of Mars. Science, 338 (6108): 785 - 788. doi: 10.1126/science.1224514

Lee MR, SMITH CL (2006) Scanning transmission electron microscopy using a SEM: Applications to mineralogy and petrology. Mineralogical Magazine, 70 (5): 579 - 590. doi: 10.1180/0026461067050351