The Echinoid Directory

Codiopsis Agassiz, 1840, p. 19.

[= Pseudocodiopsis Valette, 1906, p. 19, type species Codiopsis alpinus; = Hemicodiopsis Pomel, 1883, p. 82, type species Codiopsis lorini Cotteau, 1851; = Piliscus Pomel, 1883, p. 82, type species, Codiopsis jaccardi Cotteau, 1866 ]

Diagnostic Features
  • Test subglobular, flattened below, gently domed above.
  • Apical disc small; dicyclic; plates firmly bound to corona. Genital plates hexagonal, with gonopore towards interradial point; ocular plates small and pentagonal, projecting beyond genitals. All plates covered in fine granules only. Periproct small, subcircular to subpentagonal.
  • Ambulacra straight; pore-pairs uniserial except adorally where they expand to form short phyllodes. Aboral pore-pairs with the two pores small and widely separated but without linking groove (subconjugate). Adoral pore-pairs smaller and more oblique.
  • Ambulacral plating trigeminate throughout, occasionally with a fourth element in compound plates at the ambitus; plates composed of a single large element that forms most of area, plus two small demiplates above and below.
  • Interambulacral plates wide.
  • Tuberculation: aboral surface to ambitus without primary tubercles; plates covered in a fine network of epistroma with scattered small hyaline pustules in both ambulacral and interambulacral zones; these sutured and non-articulating; about 12-15 to an interambulacral plate. Primary tubercles developed only subambitally, a single series in the ambulacral zones and up to 3 (usually 2) subequal tubercles on interambulacral plates, where the outer series extends a further towards the ambitus than the inner series. Primary tubercles imperforate and non-crenulate, with relatively large mamelon and poorly defined platform.
  • Basicoronal plate present but low and wide; not projecting interradially and without primary tubercle.
  • Sphaeridial pits absent.
  • Peristome subcircular, with only the feeblest of buccal notches and no associated tag.
  • Spines and lantern unknown.
Distribution
Cretaceous (Barremian-Campanian) to Palaeocene, Europe, North Africa, North and Central America.
Name gender feminine
Type
Cidaris doma Desmarest, in Defrance, 1825, p. 150, by original designation.
Species Included
  • C. doma (Desmartest, 1825); late Albian - Cenomanian, Europe, North Africa, USA [=C. sellardsi Ikins, 1940; =C. texana Whitney, 1916]
  • C. alpina Gras, 1852; Aptian, France, Spain [?=
  • C. aissa Peron & Gauthier, 1879; Cenomanian, Algeria
  • C. arnaudi Cotteau, 1866; Turonian, France
  • C. bruni Lambert, in Lambert & Thiery, 1914; Campanian- Maastrichtian, western Europe
  • C. disculus Peron & Gauthier, 1881; Campanian, Algeria
  • C. elizae Thomas & Gauthier, 1889; Santonian, Tunisia
  • C. felixi Lambert, 1907; Turonian, Austria
  • C. libanicus de Loriol, 1901; Cenomanian, Lebanon
  • C. lorini Cotteau, 1851; Barremian-Aptian, western Europe [=C. jaccardi Cotteau, 1866]
  • C. nicaisei Peron & Gauthier, 1876; Aptian Morocco
  • C. quaasi Fourtau, 1901; Maastrichtian, Egypt
  • C. senessei Lambert & Valette, 1934; Coniacian, France
  • C. smellii Gregory & Currie, 1920; ?Campanian, Iran
  • C. stephensoni Cooke, 1953; Campanian, USA and Senegal
  • C. tessieri (Roman & Denbant, 1962); Danian, Senegal.
Classification and/or Status

Euechinoidea, Echinacea, Arbacioida, Arbaciidae.

Presumed monophyletic.

Remarks

Restricted here to species with pustules rather densely and irregularly scattered over the plates. Forms where the pustules are restricted to a single distinct line on each plates are treated as  Dialithocidaris. Baueria is very close in form.

There is a difference between early forms that have just a single primary tubercle on interambulacral plates, and later forms, including the type species, doma  which have two equal-sized tubercles on each plate subambitally. The later include Pomel\'s type species of Hemicodiopsis and Piliscus. This group can also be divided into forms which have lots of small irregularly distributed pustules over aboral plates and those with just a single large adradially positioned pustule. The latter includes C. lehmanae, C. tessieri and C. castroi and probably deserve to be separated off at subgeneric level.

Codiopsis smiseri Geys, 1985 may be a species of Glypticus

Agassiz, L. 1840. Catalogus systematicus Ectyporum Echinodermatum fossilium Musei Neocomiensis, secundum ordinem zoologicum dispositus; adjectis synonymis recentioribus, nec non stratis et locis in quibus reperiuntur. Sequuntur characteres diagnostici generum novorum vel minus cognitorum, 20 pp. Oliv. Petitpierre, Neuchâtel.

Agassiz, L. & Desor, E. 1846-1847. Catalogue raisonné des familles, des genres, et des espèces de la classe des échinodermes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Troisième Série, Zoologie: 6 (1846), 305-374, pls 15-16; 7 (1847), 129-168; 8 (1847), 5-35, 355-380.

Mortensen, T. 1935. A monograph of the Echinoidea II. Bothriocidaroida, Melonechinoida, Lepidocentroida and Stirodonta. C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen