Dr Caroline Smith

Dr Caroline Smith

Head of Mineralogy Collections/ Principal Curator

Department: Earth Sciences
Division: ES Department Management Team
Contact: email

Mineralogy

Alan Hart, Caroline Smith, Christopher MillerHelena TomanMichael RumseyStephen Stukins

Specialisms

Geochemistry, Media, Meteorites, Microscopy, Mineralogy, Public outreach

Summary

I am Curator of Meteorites and Head of Mineralogy Collections at the Natural History Museum and I have been researching meteorites for the last 17 years. My experience and expertise in curation and collections care has been recognised by the award of a prestigious Aurora Fellowship from the UK Space Agency and consultancy work with industrial and academic partners studying and planning for future Solar System sample return missions. In 2011 I was selected as one of seven European scientists invited to participate in the ESA/NASA Joint Science Working Group planning for a proposed Mars exploration mission, where I provided input and advice related to sample curation and containment during collection, caching and on return to Earth. In 2014 I was chosen to be the UK representative for iMARS Phase 2 and was selected to be the Co-Chair of the Science Team. I have studied a wide range of different meteorite types and my main research interests are planetary differentiation and extraterrestrial and terrestrial alteration processes. I regularly use a a number of analytical techniques for studying precious meteoritic materials including electron and ion-beam instrumentation for sample preparation and analyses, mass spectrometry and CT-scanning.

Qualifications

Degrees

PhD, The Open University, United Kingdom, 1998 - 2002

BSc (Hons) Geology, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom, 1994 - 1998

Employment history

Academic

Honorary Research Fellow, The University of Glasgow, School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, United Kingdom, 2012 - ongoing

Highlighted publications

Lee MR, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2013) Evidence for silicate dissolution on Mars from the Nakhla meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48 (2) : 224 - 240. doi: 10.1111/maps.12053

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Smith CL (2013) Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation. Nature Communications, 4 : doi: 10.1038/ncomms3662

Aoudjehane HC, Avice G, Barrat JA, Boudouma O, Chen G, et al. (2012) Tissint Martian Meteorite: A Fresh Look at the Interior, Surface, and Atmosphere of Mars. Science, 338 (6108) : 785 - 788. doi: 10.1126/science.1224514

Lee MR, Smith CL (2006) Scanning transmission electron microscopy using a SEM: Applications to mineralogy and petrology. Mineralogical Magazine, 70 (5) : 579 - 590. doi: 10.1180/0026461067050351

Grants

iMARS Phase II Science Team and Co-Chair Participation
Principal investigator: Smith
Funding: STFC
Total value £5,048 (to Museum £5,048)

The Horizon2020 COMPET 8 Sample Curation Facility Activity - Enabling activities for a UK bid
Principal investigator: Smith
Funding: STFC
Total value £15,758 (to Museum £15,758)

Extraterrestrial Sample Curation - development of sample curation protocols for samples returned from Solar System missions
Principal investigator: Smith C
Funding: STFC

Extraterrestrial sample curation - development of sample curation protocols for samples returned from Solar System missions.
Principal investigator: Smith
Funding: European Space Agency
Total value £90,000 (to Museum £90,000)

Fellowships

Honorary Research Fellow, 2012 - 2013.

Aurora Fellowship, UK Space Agency, 2010 - 2013.

Committees

Member, Meteoritical Society Nomenclature Committee, 2005 - on going.

Publications

Lee MR, Maclaren I, Andersson SML, Kovács A, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Smith CL (2015) Opal-A in the Nakhla meteorite: A tracer of ephemeral liquid water in the Amazonian crust of Mars. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50 (8) : 1362 - 1377. doi: 10.1111/maps.12471

Downes H, Abernethy FAJ, Smith CL, Ross AJ, Verchovsky AB, Grady MM, Jenniskens P, Shaddad MH (2015) Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in ureilitic fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50 (2) : 255 - 272. doi: 10.1111/maps.12413

Hezel DC, Poole GM, Hoyes J, Coles BJ, Unsworth C, Albrecht N, Smith CL, Rehkämper M, Pack A, Genge M, Russell SS (2015) Fe and O isotope composition of meteorite fusion crusts: Possible natural analogues to chondrule formation?. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50 (2) : 229 - 242. doi: 10.1111/maps.12414

Almeida NV, Smith CL, Sykes D, Downes H, Ahmed F, Russell SS (2014) FINDING "PEBBLES" IN BARWELL WITH X-RAY MICRO-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (mu CT). METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Almeida NV, Smith CL, Sykes D, Downes H, Ahmed F, Russell SS (2014) LOCATING POROSITY IN CHONDRITES WITH X-RAY MICRO-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (mu CT). METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Downes H, Abernethy F, Smith CL, Ross AJ, Jenniskens P, Grady MM, Shaddad M (2014) ORIGIN OF CARBON IN UREILITE METEORITES: A STEP COMBUSTION STUDY OF FRAGMENTS OF ALMAHATA SITTA. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Lee MR, Maclaren I, Kovacs A, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Hallis LJ, Smith CL (2014) COATED SILICA NANOPARTICLES IN NAKHLA IDDINGSITE VEINS: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER-ROCK INTERACTION WITHIN THE MARTIAN CRUST.. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Rai N, Downes H, Smith CL (2014) PARTITIONING OF SIDEROPHILE ELEMENTS IN PARTIALLY MOLTEN Fe-X ( X= S, C, Si) SYSTEMS : IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANETARY DIFFERENTIATION IN THE UREILITE PARENT BODY. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Smith CL, Haltigan TW (2014) INTERNATIONAL MARS ARCHITECTURE FOR THE RETURN OF SAMPLES (iMARS) PHASE II - PROGRESS REPORT. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Sofe MR, Lee MR, Lindgren P, Smith CL (2014) THREE PHASES OF CARBONATE MINERALS AND TWO DEGREES OF ALTERATION IN THE NOGOYA CM2 CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Bridgestock LJ, Williams H, Rehkämper M, Larner F, Giscard MD, Hammond S, Coles B, Andreasen R, Wood BJ, Theis KJ, Smith CL, Benedix GK, Schönbächler M (2014) Unlocking the zinc isotope systematics of iron meteorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 400 : 153 - 164. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.029

Smith CL, Sykes D, Almeida N, Ahmed F (2013) X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY OF MARTIAN METEORITES - CURRENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH/CURATION APPLICATIONS. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48 :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Franchi IA, Smith CL (2013) EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPHASE AQUEOUS ALTERATION OF THE YAMATO 00 NAKHLITES. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48 :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Franchi IA, Smith CL (2013) PROVENCE OF WATER IN MARTIAN METEORITES: D/H RATIOS OF LAFAYETTE USING NANOSIMS. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48 :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Smith CL (2013) A REPLACIVE ORIGIN FOR SECONDARY MINERAL VEINS IN THE NAKHLITE METEORITE LAFAYETTE. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48 :

Lee MR, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2013) Evidence for silicate dissolution on Mars from the Nakhla meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48 (2) : 224 - 240. doi: 10.1111/maps.12053

Bryant DE, Greenfield D, Walshaw RD, Johnson BRG, Herschy B, Smith CL, Pasek MA, Telford R, Scowen I, Munshi T, Edwards HGM, Cousins CR, Crawford IA, Kee TP (2013) Hydrothermal modification of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite under low pH geothermal environments. A plausibly prebiotic route to activated phosphorus on the early Earth. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 109 : 90 - 112. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.12.043

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Smith CL (2013) Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation. Nature Communications, 4 : doi: 10.1038/ncomms3662

Aoudjehane HC, Avice G, Barrat JA, Boudouma O, Chen G, Duke MJM, Franchi IA, Gattacceca J, Grady MM, Greenwood RC, Herd CDK, Hewins R, Jambon A, Marty B, Rochette P, Smith CL, Sautter V, Verchovsky A, Weber P, Zanda B (2012) Tissint Martian Meteorite: A Fresh Look at the Interior, Surface, and Atmosphere of Mars. Science, 338 (6108) : 785 - 788. doi: 10.1126/science.1224514

Smith CL, Ahmed F (2012) X-ray microtomography of the Tissint Martian Meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 :

Smith CL, Kearsley AT, Bermingham KR, Deacon GL, Kurahashi E, Franchi IA, Bevan AWR (2012) Lynch 002: A New Lunar Meteorite From The Nullarbor Desert, Western Australia. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2012) Shock Enhanced Dissolution Of Olivine In The Martian Crust - Evidence From The Nakhla Meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 :

Steele A, Mccubbin FM, Benning L, Siljestrom SS, Cody GD, Goreva Y, Hauri EH, Wang J, Kilcoyne ALD, Grady MM, Smith CL, Freissinet C, Glavin DP, Burton AS, Fries MDF, Blanco JDR, Glamoclija M, Rogers KL, Mikhail S, Dworkin JS (2012) Organic Carbon Inventory of the Tissint Meteorite. 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held March 18-22, 2013 in The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1719. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013LPICo1719.2854S],

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2012) Terrestrial Organic and Inorganic Contamination of the NWA 5790 Nakhlite.. 75th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, held August 12-17, 2012 in Cairns, Australia., Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, id.5248 . [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PSA..75.5248T] :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2012) Quantifying the Timescales of Fluid-Rock Interaction on Mars Using the Nakhlite Meteorites.. 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held March 18-22, 2013 in The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1719. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013LPICo1719.1206T],

Spratt J, Kearsley AT, Smith CL (2011) Virtual Meteorite Sections, an Aid to Conservation and Research Access.. Microscopy and Microanalysis 17 : Copyright © Microscopy Society of America 2011 : 1820 - 1821. doi: 10.1017/S1431927611009974

Cassey DJ, Smith DA, Smith CL (2011) Natural History Museum (London) meteorite collection digitization project. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Downes H, Smith CL, Beard AD, Ross AJ (2011) Early solar system processes revealed by an integrated study of ureilite meteorites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Herd CDK, Smith CL, Grossman JN, Weisberg MK, Welzenbach L (2011) NOMCOM review of type specimen repositories. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Kearsley AT, Smith CL, Spratt J, Benedix GK, Hunt A, Russell SS, Joy KH, Gounelle M (2011) Meteorite polished sections: x-ray map imagery for documentation, curation and 'virtual-loan' of irreplaceable materials. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Ross AJ, Hezel DC, Howard LE, Smith CL, Downes H, Herrin JS, Jenniskens P, Shaddad M (2011) Petrography and modal abundance of metal in ureilites: a combined 2D and 3D study. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Sofe M, Lee MR, Lindgren P, Smith CL (2011) CL zoning of calcite in CM carbonaceous chondrites and its relationship to degree of aqueous alteration. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Ross AJ, Steele A, Fries MD, Kater L, Downes H, Jones AP, Smith CL, Jenniskens PM, Zolensky ME, Shaddad MH (2011) MicroRaman spectroscopy of diamond and graphite in Almahata Sitta and comparison with other ureilites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 46 (3) : 364 - 378. doi: 10.1111/j.1945-5100.2010.01157.x

Downes H, Ross AJ, Smith CL (2010) UREILITE METEORITES FROM DAR AL GANI (LIBYA) AND FRONTIER MOUNTAINS (ANTARCTICA): ANALOGS OF THE ALMAHATA SITTA (ASTEROID 2008TC(3)) FALL?. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Ross AJ, Steele A, Downes H, Fries M, Jones AP, Kater L, Smith CL, Jenniskens P, Shaddad M, Zolensky M (2010) RAMAN ANALYSIS OF DIAMOND IN ALMAHATA SITTA AND OTHER UREILITES. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Smith CL, Guest MCR, Vrublevskis JB, Bennett AM, Roberts MS, Walker JT, Baker RCE, Grant CA (2010) MARS SAMPLE RETURN - A REQUIREMENTS STUDY FOR A SAMPLE RECEIVING FACILITY. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Smith CL, Ross AJ, Downes H (2010) IRON SILICIDES IN POLYMICT UREILITES - RECORDING THE COMPLEX HISTORY OF THE UREILITE PARENT BODY?. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Sofe MR, Lee MR, Smith CL (2010) MG-PHYLLOSILICATE PSEUDOMORPHS AFTER CALCITE IN THE POLLEN (CM2) CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE: NEW INSIGHTS INTO AQUEOUS ALTERATION. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Ross AJ, Downes H, Smith CL, Jones AP (2010) DaG 1047: A polymict ureilite containing exotic clasts including a chondrite.. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Abstract # 2361,

Weisberg MK, Smith CL, Benedix G, Herd CDK, Righter K, Haack H, Yamaguchi A, Chennaoui AoudjehaneH, Grossman JN (2010) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No.97. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, 45 : 449 - 493.

Weisberg MK, Smith CL, Herd C, Haack H, Yamaguchi A, Aoudjehane HC, Welzenbach L, Grossman JN (2010) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 98, September 2010. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, 45 : 1530 - 1551.

Needham AW, Smith CL, Howard KT, Benedix GK, Sephton MA, Martins Z, Foster NJ, Franchi IA, Russell SS (2009) GAMMA IRRADIATION EFFECTS IN MARS ANALOGUES. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 44 :

Ross AJ, Downes H, Smith CL, Jones AP (2009) HIGHLY REDUCED METALS AND SULFIDES IN UREILITES: REMNANTS OF THE UPB CORE?. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 44 :

Bryant DE, Greenfield D, Walshaw RD, Evans SM, Nimmo AE, Smith CL, Wang LM, Pasek MA, Kee TP (2009) Electrochemical studies of iron meteorites: phosphorus redox chemistry on the early Earth. International Journal of Astrobiology, 8 : 27 - 36.

Needham AW, Smith CL, Howard KT, Benedix GK, Sephton MA, Martins Z, Foster NJ, Franchi IA, Russell SS (2009) Gamma Irradiation Effects in Mars Analogues. Abstracts of 72nd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 13 July-18 July 2009, Nancy, France. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 44 :

Ross AJ, Downes H, Smith CL, Jones AP (2009) Highly reduced metals and sulphides in ureilites: Remnants of the UPB Core? Abstracts of 72nd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 13 July-18 July 2009, Nancy, France. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 44 :

Smith CL, Benedix G, Russell SS (2009) Meteorites. Natural History Museum. null :

Weisberg MK, Smith CL, Benedix G, Folco L, Righter K, Zipfel J, Yamaguchi A, Aoudjehane HC (2009) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 44 : 429 - 462.

Weisberg MK, Smith CL, Benedix G, Herd CDK, Righter K, Haack H, Yamaguchi A, Chennaoui AoudjehaneH, Grossman JN (2009) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 96. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 44 : 1355 - 1397.

Needham AW, Smith CL, Sephton MA, Martins Z, Russell SS (2008) Gamma irradiation effects on martian analogues. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 43 (7) :

Lee MR, Hodson ME, Brown DJ, Mackenzie M, Smith CL (2008) The composition and crystallinity of the near-surface regions of weathered alkali feldspars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72 : 4962 - 4975.

Smith CL, Downes H, Jones AP (2008) Metal and Sulphide Phases in Interstitial Veins in "Dimict" Ureilites - Insights into the History and Petrogenesis of the Ureilite Parent Body. LPI Contribution No. 1391, p.1669.. 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2008.,

Wade J, Smith CL, James S, Verchovsky A, Grady MM (-1) Revising the elemental composition of the enstatite chondrites.. Meteoritics & Planetary Science., 42 :

Collolly S, Smith CL, Lee MR, Benedix GK (2007) Carbonate crystallography in the carbonaceous CHONDRITES - A new indicator of impact shock?. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 42 :

Wade J, Smith CL, James S, Verchovsky A, Grady MM (2007) Revisiting the elemental composition of the enstatite chondrites. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 42 :

Burbine TH, Greenwood RC, Buchanan PC, Franchi IA, Smith CL (2007) Reflectance spectra of mesosiderites: Implications for asteroid 4 Vesta.. LPSC XXXVIII, #2119,

Connolly HC, Smith CL, Benedix G, Folco L, Righter K, Zipfel J, Yamaguchi A, Chennaoui , Aoudjehane H (2007) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 92, 2007 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 42 : 1647 - 1694.

Connolly S, Smith CL, Lee MR, Benedix GK (2007) Carbonate Crystallography in the Carbonaceous Chondrites - A New Indicator of Impact Shock?. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 42 :

Lee MR, Brown DJ, Smith CL, Hodson ME, Mackenzie M, Hellmann R (2007) Characterization of mineral surfaces using FIB and TEM: A case study of naturally weathered alkali feldspars. American Mineralogist, 92 : 1383 - 1394.

Lee MR, Smith CL (2006) Scanning transmission electron microscopy using a SEM: Applications to mineralogy and petrology. Mineralogical Magazine, 70 (5) : 579 - 590. doi: 10.1180/0026461067050351

Smith CL, Benedix GK, Russell SS, Gounelle M (2006) Proposal for a meteorite classification workshop at the Natural History Museum in summer 2007. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 41 (8) :

Smith CL, Welzenbach LC (2006) "The curator's dilemma" revisted - Challenges for meteorite collections in the 21st century. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 41 (8) :

Brown D, Hodson ME, Mackenzie M, Hellman R, Smith CL, Lee MR (2006) Nanoscale characterization of the ‘critical zone’ of naturally weathered feldspars by FIB and TEM. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70 (18) : doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2006.06.241

Lee MR, Smith CL, Gordon SH, Hodson ME (2006) Laboratory simulation of terrestrial meteorite weathering using the Bensour (LL6) ordinary chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41 : 1123 - 1138.

Smith CL, Lee MR, Mackenzie M (2006) New opportunities for nanomineralogy using FIB, STEM/EDX and TEM. Microscopy and Analysis, 20 : 17 - 20.

Smith CL, Welzenbach LC (2006) The Curator's Dilemma' Revisited - Challenges for Meteorite Collections in the 21st Century. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41 :

Gordon SH, Lee MR, Smith CL, Hodson ME (2005) Laboratory simulation of meteorite weathering. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 40 :

Smith CL, Lee MR (2005) Investigating fine-grained constituents of meteorites using FIB and SEM-STEM. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 40 :

Smith CL, Lee MR, Mackenzie M, Hodson ME (2005) Weathering of feldspar; a FIB and TEM investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69 :

Smith CL, Russell SS, Gounelle M, Greenwood RC, Franchi IA (2004) NWA 1152 and Sahara 00182: New primitive carbonaceous chondrites with affinities to the CR and CV groups. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 39 : 2009 - 2032.

Smith CL, Franchi IA, Grady MM, Verchovsky AB (2003) An investigation of carbon in Dar al Gani 319 polymict ureilite. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences 38 :

Smith CL, Russell SS (2003) Dar al Gani 431: Unravelling nebular and parent body processes. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences 38 :

Introduction

Summary

I am Curator of Meteorites and Head of Mineralogy Collections at the Natural History Museum and I have been researching meteorites for the last 17 years. My experience and expertise in curation and collections care has been recognised by the award of a prestigious Aurora Fellowship from the UK Space Agency and consultancy work with industrial and academic partners studying and planning for future Solar System sample return missions. In 2011 I was selected as one of seven European scientists invited to participate in the ESA/NASA Joint Science Working Group planning for a proposed Mars exploration mission, where I provided input and advice related to sample curation and containment during collection, caching and on return to Earth. In 2014 I was chosen to be the UK representative for iMARS Phase 2 and was selected to be the Co-Chair of the Science Team. I have studied a wide range of different meteorite types and my main research interests are planetary differentiation and extraterrestrial and terrestrial alteration processes. I regularly use a a number of analytical techniques for studying precious meteoritic materials including electron and ion-beam instrumentation for sample preparation and analyses, mass spectrometry and CT-scanning.

Qualifications

Degrees

PhD, The Open University, United Kingdom, 1998 - 2002

BSc (Hons) Geology, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom, 1994 - 1998

Employment history

Academic

Honorary Research Fellow, The University of Glasgow, School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, United Kingdom, 2012 - ongoing

Highlighted publications

Lee MR, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2013) Evidence for silicate dissolution on Mars from the Nakhla meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48 (2) : 224 - 240. doi: 10.1111/maps.12053

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Smith CL (2013) Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation. Nature Communications, 4 : doi: 10.1038/ncomms3662

Aoudjehane HC, Avice G, Barrat JA, Boudouma O, Chen G, et al. (2012) Tissint Martian Meteorite: A Fresh Look at the Interior, Surface, and Atmosphere of Mars. Science, 338 (6108) : 785 - 788. doi: 10.1126/science.1224514

Lee MR, Smith CL (2006) Scanning transmission electron microscopy using a SEM: Applications to mineralogy and petrology. Mineralogical Magazine, 70 (5) : 579 - 590. doi: 10.1180/0026461067050351

Projects

Grants

iMARS Phase II Science Team and Co-Chair Participation
Principal investigator: Smith
Funding: STFC
Total value £5,048 (to Museum £5,048)

The Horizon2020 COMPET 8 Sample Curation Facility Activity - Enabling activities for a UK bid
Principal investigator: Smith
Funding: STFC
Total value £15,758 (to Museum £15,758)

Extraterrestrial Sample Curation - development of sample curation protocols for samples returned from Solar System missions
Principal investigator: Smith C
Funding: STFC

Extraterrestrial sample curation - development of sample curation protocols for samples returned from Solar System missions.
Principal investigator: Smith
Funding: European Space Agency
Total value £90,000 (to Museum £90,000)

Professional activities

Fellowships

Honorary Research Fellow, 2012 - 2013.

Aurora Fellowship, UK Space Agency, 2010 - 2013.

Committees

Member, Meteoritical Society Nomenclature Committee, 2005 - on going.

Publications

Publications

Lee MR, Maclaren I, Andersson SML, Kovács A, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Smith CL (2015) Opal-A in the Nakhla meteorite: A tracer of ephemeral liquid water in the Amazonian crust of Mars. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50 (8) : 1362 - 1377. doi: 10.1111/maps.12471

Downes H, Abernethy FAJ, Smith CL, Ross AJ, Verchovsky AB, Grady MM, Jenniskens P, Shaddad MH (2015) Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in ureilitic fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50 (2) : 255 - 272. doi: 10.1111/maps.12413

Hezel DC, Poole GM, Hoyes J, Coles BJ, Unsworth C, Albrecht N, Smith CL, Rehkämper M, Pack A, Genge M, Russell SS (2015) Fe and O isotope composition of meteorite fusion crusts: Possible natural analogues to chondrule formation?. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50 (2) : 229 - 242. doi: 10.1111/maps.12414

Almeida NV, Smith CL, Sykes D, Downes H, Ahmed F, Russell SS (2014) FINDING "PEBBLES" IN BARWELL WITH X-RAY MICRO-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (mu CT). METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Almeida NV, Smith CL, Sykes D, Downes H, Ahmed F, Russell SS (2014) LOCATING POROSITY IN CHONDRITES WITH X-RAY MICRO-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (mu CT). METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Downes H, Abernethy F, Smith CL, Ross AJ, Jenniskens P, Grady MM, Shaddad M (2014) ORIGIN OF CARBON IN UREILITE METEORITES: A STEP COMBUSTION STUDY OF FRAGMENTS OF ALMAHATA SITTA. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Lee MR, Maclaren I, Kovacs A, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Hallis LJ, Smith CL (2014) COATED SILICA NANOPARTICLES IN NAKHLA IDDINGSITE VEINS: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER-ROCK INTERACTION WITHIN THE MARTIAN CRUST.. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Rai N, Downes H, Smith CL (2014) PARTITIONING OF SIDEROPHILE ELEMENTS IN PARTIALLY MOLTEN Fe-X ( X= S, C, Si) SYSTEMS : IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANETARY DIFFERENTIATION IN THE UREILITE PARENT BODY. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Smith CL, Haltigan TW (2014) INTERNATIONAL MARS ARCHITECTURE FOR THE RETURN OF SAMPLES (iMARS) PHASE II - PROGRESS REPORT. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Sofe MR, Lee MR, Lindgren P, Smith CL (2014) THREE PHASES OF CARBONATE MINERALS AND TWO DEGREES OF ALTERATION IN THE NOGOYA CM2 CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 49 :

Bridgestock LJ, Williams H, Rehkämper M, Larner F, Giscard MD, Hammond S, Coles B, Andreasen R, Wood BJ, Theis KJ, Smith CL, Benedix GK, Schönbächler M (2014) Unlocking the zinc isotope systematics of iron meteorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 400 : 153 - 164. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.029

Smith CL, Sykes D, Almeida N, Ahmed F (2013) X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY OF MARTIAN METEORITES - CURRENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH/CURATION APPLICATIONS. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48 :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Franchi IA, Smith CL (2013) EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPHASE AQUEOUS ALTERATION OF THE YAMATO 00 NAKHLITES. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48 :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Franchi IA, Smith CL (2013) PROVENCE OF WATER IN MARTIAN METEORITES: D/H RATIOS OF LAFAYETTE USING NANOSIMS. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48 :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Smith CL (2013) A REPLACIVE ORIGIN FOR SECONDARY MINERAL VEINS IN THE NAKHLITE METEORITE LAFAYETTE. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48 :

Lee MR, Tomkinson T, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2013) Evidence for silicate dissolution on Mars from the Nakhla meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48 (2) : 224 - 240. doi: 10.1111/maps.12053

Bryant DE, Greenfield D, Walshaw RD, Johnson BRG, Herschy B, Smith CL, Pasek MA, Telford R, Scowen I, Munshi T, Edwards HGM, Cousins CR, Crawford IA, Kee TP (2013) Hydrothermal modification of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite under low pH geothermal environments. A plausibly prebiotic route to activated phosphorus on the early Earth. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 109 : 90 - 112. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2012.12.043

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Smith CL (2013) Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation. Nature Communications, 4 : doi: 10.1038/ncomms3662

Aoudjehane HC, Avice G, Barrat JA, Boudouma O, Chen G, Duke MJM, Franchi IA, Gattacceca J, Grady MM, Greenwood RC, Herd CDK, Hewins R, Jambon A, Marty B, Rochette P, Smith CL, Sautter V, Verchovsky A, Weber P, Zanda B (2012) Tissint Martian Meteorite: A Fresh Look at the Interior, Surface, and Atmosphere of Mars. Science, 338 (6108) : 785 - 788. doi: 10.1126/science.1224514

Smith CL, Ahmed F (2012) X-ray microtomography of the Tissint Martian Meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 :

Smith CL, Kearsley AT, Bermingham KR, Deacon GL, Kurahashi E, Franchi IA, Bevan AWR (2012) Lynch 002: A New Lunar Meteorite From The Nullarbor Desert, Western Australia. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2012) Shock Enhanced Dissolution Of Olivine In The Martian Crust - Evidence From The Nakhla Meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 :

Steele A, Mccubbin FM, Benning L, Siljestrom SS, Cody GD, Goreva Y, Hauri EH, Wang J, Kilcoyne ALD, Grady MM, Smith CL, Freissinet C, Glavin DP, Burton AS, Fries MDF, Blanco JDR, Glamoclija M, Rogers KL, Mikhail S, Dworkin JS (2012) Organic Carbon Inventory of the Tissint Meteorite. 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held March 18-22, 2013 in The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1719. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013LPICo1719.2854S],

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2012) Terrestrial Organic and Inorganic Contamination of the NWA 5790 Nakhlite.. 75th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, held August 12-17, 2012 in Cairns, Australia., Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, id.5248 . [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PSA..75.5248T] :

Tomkinson T, Lee MR, Mark DF, Stuart FM, Smith CL (2012) Quantifying the Timescales of Fluid-Rock Interaction on Mars Using the Nakhlite Meteorites.. 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held March 18-22, 2013 in The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1719. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013LPICo1719.1206T],

Spratt J, Kearsley AT, Smith CL (2011) Virtual Meteorite Sections, an Aid to Conservation and Research Access.. Microscopy and Microanalysis 17 : Copyright © Microscopy Society of America 2011 : 1820 - 1821. doi: 10.1017/S1431927611009974

Cassey DJ, Smith DA, Smith CL (2011) Natural History Museum (London) meteorite collection digitization project. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Downes H, Smith CL, Beard AD, Ross AJ (2011) Early solar system processes revealed by an integrated study of ureilite meteorites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Herd CDK, Smith CL, Grossman JN, Weisberg MK, Welzenbach L (2011) NOMCOM review of type specimen repositories. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Kearsley AT, Smith CL, Spratt J, Benedix GK, Hunt A, Russell SS, Joy KH, Gounelle M (2011) Meteorite polished sections: x-ray map imagery for documentation, curation and 'virtual-loan' of irreplaceable materials. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Ross AJ, Hezel DC, Howard LE, Smith CL, Downes H, Herrin JS, Jenniskens P, Shaddad M (2011) Petrography and modal abundance of metal in ureilites: a combined 2D and 3D study. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Sofe M, Lee MR, Lindgren P, Smith CL (2011) CL zoning of calcite in CM carbonaceous chondrites and its relationship to degree of aqueous alteration. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46 :

Ross AJ, Steele A, Fries MD, Kater L, Downes H, Jones AP, Smith CL, Jenniskens PM, Zolensky ME, Shaddad MH (2011) MicroRaman spectroscopy of diamond and graphite in Almahata Sitta and comparison with other ureilites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 46 (3) : 364 - 378. doi: 10.1111/j.1945-5100.2010.01157.x

Downes H, Ross AJ, Smith CL (2010) UREILITE METEORITES FROM DAR AL GANI (LIBYA) AND FRONTIER MOUNTAINS (ANTARCTICA): ANALOGS OF THE ALMAHATA SITTA (ASTEROID 2008TC(3)) FALL?. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Ross AJ, Steele A, Downes H, Fries M, Jones AP, Kater L, Smith CL, Jenniskens P, Shaddad M, Zolensky M (2010) RAMAN ANALYSIS OF DIAMOND IN ALMAHATA SITTA AND OTHER UREILITES. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Smith CL, Guest MCR, Vrublevskis JB, Bennett AM, Roberts MS, Walker JT, Baker RCE, Grant CA (2010) MARS SAMPLE RETURN - A REQUIREMENTS STUDY FOR A SAMPLE RECEIVING FACILITY. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Smith CL, Ross AJ, Downes H (2010) IRON SILICIDES IN POLYMICT UREILITES - RECORDING THE COMPLEX HISTORY OF THE UREILITE PARENT BODY?. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Sofe MR, Lee MR, Smith CL (2010) MG-PHYLLOSILICATE PSEUDOMORPHS AFTER CALCITE IN THE POLLEN (CM2) CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE: NEW INSIGHTS INTO AQUEOUS ALTERATION. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 45 :

Ross AJ, Downes H, Smith CL, Jones AP (2010) DaG 1047: A polymict ureilite containing exotic clasts including a chondrite.. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Abstract # 2361,

Weisberg MK, Smith CL, Benedix G, Herd CDK, Righter K, Haack H, Yamaguchi A, Chennaoui AoudjehaneH, Grossman JN (2010) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No.97. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, 45 : 449 - 493.

Weisberg MK, Smith CL, Herd C, Haack H, Yamaguchi A, Aoudjehane HC, Welzenbach L, Grossman JN (2010) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 98, September 2010. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, 45 : 1530 - 1551.

Needham AW, Smith CL, Howard KT, Benedix GK, Sephton MA, Martins Z, Foster NJ, Franchi IA, Russell SS (2009) GAMMA IRRADIATION EFFECTS IN MARS ANALOGUES. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 44 :

Ross AJ, Downes H, Smith CL, Jones AP (2009) HIGHLY REDUCED METALS AND SULFIDES IN UREILITES: REMNANTS OF THE UPB CORE?. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 44 :

Bryant DE, Greenfield D, Walshaw RD, Evans SM, Nimmo AE, Smith CL, Wang LM, Pasek MA, Kee TP (2009) Electrochemical studies of iron meteorites: phosphorus redox chemistry on the early Earth. International Journal of Astrobiology, 8 : 27 - 36.

Needham AW, Smith CL, Howard KT, Benedix GK, Sephton MA, Martins Z, Foster NJ, Franchi IA, Russell SS (2009) Gamma Irradiation Effects in Mars Analogues. Abstracts of 72nd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 13 July-18 July 2009, Nancy, France. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 44 :

Ross AJ, Downes H, Smith CL, Jones AP (2009) Highly reduced metals and sulphides in ureilites: Remnants of the UPB Core? Abstracts of 72nd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 13 July-18 July 2009, Nancy, France. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 44 :

Smith CL, Benedix G, Russell SS (2009) Meteorites. Natural History Museum. null :

Weisberg MK, Smith CL, Benedix G, Folco L, Righter K, Zipfel J, Yamaguchi A, Aoudjehane HC (2009) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 95. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 44 : 429 - 462.

Weisberg MK, Smith CL, Benedix G, Herd CDK, Righter K, Haack H, Yamaguchi A, Chennaoui AoudjehaneH, Grossman JN (2009) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 96. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 44 : 1355 - 1397.

Needham AW, Smith CL, Sephton MA, Martins Z, Russell SS (2008) Gamma irradiation effects on martian analogues. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 43 (7) :

Lee MR, Hodson ME, Brown DJ, Mackenzie M, Smith CL (2008) The composition and crystallinity of the near-surface regions of weathered alkali feldspars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72 : 4962 - 4975.

Smith CL, Downes H, Jones AP (2008) Metal and Sulphide Phases in Interstitial Veins in "Dimict" Ureilites - Insights into the History and Petrogenesis of the Ureilite Parent Body. LPI Contribution No. 1391, p.1669.. 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2008.,

Wade J, Smith CL, James S, Verchovsky A, Grady MM (-1) Revising the elemental composition of the enstatite chondrites.. Meteoritics & Planetary Science., 42 :

Collolly S, Smith CL, Lee MR, Benedix GK (2007) Carbonate crystallography in the carbonaceous CHONDRITES - A new indicator of impact shock?. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 42 :

Wade J, Smith CL, James S, Verchovsky A, Grady MM (2007) Revisiting the elemental composition of the enstatite chondrites. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 42 :

Burbine TH, Greenwood RC, Buchanan PC, Franchi IA, Smith CL (2007) Reflectance spectra of mesosiderites: Implications for asteroid 4 Vesta.. LPSC XXXVIII, #2119,

Connolly HC, Smith CL, Benedix G, Folco L, Righter K, Zipfel J, Yamaguchi A, Chennaoui , Aoudjehane H (2007) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 92, 2007 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 42 : 1647 - 1694.

Connolly S, Smith CL, Lee MR, Benedix GK (2007) Carbonate Crystallography in the Carbonaceous Chondrites - A New Indicator of Impact Shock?. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 42 :

Lee MR, Brown DJ, Smith CL, Hodson ME, Mackenzie M, Hellmann R (2007) Characterization of mineral surfaces using FIB and TEM: A case study of naturally weathered alkali feldspars. American Mineralogist, 92 : 1383 - 1394.

Lee MR, Smith CL (2006) Scanning transmission electron microscopy using a SEM: Applications to mineralogy and petrology. Mineralogical Magazine, 70 (5) : 579 - 590. doi: 10.1180/0026461067050351

Smith CL, Benedix GK, Russell SS, Gounelle M (2006) Proposal for a meteorite classification workshop at the Natural History Museum in summer 2007. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 41 (8) :

Smith CL, Welzenbach LC (2006) "The curator's dilemma" revisted - Challenges for meteorite collections in the 21st century. METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE 41 (8) :

Brown D, Hodson ME, Mackenzie M, Hellman R, Smith CL, Lee MR (2006) Nanoscale characterization of the ‘critical zone’ of naturally weathered feldspars by FIB and TEM. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70 (18) : doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2006.06.241

Lee MR, Smith CL, Gordon SH, Hodson ME (2006) Laboratory simulation of terrestrial meteorite weathering using the Bensour (LL6) ordinary chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41 : 1123 - 1138.

Smith CL, Lee MR, Mackenzie M (2006) New opportunities for nanomineralogy using FIB, STEM/EDX and TEM. Microscopy and Analysis, 20 : 17 - 20.

Smith CL, Welzenbach LC (2006) The Curator's Dilemma' Revisited - Challenges for Meteorite Collections in the 21st Century. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41 :

Gordon SH, Lee MR, Smith CL, Hodson ME (2005) Laboratory simulation of meteorite weathering. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 40 :

Smith CL, Lee MR (2005) Investigating fine-grained constituents of meteorites using FIB and SEM-STEM. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 40 :

Smith CL, Lee MR, Mackenzie M, Hodson ME (2005) Weathering of feldspar; a FIB and TEM investigation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69 :

Smith CL, Russell SS, Gounelle M, Greenwood RC, Franchi IA (2004) NWA 1152 and Sahara 00182: New primitive carbonaceous chondrites with affinities to the CR and CV groups. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 39 : 2009 - 2032.

Smith CL, Franchi IA, Grady MM, Verchovsky AB (2003) An investigation of carbon in Dar al Gani 319 polymict ureilite. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences 38 :

Smith CL, Russell SS (2003) Dar al Gani 431: Unravelling nebular and parent body processes. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences 38 :