Butterflies and Moths of the World Generic Names and their Type-species

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Napaea Hübner, 1819 . Samml. exot. Schmett. 1 : pl.[34].    [BHLBHL]

Available Name

Homonyms: 1

Higher classification:

Cremna eucharila Bates, 1867. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (3), 5: 543.    [BHLBHL]

Type-species designation:
by subsequent designation by Int. Commn zool. Nom. , 1967. Bull. zool. Nom. 24: 212-213 (Opinion 820).    [BHLBHL]

Type specimens:
See BHL scanned Type-species page: .

Hemming (1967) stated:-

A taxon having as the representative of its lectotype, by selection by Hemming (1964, Annot. lep. (3) : 102), the specimen figured by Hübner in 1819 under the name Napaea actoris as fig. 1 on plate [34] of volume 1 of the Samml. exot. Schmett].

This is a genus based upon a misidentified type-species. What happened was that when establishing the nominal genus Napaea, Hübner placed in that genus a single nominal species - which is therefore the type-species by monotypy - to which he applied the name Napaea actoris. Hübner cited no author's name in connection with the specific name actoris and it was impossible therefore to be certain whether the name actoris, as published on the legend of the above plate, was a new name of his own or a later usage of that name as published by Cramer in 1776 (Uitl. Kapellen 1 (8) : 146, pl. 93, fig. D) in the combination Papilio actoris until on the discovery of Hübner's surviving manuscripts there was found a portion of unpublished text which clearly showed that in using the name actoris on the above plate Hübner looked upon himself as using the name actoris Cramer. In this identification he was in error, for the species figured by Hübner on his plate [34] is not the same as that to which Cramer had previously applied the same specific name. This mistake of Hübner's was detected by Bates in 1867 when (as shown above) he gave the name Cremna eucharila to the species figured by Hübner under the misapplied name actoris Cramer, Hübner's species having been without a name of its own up to the publication of Bates' paper. As Bates based his Cremna eucharila on Hübner's plate [34], the four figures shown on that plate as Napaea actoris represent the to here syntypes of Bates' species. The first of these, namely the specimen shown as fig. 1 on the above plate has (as shown above) been selected to represent the lectotype of Cremna eucharila Bates. By the foregoing lectotype-selection that nominal species becomes, it will be noted, objectively identical with that figured by Hübner under the misapplied name Napaea actoris (Cramer).

The true Papilio actoris Cramer and Cremna eucharila Bates are currently placed in different genera, the first, in Cremna Doubleday, 1847 (List Spec. Rep. Ins. Brit. Mus. 2 : 14), of which it is the type-species, the second, in Napaea Hübner, of which (as has been seen) it was (under the misapplied name Napaea actoris (Cramer) the sole originally included species. It would be most confusing if it were now necessary to transfer the name Napaea Hübner to the genus now and for long known by the later name Cremna Doubleday. To do so would moreover do violence to the clear intention of Hübner to place in his genus Napaea not the true Papilio actoris of Cramer but the species which by a mistake in identification he figured as Cramer's species on his plate [34]. Accordingly, the Commission is being asked to apply to this case the provisions of Article 70(a) relating to the names of genera based upon misidentified type-species and to give effect to Hübner's intentions by designating Cremna eucharila Bates to be the type-species of the genus Napaea Hübner. In accordance with the provisions of Article 80 existing usage is here maintained, pending the publication of the Commission on the application submitted. Accordingly, Napaea Hübner is here treated as having the above species as its type-species, while Cremna Doubleday (type-species : Papilio actoris Cramer), which at present is a junior objective synonym of Napaea Hübner, is here treated as an available name in accordance with established usage.

Cowan (1968) made the following comment for this and other genera

Opinions published in September and December 1967 in Bull. zool. Nomencl. 24, parts (4) and (5) CONFIRMED the forecasts given in the List [Hemming, 1967] for the following genera;

Adopaeoides Godman; Op. 825
Arisbe Hübner; Op. 823
Artines Godman; Op. 826
Gegenes Hübner; Op. 827
Halpe Moore; Op. 828
Iaspis Kaye; Op. 821
Napaea Hübner; Op. 820
Papias Godman; Op. 829
Phanes Godman; Op. 830
Phrissura Butler; Op. 824
Telicota Moore; Op. 831
Ypthima Hübner; Op. 819
Zenis Godman; Op. 832

Cremna eucharila Bates, 1967 was designated as the type-species of Napaea Hübner, [1819] under the plenary powers of the Commission and was placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology, (Opinion 820), The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 24 : 212. Napaea was placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology after the designation of Cremna eucharila, (Opinion 820), The Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 24 : 212.

The higher classification used here follows Lamas (2008).

Learn more about Riodinidae in Wikipedia.

See images at Butterflies of America.

Search the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) for references to NAPAEA and included species.

Junior name(s):
Fritilla Capronnier, 1874: 20.

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