The Echinoid Directory

Heliocidaris Agassiz & Desor, 1846, p. 371

[=Toxocidaris A. Agassiz, 1863, p. 50, type species Toxopneustes delalandi Agassiz & Desor, 1846 (=Echinus erythrogrammus Valenciennes, 1846);= Anthocidaris Lutken, 1864, p. 164, p. 164, type
species Toxocidaris crassispina Agassiz, 1863 ]

Diagnostic Features
  • Test circular in outline.
  • Apical disc hemicyclic with ocular plates I and V insert.
  • Ambulacra polygeminate with 7-10 pore-pairs to a compound plate in type species, arranged in an arc. One primary tubercle to each plate.
  • Ambularal zones petalloid on oral surface.
  • Interambulacral plates coarsely tuberculate, with distinct primary tubercle flanked by large secondaries.
  • Spines about half the test diameter.
  • Globiferous pedicellariae with tubular blade and unpaired lateral tooth.
Early Miocene to Recent of Australia, New Zealand, Japan and China.
Name gender feminine
Echinus tuberculatus Lamarck, 1816, p. 50, by original designation.
Species Included
  • H. tuberculata (Lamarck, 1816); Recent, Australia.
  • H. erythrogramma (Valenciennes, 1846); Recent, Australia and New Zealand.
  • H. crassispina (A. Agassiz, 1863); Recent, Japan and China Sea.
  • H. ludbrookae Philip, 1965; Lower Miocene, Australia.
Classification and/or Status

Camarodonta; Echinoida; Echinometridae.

Presumed monophyletic.


Mortensen (1943, p. 337), although placing  Toxocidaris erythrogramma in the genus Heliocidaris, noted that the two differed significantly and were possibly not congeneric. H. tuberculata differs from T. erythrogramma in having adoral ambulacra much less petalloid, and in having a very different development.

Agassiz, L. & Desor, P. J. E. 1846-1847. Catalogue raisonné des familles, des genres, et des espèces de la classe des échinodermes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Troisième Série, Zoologie: 6 (1846), 305-374, pls 15-16; 7 (1847), 129-168; 8 (1847), 5-35, 355-380.

Mortensen, T. 1943. A Monograph of the Echinoidea. III, 3. Camarodonta. II. Echinidæ, Strongylocentrotidæ, Parasaleniidæ, Echinometridæ, 446 pp., 66 pls. C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.

Philip (1965) described the only fossil representative of this genus.

Philip, G. M. 1965. The Tertiary echinoids of south-eastern Australia III Stirodonta, Aulodonta, and Camarodonta (1). Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 78, 181-196.