Butterflies and Moths of the World Generic Names and their Type-species

Genus details

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Genus:
Satyrus Latreille, 1810 . Consid. gén. Ordre nat. Anim. : 355, 440.    [BHLBHL]

Status:
Available Name

Homonyms: 1

Higher classification:
PAPILIONOIDEA : NYMPHALIDAE : SATYRINAE : SATYRINI

Type-species:
Papilio actaea Esper, 1781. Die Schmett. in Abbildungen : 37, pl.57, figs 1a-b.

Type-species designation:
by subsequent designation by Int. Commn zool. Nom. , 1943. Opin. Decl. int. Commn zool. Nom. 2: 69 (Opinion 142).    [BHLBHL]

Type specimens:
? Type status ? COUNTRY: ? Locality, (? Depository)..

Notes:
Hemming (1967) stated:-

Latreille characterized the genus Satyrus in the earlier part of this work (: 355) but did not there cite any nominal species as belonging to this genus. Later, in the portion which he called the "Table méthodique" (: 440) he placed five species in this genus, three being Tropical, two being Palaearctic. The first attempt definitely to select a type-species for this genus was made by Butler in 1867 (Entomologist 3 : 270) who selected Papilio constantia Cramer, 1777. This selection was invalid, for that species was not one of those cited by Latreille in 1810. It was fortunate that this was so, for this choice would have had a most disturbing effect through transferring the name Satyrus from the Palaearctic "Large Browns" (known in England as the "Grayling Group"), for which by this time the name Satyrus was in common use, to a species of the Indo-Oriental Lethe-group. Possibly on this account Butler in 1868 (Ent. mon. Mag. 4 : 194) rejected the above type-selection made by himself in the previous year, substituting for it a selection of Papilio actaea Esper, [1780]. This selection had the merit that it was in harmony with current nomenclatorial practice, but it was invalid, because it was not one of the species cited by Latreille in 1810. In 1872 (Cistula ent. 1 : 62) Crotch sought to select Papilio megera Linnaeus, 1767, as the type-species, but this also was invalid, the species selected not having been one of Latreille's original species. The type-species of this genus was validly fixed in 1875 (Proc. amer. acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10 : 265, 266) as Papilio galathea Linnaeus, 1758, by Scudder who erroneously believed that the name Satyrus Latreille was invalid under the Law of Homonymy. Despite the action described above, the name Satyrus continued in uninterrupted use for the Palaearctic "Large Browns", though in the early nineteen-thirties a few authors sought to apply it in the sense invalidly suggested by Crotch in 1872, thereby applying it in the place of the long-established name Pararge Hübner, [1819], while a few others accepted Scudder's technically correct selection of 1875, thus replacing the equally well-known name Melanargia Meigen, 1828.

The name Satyrus Latreille is one of particular importance, having been made the type-genus of the family Satyridae by Boisduval in 1833. It was of the highest importance therefore that a definitive ruling should be obtained as to the species to be accepted as the type-species of this genus and, moreover, that that species should be one of the large group of species to which the name Satyrus was habitually, though incorrectly, applied. This case was considered by the Commission at its Lisbon meeting in 1935 when approval was given to a proposal advocated by the International Committee on Entomological Nomenclature at Madrid earlier in the same year that instead of ruling in favour of the acceptance of Papilio galathea Linnaeus as the type-species as had previously been regretfully proposed, the Commission should use its Plenary Powers to designate as the type-species the nominal species Papilio actaea Esper. This proposal was regarded as being very drastic at that time, in view of the fact that the species proposed to be designated as type-species was not one of those originally cited by Latreille when founding the nominal genus Satyrus. However, this proposal was so obviously calculated to promote nomenclatorial stability and to prevent confusing name-changing that it won immediate and general support. The actual species proposed to be designated as type-species was considered particularly appropriate, it being not only a well-known member of the Palaearctic "Large Browns" but in addition it was the species actually designated - though incorrectly - as the type-species by Crotch as far back as 1868. This proposal commended itself to the Commission which in 1943 (Opin. int. Comm. zool. Nom. 2 : 67-80) promulgated Opinion 142, in which it used its Plenary Powers in the foregoing sense. The name Satyrus Latreille, with Papilio actaea Esper as type-species, was thereupon placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology, where it was later allotted the Name No: 596.

Cowan, (1970: 55) stated:-

"596 to read - 569".

Cowan (1970: 55) stated:-

"Crotch to read - Butler".

SATYRUS was included within the subfamily NYMPHALIDAE: SATYRINAE by Ackery et al., in Kristensen (1999).

The higher classification used here follows Lamas (2008).

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