Butterflies and Moths of the World Generic Names and their Type-species

Genus details

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Hypolimnas Hübner, 1819 . Verz. bekannt. Schmett. : 45. [as "Hypolimnades"]    [BHLBHL]

Available Name

Homonyms: 1

Higher classification:

Papilio pipleis Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae (Edn 10), 1: 476.    [BHLBHL]

Type-species designation:
by subsequent designation by Scudder , 1875. Proc. amer. acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 194. [(as a junior name of pandarus)]    [BHLBHL]

Type specimens:
See BHL scanned Type-species page: .

Hemming (1967) stated:-

The first point which has to be noted is that this name was published with two original spellings : (a) The Verein (Coitus) established by Hübner for this genus was called by the German vernacular name "Hypolimnaden" and by the Latin name "Hypolimnades" ; (b). Below these main headings are listed the eleven nominal species recognized as belonging to this genus ; in all except the first case the generic name is indicated only by the initial "H."; in the case of the leading species appearing however by the spelling "Hipolimnas".

There is an enormous literature relating to this name and all the authors who have used it have used the "y" spelling. There has indeed been no discussion as to the relate merits of these two spellings, the "i" spelling having been ignored or tacitly put on one side as an obvious misspelling or printers" error, which is no doubt what it is. The present revised Code, unlike its predecessor, makes express reference to the problem of multiple original spellings and lays down a procedure for dealing with such cases (Article 32 (b)). Under this procedure it is necessary to ascertain which of the alternative spellings was adopted by the First Reviser. In the present case Hübner himself was the first subsequent user. On the first occasion, which was only two years after the publication of the relevant portion of the Verzeichniss ; this was in 1821 in the Index exot. Lep. ([5]) and here Hübner used the "y" spelling ; he did the same in 1826 in the index (Anzeiger : 6), where he gave an express reference to the species (nos. 406-416), to the first of which (as shown above) he had in the main text employed the defective "i" spelling. Fortunately, therefore under the provisions of the Code the spelling "Hypolimnas" is, through the action of Hübner himself, the Correct Original Spelling of this generic name.

The taxon represented by the nominal species Papilio pipleis Linnaeus, the type-species of this genus, is currently treated subjectively on taxonomic grounds as the female of the taxon of which the male is represented by the nominal species Papilio pandarus Linnaeus, 1758 (Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1 : 461). As these names were published on the same date and in the same work, the relative precedence to be accorded to them depends on the choice of the First Reviser. In this case the First Reviser seems to have been Kirby who in 1871 (Syn. Cat. diurn. Lep. : 225) adopted the specific name pandarus Linnaeus, sinking the name pipleis Linnaeus as a junior subjective synonym. The precedence so established has been adopted by all subsequent authors.

Cowan (1970: 48) stated:-

"Hipolimnas to read - Hipolymnas" [Cowan wrongly reversed these in his corrections on p.48].

The higher classification used here follows Lamas (2008).

Learn more about Nymphalidae in Wikipedia.

See images at Butterflies of America.

Search the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) for references to HYPOLIMNAS and included species.

Junior name(s):
Hipolimnas ; Hübner, 1819: 45.
Hipolymnas ; Hemming, 1967: 220.

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