Butterflies and Moths of the World Generic Names and their Type-species

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Hypanartia Hübner, 1821 . Samml. exot. Schmett. 2 : pl.[26].    [BHLBHL]

Available Name

Homonyms: 1

Higher classification:

Hypanartia demonica Hübner, 1821. Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl.[26].    [BHLBHL]

Type-species designation:
by monotypy . [(the specimen shown in that figure having been selected by Hemming (1964, Annot. lep. (3) : 98) to represent the lectotype)]

Type specimens:
See BHL scanned Type-species page: .

Hemming (1967) stated:-

There are three plates (pls [25], [26], [27]) in volume 2 of Hübner's Samml. exot. Schmett. depicting species placed by Hübner in the genus Hypanartia. Of these, pl. [26] was published in 1821, and pls [25] and [27] in 1823 [see note below on [25] - applies to this instance only].

Accordingly, only the species represented on pl. [25] ranks as an originally included species. This was the new species Hypanartia demonica, which is therefore the type-species by monotypy. Scudder, who did not know the dates of publication of these plates, treated them all (1875, Proc. amer. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10 : 193) as having been published simultaneously and on this basis selected Hypanartia tesmesia (then also a new species), figured on Hübner's plate [27], to be the type-species. This action was invalid, for, as shown above, Hypanartia demonica had already been the type-species by monotypy two years before the publication of the plate illustrating Hypanartia tecmesia. The taxa represented by these two nominal species are closely allied to one another and are today still considered to be congeneric with one another.

It has long been realized that Hübner confused two different species with one another under the name Hypanartia demonica, treating one as the male (figs M. 1, 2) of that species and the other (figs F. 3, 4) as the female. The name demonica has been used for the species which Hübner treated as the male, while the taxon which he treated as the female of demonica is currently treated as being the same as that represented by the older-established nominal species Papilio bella Fabricius, 1793 (Ent. syst. 3 (1) : 79). This treatment of the figures given by Hübner for Hypanartia demonica rested solely upon a customary basis until (as shown at the head of the present note) I selected the specimen shown as fig. M. 1 on Hübner's plate [26] to represent the lectotype of the above species.

The taxon represented by the nominal species Hypanartia demonica Hübner, as interpreted by the lectotype referred to above, is currently treated subjectively on taxonomic grounds as being the same as that represented by the older-established nominal species Papilio lethe Fabricius, 1793 (Ent. syst. 3 (1) : 80).

Cowan (1970: 48) stated:-

"on pl. [25] to read - on pl. [26]".

The higher classification used here follows Lamas (2008).

Learn more about Nymphalidae in Wikipedia.

See images at Butterflies of America.

Search the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) for references to HYPANARTIA and included species.

Junior name(s):
Eurema Doubleday, 1845: 83.
Hybristis Hübner, 1937: 129.

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