The Echinoid Directory

Conulus Leske, 1778, p. 161

[=Echinites Leske, 1778, p. xviii (objective); =Pyrina Desmoulins, 1835, p. 192, type species Nucleolites castanea Brogniart, 1822 ]

Diagnostic Features
  • Test ovate to subpentagonal in outline, subconical to hemispherical in profile; oral surface flat.
  • Apical system central, tetrabasal with four gonopores; genital plates subequal in size and all in contact. The posterior ocular plates abutting to the rear of the genital plates.
  • Periproct small, ovate, inframarginal to oral in postition.
  • Ambulacra narrow adapically, petals undeveloped, pore-pairs small, simple, uniserial throughout, becoming strongly offset in lines of three adorally to form wide bands of pore-pairs. No buccal pores.
  • Ambulacral plating pyrinoid throughout (with every third element small and confined to adradial margin).
  • Interambulacra wide. Tuberculation of small uniform primaries with slightly sunken areoles scattered over plates plus dense unifrom granulation. No oral/aboral differentiation. Above ambitus there are small scattered bead-like granules that are firmly sutured to sunken pits, which, when preserved, give the test surface a granular appearance.
  • Peristome subcentral, subcircular, a little depressed.
  • 5 pairs of large buccal plates fill the peristome.
  • No perignathic girdle; spines small and simple.
Distribution
Cretaceous (Valanginian to Maastrichtian), Europe, Russia, central Asia, China, Middle East, Pakistan.
Name gender masculine
Type
Conulus albogalerus Leske, 1778, p. 161; by monotypy.
Species Included
  • C. castanea (Brongniart, 1822); Albian-Cenomanian; Europe.
  • C. subrotundus Mantell, 1822; Turonian-Campanian, Europe, Russia.
  • C. albogalerus Leske, 1778; Coniacian-Campanian, Europe, Russia, central Asia.
  • C. douvillei (Cotteau & Gauthier, 1895); Campanian-Maastrichtian, Libya, Middle East, Pakistan, Tibet.
  • C. magnificus (d\'Orbigny, 1854); Maastrichtian, northern Europe, Ukraine, Poland, Kazakhstan.
  • C. gigas (Cotteau, 1856); Maastrichtian, Spain, North Africa, southern France.
  • C triadis Lees, 1928; Upper Cretaceous, Arabian Peninsula
Classification and/or Status
Irregularia; Echinoneoida, Conulidae.
Remarks

Distinguished from Galerites by its wide bands of pore-pairs towards the peristome. Conulopyrina has a marginal periproct, not an inframarginal periproct, and lacks the sutured granules over its aboral surface. Adelopneustes has only weak triads adorally and pyrinoid plating is confined to the oral surface and does not extend aborally.

Smith, A. B. & Wright, C. W. 1999. British Cretaceous Echinoids. Part 5, Holectypoida, Echinoneoida. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society London: pp. 343-390, pls 115-129 (publication number 612, part of volume 153).

Leske, N. G. 1778. Jacobi Theodori Klein naturalis dispositio echinodermatum . . ., edita et descriptionibus novisque inventis et synonomis auctorem aucta.  Addimenta ad  I. T. Klein naturalem dispositionem Echinodermatum, xxii + 278 pp. 54 pls. G. E. Beer, Leipzig.

Smith, A. B. & Jeffery, C. H. 2000. Maastrichtian and Palaeocene echinoids: a key to world faunas. Special Papers in Palaeontology 63, 1-404.