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The personal scientific library of Charles Darwin has been made available online for the first time via the Biodiversity Heritage Library – including notes and comments scribbled him on the pages and margins.


The digitisation of Darwin’s Library is a collaborative effort involving the NHM Library, the Darwin Manuscripts Project at the American Museum of Natural History, Cambridge University Library, and the Biodiversity Heritage Library.


Untitled-1 copy.jpg

View of Darwin's Library on the shelves at Downe House about 1876-77

(Image from Cambridge University Library)


These annotated books are now in the process of being digitized. The first phase of this project has just been completed, with 330 of the most heavily annotated books launched online at the Biodiversity Heritage Library for all to read.


Charles Darwin’s Library is a digital edition and virtual reconstruction of the surviving books owned by Charles Darwin. This BHL special collection draws on original copies and surrogates from other libraries. It also provides full transcriptions of his annotations and marks. In total, Darwin’s library amounted to 1480 books, of which 730 contain abundant research notes in their margins. In this first release (2011) 330 of the most heavily annotated books have been made available.  To support the project BHL has developed a new facility on the BHL website to feature special collections.


Because Darwin’s evolutionary theory covered so many aspects of nature, reading served him as a primary source of evidence and ideas.  Darwin once complained that he had become a ‘machine for grinding general laws out of large collections of facts’.


The pages of Darwin’s Library, smothered as they are in his tantalising scrawl, give us a direct view of the great Darwinian intellectual machine in action. With the Charles Darwin Library online, now everyone can retrace how Darwin systematically used reading to advance his science.

Most of Darwin’s personal library rests at Cambridge University Library and at Down House.  Although the majority of the books are scientific, some are humanities texts on subjects that Darwin transformed into scientific topics.


The series of transcriptions accompanying each page allows everyone to see which passages Darwin found relevant to his work, stimulated his thinking, or just annoyed him as he read the work of others.


For example, his friend Charles Lyell wrote in his famous Principles of Geology that there were definite limits to the variation of species. Darwin wrote alongside this: “If this were true adios theory”.  See the image below.




Final page of Volume 2 of
Lyell’s Principles of Geology (5th edition, 1837).
Note the annotation on the left page
“If this were true adios theory”
(Image from Cambridge University Library)



The online transcribed marginalia relies on the work of two scholars, Mario A. Di Gregorio and Nick Gill, published in the 1990s and now greatly enhanced by Gill. Finally, in addition to images of the books and transcribed jots, the information is fully indexed so that people can search for topics and ideas relevant to their interests or work.


The digitisation project was jointly sponsored by the JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) and National Endowment of the Humanities through a Transatlantic Digitization Collaboration Grant.

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                                            The NHM Library Specialist Digitisation Unit scanning NHM volumes for the project



An 11 month project has started to unlock an incredible artwork collection originally commissioned by Thomas Hardwicke. Each piece within the collection will be listed, described, measured and a reference image taken. The images are of interest as much for their subject matter as for the art techniques used, including the use of gum arabic on some of the more polished drawings. Many of the species are unidentifed, or the original name has changed since the piece was produced. It is hoped that future research will be facilitated by unlocking this collection in this way; for example, identifying all the species depicted, and looking at whether the collection includes species which have since become extinct. It is hoped that future funding can be obtained to enable the collection to be digitised.


                                        Picture 001a.jpg          Picture 004a.jpg

                                                 Using a lightbox to see watermarks                       Measuring each piece   




Who was Thomas Hardwicke?



Thomas Hardwicke (1755-1835) was born in England circa 1755. At the age of 22, he joined the Honourable East India Company. Hardwicke rose through the army ranks to become Major-General in 1819, retiring from the army in 1823 and then returning to England.


Hardwicke had a distinguished career in India, during which time he was engaged in military action and travelled extensively over the subcontinent. Early in his career he formed a special curiosity about the Indian wildlife. He started a collection of zoological specimens and amassed a large collection of paintings of animals, insects and birds. By the time Hardwicke left India, he possessed the largest collection of drawings of Indian animals ever formed by a single individual. The subjects covered nearly every group of the animal kingdom.


Hardwicke’s enthusiasm in India was matched by the leading naturalists in England, with whom he corresponded. He also communicated with Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society, and other scientific luminaries. Hardwicke was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1813. Although Hardwicke did not publish many zoological papers himself it was the opportunities that he provided for others that are significant.


Once back in England, Hardwicke collaborated with J. E. Gray, who would shortly afterwards become the Keeper of Zoology at the British Museum. The result was a major folio work, Illustrations of Indian Zoology (1830-35). Gray took the lead, and was responsible for most of the scientific work which was based on Hardwicke’s drawings. Hardwicke provided the finance for the expensive book which had 202 large, hand-coloured plates, but he died before any text was issued.


What does the collection consist of?


                                1.9a        3.42a.jpg

                                       Philippine/Sunda/Malayan flying lemur or gliding lemur?                     Helmeted hornbill?                      

                                               (Cynocephalus volans or  Galeopterus variegatus)                                 (Rhinoplax vigil?)



The Hardwicke collection of drawings has a fascinating history. Part of the collection consists of drawings produced by local artists working in India. In his senior military position, Hardwicke was able to employ artists to produce work that met his specific requirements. Much of what was illustrated was based on dead specimens brought to Hardwicke by collectors from far away. There is plenty of evidence that they also drew living animals. For example the drawing of the chameleon was made from a specimen found in a garden and was observed to change its colour to match its background. Other animals were kept in menageries. The drawing of the tapir, a native of South East Asia and South America was possibly made from a specimen in a zoo. Alternatively it may have been exchanged with another collector or copied from another drawing. In this period natural history enthusiasts would often exchange drawings of animals and plants from other parts of the world to complement their collections. The Hardwicke collection is typical of this practice and therefore includes some surprising images such as an Australian koala and birds from China!


The painting of the Fishing Cat, (Felis viverrina) see below, has the John Russell Reeves crest stamped in the lower right hand corner – a clear indication that it was once in the possession of this famous collector of illustrations of Chinese wildlife.



                                                                                           Fishing Cat (Felis viverrina)


The names of the Indian artists employed by Hardwicke are unknown but undoubtedly most were well trained local artists. They adapted their styles and techniques to the European demands for accuracy in natural history illustration to produce a collection of stunning watercolours. A small proportion of the artwork, including the drawing of the chameleon, is signed 'JH' or 'J Hayes'. Nothing is known about Hayes, possibly he was a European working in India. He had a talent for drawing which Hardwicke undoubtedly appreciated.



                                        Red giant flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista)                   Asian or Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus)


Hardwicke bequeathed his zoological specimens and drawings to the British Museum in 1835. His magnificent collection of natural history drawings and paintings were later divided between the British Museum and the Natural History Museum. The Natural History Museum library holds approximately 4,500 zoological drawings and also houses an oil-painting portrait of Hardwicke by the artist John Lucas (1807-1844).


Some of the drawings from this collection were used on posters for the Natural History Museum in the 1970s.


In 2013 there will be an exhibition of some of the Hardwicke Collection in the Images of Nature art gallery here at the Natural History Museum. The theme for that year is India. To learn more about this gallery and this year's theme visit our website




                                                         Blood pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus)                          Purple heron  (Ardea purpurea)



The Library catalogue is available online at

If you wish to view these or any other items, please contact the library to arrange an appointment or 020 7942 5460





A lichen red data list for Wales = Rhestr o Gen Data Coch ar gyfer Cymru / Ray G. Woods

Salisbury : Plantlife, 2010.



Flora of Guangdong. Volume IX / chief editor, Wu Telin ; vice chief editors, Hu Qiming, Chen Zhongyi.

Guangzhou, China : Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 2009.

581.9(51) GUA


Flora of Guangdong. Volume VIII / chief editor : Wu Telin ; vice chief editors, Hu Qiming, Chen Zhongyi.

Guangzhou, China : Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 2007.

581.9(51) GUA


Marianne North : a very intrepid painter / Michelle Payne.

Richmond, Surrey : Kew Publishing, 2011.



Flora of Bangladesh. No.60, Lecythidaceae / editors: Hosne Ara and Bushra Khan

Dacca : Bangladesh National Herbarium, 2009.

581.9(549.3) FLO


Flora of Bangladesh. No.59, Sapindaceae / editors: Hosne Ara and Bushra Khan

Dacca : Bangladesh National Herbarium, 2009.

581.9(549.3) FLO


Tekhnika i tekhnologiia dobychi i pererabotki morskikh burykh vodoroslei : Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po sboru, obrabotke, konservirovaniiu i proizvodstvu produktov iz pishchevykh burykh vodoroslei / A. V. Podkorytova ... [et al.]

The technique and technology of harvesting and preparing brown seaweed. Issue 1 : Recommendations for the method of collection, preparation, preservation and production of food products from edible brwon seaweed.

Moskva : Izd-vo VNIRO, 2008.



Eunotia Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyta) of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA / Paula C. Furey, Rex L. Lowe, Jeffrey R. Johansen.

Stuttgart, Germany : J. Cramer, 2011.

DIATOMS 582.261(7) FUR


Atlas morfológico de semillas en especies del género Passiflora L. presentes en Venuzuela / Silvia Pérez-Cortéz.

Caracas [Venezuela] : Fundación Instituto Bótanico de Venezuela, 2007.

582.4P74 PER


Guía de jardines históricos y parques urbanos de la ciudad de Valencia / [direccion y coordinacion, Amparo Medina Piles].

Guide to historic gardens and parks of the city of Valencia

Valencia, Spain : Ajuntament de Valencia, [2010]?

58.006 VAL MED Q




Longhorn beetles in Sweden : Changes in distribution and abundance over the last two hundred years / Lindhe, Anders

ES 502


Moon-Related Population Dynamics and Ecology of the Stag Beetle Lucanus Cervus, Other Beetles, Butterflies, Dragonflies and Other Insects/ Mader, Detlef

Ubstadt : Verlag Regionalkultur, 2011

10C o MAD


Phenotypic plascticity of insects : mechanisms and consequences / Whitman, Douglas W

Enfield (United States) : Science Publishers, 2009

17 o WHI


Protection of Coleoptera in the Baltic Sea region  / Symposium of Baltic Sea Coleopterologists (5th : 2004 : Poland)

Warsaw : Warsaw Agricultural University Press, 2005



Bird-dropping Tortrix moths of the British Isles : a field guide to the bird-dropping mimics / Clifton, Jon

[Dorset] : Clifton & Wheeler; 2011




General Natural History


Aboveground-belowground linkages : biotic interactions, ecosystem processes, and global change / Richard D. Bardgett, David A. Wardle.

Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2010.

L 10E o BAR


Here on Earth : a new beginning / Tim Flannery.

London : Allen Lane, 2011, c2010.

L 10E o FLA


Natural history drawings : the complete William Farquhar collection : Malay Peninsula, 1803-1818 / with essays by John Bastin and Kwa Chong Guan ; and captions by Hassan Ibrahim and Morten Strange.

Singapore : Editions Didier Millet : National Museum of Singapore, c2010.

L 83 o NAT


Museums in a troubled world : renewal, irrelevance or collapse? / Robert R. Janes.

London ; New York : Routledge, 2009.

L 84 o JAN


Kingdom of ants : José Celestino Mutis and the dawn of natural history in the New World / Edward O. Wilson and José M. Gómez Durán.

Baltimore, Md. : Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.




Ornithology (Tring)


As aves da Região de Guamaré, RN: Guia de identificação / Luciano Moreira Lima, Salvatore Siciliano

Rio de Janeiro: ENSP/FIOCRUZ, 2007.



Aves marinhas costeiras do Brasil : identificação e biologia / Ronaldo Novelli.

Porto Alegre: Cinco Continentes, 1997.



Aves marinhas na Bacia de Campos / Jorge Bruno Nacinovic.

Rio de Janeiro : GEMM Lagos : FIOCRUZ, 2005.

ORNITHOLOGY 76D NAC                  


Projeto Nacional de Monitoramento do Pinguim-de-Magalhaes: <Spehniscus magellanicus> / Centro Nacional de Pesquisa para Conservação das Aves Silvestres

Brasilia: ICMBio, 2010.

ORNITHOLOGY 18(1) PRO             


Thomas Littleton Powys, Fourth Baron Lilford 1833-96: an appreciation / Ioan Thomas

Oundle : Ioan Thomas, 2006.

ORNITHOLOGY 96A LIL             


Voo Pela Fiocruz: guia de aves / Davi Castro Tavares e Salvatore Siciliano, [coordenção do projeto Luisa Massarani e Rosicler Neves]

Rio de Janeiro: Museu da Vida / Casa de Oswald Cruz / FICRUZ, 2011.





Leviathan, or, The whale / Philip Hoare.

London : Fourth Estate, 2009.

Z 3A o HOA


Parasite fauna of fishes from freshwater water bodies of Yakutia / Odnokurtsev, V. A

Novosibirsk : Nauka, 2010

Z 24 o ODN


Field guide to the hard corals of the southern coast of Yemen / Michel Pichon ... [et al.].

Mèze : Biotope , 2010.



Bears : a brief history / Bernd Brunner ; translated from the German by Lori Lantz.

New Haven : Yale University Press, 2007.



Elephants in Thailand / Joachim Schliesinger.

Bangkok : White Lotus Press, c2010-



Cephalorhyncha of the world ocean : keys to the identification of marine fauna / Adrianov, A. V

Moskva : KMK Scientific Press, 1999



Boas and pythons of the world / Mark O'Shea.

London : New Holland, 2011.



The Library catalogue is available online at

If you wish to view these or any other items, please contact the library to arrange an appointment or 020 7942 5460



Anthropology / Palaeontology


The Neolithic demographic transition and consequences / Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel et al

Springer, 2008

A 5 o NEO


A study through skull morphology on the diversity of Holocene African populations in a historical perspective / Isabelle Ribot

Oxford, 2011

A 7A q RIB


The Routledge handbook of archaeological human remains and legislation / Nicholas Marquez-Grant & Linda Fibiger (eds.)

London, Routledge, 2011

A 6 q ROU


Human bioarchaeology of the transition to agriculture / Ron Pinhasi & Jay T. Stock

Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011

A 3 q HUM





In the footsteps of Augustine Henry and his Chinese plant collectors / Seamus O'Brien ; foreword by Roy Lancaster

Woodbridge, Suffolk : Garden Art Press, 2011.

92 HEN Q


Flora Bashchelakskogo khrebta / T. O. Strel'nikova

Flora of the Bashchelak mountain range

Novosibirsk : Akademicheskoe Izd-vo "Geo", 2010.

581.9(57) STR


Mkhi i pechenochniki lesov Sibiri / L. V. Bardunov and A. N. Vasil'ev

Mosses and liverworts of the forests of Siberia

vosibirsk : Akademicheskoe Izd-vo "Geo", 2010.



Seaweeds : a colour guide to common benthic green, brown and red algae of the world's oceans / Wolfram Braune, Michael D. Guiry. Translated and revised for the English language edition by Michael D. Guiry.

Koenigstein : Koeltz Scientific, 2011.

ALGAE 582.26 BRA


Biomonitoring, ecology and systematics of lichens : recognizing the lichenological legacy of Thomas H. Nash III on his 65th Birthday / editors : Scott T. Bates ... [et al.]

Stuttgart : Borntraeger, 2011.



The restless plant / Dov Koller ; edited by Elizabeth Van Volkenburgh.

Cambridge, Mass. ; London, England : Harvard University Press, 2011.

581.18 KOL





Chinese terms in entomology: 2000 supplement

Beijing : Ke xue chu ban she, 2001



Catalogue of the insect type specimens deposited in China, Vol 1/ Cui jun zhi

Bei jing : Zhong guo lin ye chu ban she, 2007

73H o CAT


Lepidoptera of Guisandao Islet / Wang, H. Y.

Ilan : Ilan County Museum of Natural History ; 1999

73H o WAN


The insects of Kinmen / Xu, Yufeng

Nei zheng bu ying jian shu Jin men guo jia gong yuan guan li chu, min 93

73H o XU


Prof K. T. Park with insects/ Park, Kyu-Tek


96 o PAR

Cicadas of Taiwan / Chen, Zhen xiang

Tai bei shi : Da shu wen hua, 2004




General Natural History


A country diary for North Wales / Jan Miller.

Leicester : Matador, 2005.

L 72Aa o MIL


Measuring the new world : enlightenment science and South America / Neil Safier.

Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2008.

L 76K o SAF


The National Science Museum [Japan]

[Tokyo : National Science Museum, 2005]

L 85 o NAT


Frogs and toads / Chris Mattison

London: Natural History Museum, 2011



Age of the dinosaur / Steve Parker

London: Natural History Museum, 2011.



In from the cold : an assessment of the scope of 'Orphan Works' and its impact on the delivery of services to the public / Naomi Korn

[Cambridge : Collections Trust], 2009

L LIB 347.78 KOR





Incoming! Or, why we should stop worrying and learn to love the meteorite / Ted Nield

London: Granta Publications, 2011

M 523.68 NIE





Bird watch : a survey of planet Earth's changing ecosystems / Martin Walters ; consultant: BirdLife International, Jonathan Elphick.

Chicago ; London : University of Chicago Press, 2011.

ORNITHOLOGY 10 WAL                     


The birds of Panama : a field guide / George R. Angehr, Robert Dean.

Ithaca : Comstock Pub. Associates, 2010.

ORNITHOLOGY 75E ANG                    


The Crossley ID guide / by Richard Crossley.

[West Cape May, NJ] : Crossley Books ; Princeton, N.J. ; Oxford, UK : Princeton University Press, c2011.

ORNITHOLOGY 75 CRO                     


Life with birds: a story of mutual exploitation / Malcolm Smith

Dunbeath : Whittles, 2011.

ORNITHOLOGY 3A SMI                     


Oiseaux de Mauritanie = Birds of Mauritania / Paul Isenmann ... [et al.]

Paris : Société d'études ornithologiques de France, 2010.

ORNITHOLOGY 74K ISE                    


Raptor survey and monitoring : a field guide for African birds of prey / Gerard Malan, editor/author.

Arcadia, Pretoria : Briza Publications, 2009.



The Library catalogue is available online at

If you wish to view these or any other items, please contact the library to arrange an appointment or 020 7942 5460.





Aloes : the definitive guide / S. Carter ... [et al.].

Richmond : Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2011.

582.4P178 CAR Q


Flowering plants : a concise pictorial guide / Leon Gray, V.H. Heywood ... [et al.]

Richmond : Kew Publishing, 2011.

582.4 GRA


Champion trees of Britain and Ireland : the Tree Register Handbook / Owen Johnson

Richmond : Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2011.

635.97 JOH


Flora of Peninsular Malaysia. Series 2, Seed plants, Volume 2 / edited by R. Kiew, R. C. K. Chung, L. G. Saw, E. Soepadmo and P. C. Boyce ; [series editor: S.S. Lee].

Kuala Lumpur : Forest Research Institute, Malaysia, 2011.

581.9(595) FLO


O gênero Aspilia Thou. (Asteraceae-Heliantheae) no Brasil / João Ubiratan Moreira dos Santos.

Belém, Pará : FUNTEC : Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, 2001.

582.4P88 SAN



General Natural History


China on paper : European and Chinese works from the late sixteenth to early nineteenth century / edited by Marcia Reed and Paola Demattè.

Los Angeles : Getty Research Institute, 2011.

L 83 o CHI


Carl Linnaeus : father of classification / Margaret J. Anderson.

Berkeley Heights, NJ : Enslow Publishers, c2009.

L 96A o LIN





Rock fractures in geological processes / Agust Gudmundsson

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2011






Five weeks with Lapland birds : an account of the Cambridge Lapland Expedition 1955 / editors: S.J.J.F Davies, [J.D. Majer and L.E. Koch].

[Perth, W.A.] : Curtin University, Dept. of Environment and Agriculture, 2010.



Taiwan niao lei zhi = The avifauna of Taiwan / zuo zhe Liu Xiaoru ... [et al.].

Taibei Shi : Xing zheng yuan nong ye wei yuan hui lin wu ju, 2010.








Kangaroo : portrait of an extraordinary marsupial / Stephen Jackson and Karl Vernes.

Crows Nest : Allen & Unwin, 2010.



Catalogue of the mammals collections of the Zoological Museum of Ivan Franko National University of Lviv

L'viv : VydavnychyÄ­ tsentr LNU imeni Ivana Franka, 2010



Frogs and toads / Chris Mattison

London: Natural History Museum, 2011



The Library catalogue is available online at


If you wish to view these or any other items, please contact the library to arrange an appointment or 020 7942 5460.



Palaeontology / Anthropology


The Jurassic System of Northern Xinjiang, China / Shenghui Deng ... [et al.]

[S.l.] : University of Science & Technology of China Press, 2010

P 73L o JIN





Phytoplankton of Andean lakes in northern Southamerica (Colombia) composition and environment distribution factors / by John Charles Donato Rondón.

Ruggell Gantner, 2010.


Ein Garten Eden : Meisterwerke der botanischen Illustration = Garden of Eden : masterpieces of botanical illustration = Un jardin d'Eden : chefs-d'oeuvre de l'illustration botanique / H. Walter Lack ; [English translation Martin Walters ; French translation Thérèse Chatelain-Südkamp & Michèle Schreyer].

Rev. ed.

Köln : Taschen, 2008.

7.043 LAC Q


Beyond cladistics : the branching of a paradigm / edited by David M. Williams and Sandra Knapp.

Berkeley : University of California Press, 2010.

582.4 WIL


The plants of Mefou proposed national park, Yaoundé, Cameroon : a conservation checklist / compiled and edited by Martin Cheek, Yvette Harvey and Jean Michael Onana

Kew, Richmond, Surrey : Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2011.

581.9(671.1) CHE Q





The standard of moths in Japan. 1/ Kishida, Yasunori

[Tokyo] : Gakken Kyoiku Shuppan ; 2011

73I q KIS (VOL.1)


The standard of moths in Japan. 1/ Kishida, Yasunori

[Tokyo] : Gakken Kyoiku Shuppan ; 2011

73I q KIS (VOL.2)


Mirovaia bibliografiia po afidologii (Homoptera, Aphidinea) 1712-2007

Vol. 1: Systematics / Fol’kina, M.

Almaty : [TSNB MON RK], 2009



Mirovaia bibliografiia po afidologii (Homoptera, Aphidinea) 1712-2007

Vol. 2 : Aphid fauna and food plants of aphids / Fol’kina, M.

Almaty : [TSNB MON RK], 2009



Mirovaia bibliografiia po afidologii (Homoptera, Aphidinea) 1712-2007

Vol. 3 : Methods of investigating aphids / Fol’kina, M.

Almaty : [TSNB MON RK], 2009



Mirovaia bibliografiia po afidologii (Homoptera, Aphidinea) 1712-2007

Vol. 4 : Morphology / Fol’kina, M.

Almaty : [TSNB MON RK], 2009



Parnassius : The Parnassiology. The Parnassius butterflies, a study in evolution / Sakai, Seiji

[Kodansha] : [s.n.] 2002




General Natural History


Für eine Philosophie der Biologie = For a philosophy of biology : festschrift to [sic] the 75th birthday of Rolf Löther / Ilse Jahn & Andreas Wessel (Herausgeber/editors).

München : Kleine Verlag, c2010.

L 7 o FUR


Conservation at the crossroads : science, society, and the future of India's wildlife / Ghazala Shahabuddin.

Ranikhet : Permanent Black, in association with the New India Foundation ; Bangalore : Distributed by Orient Blackswan, 2010.

L 73F o SHA


Museum studies : an anthology of contexts / edited by Bettina Messias Carbonell.

Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub., 2004.

L 84 o MUS


National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences / A. Popov, P. Stoev, T. Valkova

Sofia : National Msueum of Natural History, BAS, 2008

L 85 q BUL


E-only scholarly journals : overcoming the barriers / John Cox Associates and Frontline GMS for JISC ; RIN ; PRC ; RLUK

S.l. : s.n.], 2010.

L L.C. 681.3 EON





Fisheries acoustics / David N. MacLennan and E. John Simmonds

London  : Chapman & Hall, 1992

Z 67 o MAC


Annelids in modern biology / edited by Daniel H. Shain.

Hoboken : Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.



Rodentologiia / P.A. Panteleyev

Moskva : Tovarishchestvo nauchnykh izdaniÄ­, 2010.



The Library catalogue is available online at


If you wish to view these or any other items please contact the Library to arrange an appointment or 020 7942 5460



Anthropology / Palaeontology


The Jurassic System of Thailand / A. Meesook & Sha Jingeng

[S.l.] : University of Science & Technology of China Press, 2010

P 73Gb o JIN


Fossil Ostracoda of China/ Hou Youtang; Gou Yunxian. 2, Cytheracea and cytherellidae.

Beijing : Ke xue chu ban she, 2007.

P 30B o HOU


Fossil Ostracoda of China/ Hou Youtang; Gou Yunxian. 3, Entomozoacea and Leperditicopida / Wang Shangyan.

[s.l.], 2009.

P 30B o SHA


Outline of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Systems in Western Liaoning, NE China / Baoyu Jiang ... [et al.]

[S.l.] : University of Science & Technology of China Press, 2010

P 73L o JIN


The terrestrial Triassic and Jurassic systems in the Sichuan Basin, China / Yongdong Wang ... [et al.] ; chief editor: Sha Jingeng ... [et al.]

[S.l.] : University of Science & Technology, 2010

P 73L o JIN


La física de l'estany de Banyoles / X. Casamitjana ... [et al.]

Barcelona : Institut d'Estudis Catalans 2009

P 72H o CAS





Tianmu Shan zhi wu zhi = Flora of Tianmushan / zong zhu bian Ding Bingyang ... [et al.].

Hangzhou : Zhejiang Da Xue chu ban she, 2010.

581.9(51) DIN Q


Coastal phytoplankton : photo guide for Northern European seas / Alexandra Kraberg, Marcus Baumann & Claus-Dieter Dürselen

München : Pfeil, 2010.

ALGAE 582.25 KRA


Atlas de la flore du Morbihan : flore vasculaire / Gabriel Rivière.

Nantes ; Laval : Éd. Siloë, 2007.



Atlas de la flore du Finistère : flore vasculaire / Emmanuel Quéré... [et al.] ; avec la collaboration de Nicole Annézo... [et al.] et du réseau de correspondants du Conservatoire botanique national de Brest.

Nantes ; Laval : Ed. Siloë, 2008.






Aphids - Aphidinae (Macrosiphini) / Blackman, R. L.

St Albans : Royal Entomological Society, 2010

72Aa o HAN


Catalogue et atlas des coléoptères d'Alsace / Callot, Henry J

Strasbourg : Musee Zoologique de l'Universite et de la Ville de Strasbourg, 2011


Entomophages and their role in preserving the natural equilibrium / Mustată, Gheorghe

Iaşi, Universitâea Alexandru Ioan Cuza, 2008



Butterflies Fauna of Jinggangshan / Chen, Chunquan





General natural history


Islands and evolution / editors, Valentín Pérez-Mellado, Cori Ramon.

Maó : Institut d'Estudis Menorquí, 2010.

L 9E o ISL


The Country Life book of Britain's offshore islands / Michael Shea.

Richmond upon Thames, Surrey : Country Life Books, 1981.

L 72A o SHE





The understanding of animals / edited by Georgina Ferry.

Oxford : Blackwell, 1984.

Z 10 o UND


The taxonomy and distribution of lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) of the eastern Pacific Ocean / Robert L. Wisner.

Bay St. Louis : Navy Ocean Research and Development Activity ; [1974]



Feral wild boar in England; status, impact and management : a report on behalf of Defra European Wildlife Division / Charles J. Wilson.

Exeter : DEFRA, 2005.



The Library catalogue is available online at

If you wish to view these or any other items please contact the Library staff to arrange an appointment or 020 7942 5460




Turtle symposium,  October 17-18, 2009 : abstracts and program, Special publication of Royal Tyrrell Museum

Drumheller( Alberta, Canada) : Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, 2009

P 20e q BRA


Turtle symposium : field trip October 19, 2009 : field guide

Drumheller( Alberta, Canada) : Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, 2009

P 20e q BRA


Hydrogeologische Modelle Bedeutung des Hydrogeologischen a priori-Wissens

Stuttgart : Deutsche Hesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 2010

P 7 q HYD


Geology of the Faroe-Shetland Basin and adjacent areas / editors: J.D. Ritchie ... [et al.]

Keyworth, Nottingham : British Geological Survey, 2008.

P 72Ab/1 q RIT





Bryophyte systematics, phytodiversity, phytosociology and ecology : Festschrift in honour of Professor Dr. Harald Kürschner / edited by Wolfgang Frey.

Berlin : J. Cramer, 2010.



Chrysophytes, from fossil perspectives to molecular characterizations : proceedings of the Seventh International Chrysophyte Symposium, Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut, U.S.A., June 22-27, 2008 / ed. by James L. Wee, Peter A. Siver and Anne-Marie Lott.

Stuttgart : J. Cramer, 2010.



The Xerula/Oudemanseilla complex (Agaricales) / Ronald H. Petersen and Karen W. Hughes.

Stuttgart : J. Cramer in der Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, 2010.



Combretaceae / Clive A. Stace ; Terminalia and Buchenavia with Abdul-Ridha Alwan.

Bronx, NY : Published for the Organization for Flora Neotropica by the New York Botanical Garden Press, 2010.

581.9(7/8) OFN


Disterigma (Ericaceae:Vaccinieae) / Paola Pedraza-Peñalosa.

Bronx, NY : Published for the Organization for Flora Neotropica by the New York Botanical Garden Press, 2010.

581.9(7/8) OFN


Flora Yunnanica. Tomus 22, Indeces generales nominum sinensium, latinorum et plantarum utilium / Chen Shukun ... [et al.] ; Institutum Botanicum Kunmingense Academia Sinicae edita

Beijing : Science Press, 2010.

581.9(51) YUN Q


The hornwort and liverwort atlas of Romania / Sorin Stefanu*t

Bucuresti : Ars Docendi, 2008.




General Natural History


"RSPB reserves" for year 2010, compiled by Jo Gilbert and Malcolm Ausden

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

L 72A q RSP


Manual de bioespeleología : (con nuevas aportaciones de Morelos y Guerrero, Méx.) / A. Hoffmann, J. G. Palacios-Vargas, J. B. Morales-Malacara.

México : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1986.

L 75D q HOF





Identifying land snails and slugs in Canada : introduced species and native genera / by F. Wayne Grimm, [et al.] ..

Ottawa : Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2009.



Cuba, the landshells paradise / Tom Rice

Lleida : Greta Editores, 2008.



Morfologiia, sistematika, ekologiia shchetinkocheliustnykh Iaponskogo moria i sopredel'nykh akvatoriÄ­ (Morphology, taxonomy, ecology of Chaetognatha of the Japan Sea and adjacent water areas)

Vladivostok : Dalʹnauka, 2010



Katalog kollektsiĭ Zoologicheskogo muzeia NNPM NAN Ukrainy : Ptitsy Vyp. 4. Vorobʹinoobraznye - Passeriformes (Alaudidae, Motacillodae, Prunellidae, Sylviidae, Regulidae, Paridae, Remizidae, Sittidae, Tichodromadidae, Certhiidae, Aegithalidae, Passeridae, Emberizidae)

Kiev : ZoomuzeÄ­ NNPM NAN Ukrainy, 2008

Z 85A o PEK


New books added to the Library collection

18 April 2011




Staropaleozoický bázický vulkanizmus Západných Karpát : geochémia a geodynamická pozícia

Bratislava : Univerzita Komenského, 2009

P 72S q IVA


Fossil flora of China. Volume 1, Fossil plants from coal balls in China / Shijun Wang ... [et al.], Jinzhong Cui [editor?]

[Beijing] : Higher Education Press, 2009

P 50 q FOS


Fossil flora of China. Volume 2, Fossil Pteridophytes in China / Sun Keqin, Jinzhong Cui, Shijun Wang

Beijing : Higher Education Press, 2010

P 50 q FOS


Catálogo de fósseis Coleção Paleontológica do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Maria Inês Feijó Ramos... [et al.].

Belém; MPEG, 2009.

GM 069.5:56(81) MUS





Flora Armenii. 11, Poaceae / Akad. Nauk Armjan. SSR, Inst. Botaniki. Pod red. A. L. Tachtad*zjana.

Erevan : Izdat. Akad. Nauk Armjan. SSR, 2010.

581.9(580P4) BI


Flora of Maharashtra. Vol. 5 / by M.R. Almeida.

Mumbai : Publ. by Thomas Paul Almeida for Blatter Herbarium, 2009.

581.9(54) ALM Q


Plant diversity and conservation of the woodlots of Ifugao / Domingo A. Madulid.

Pasay City, Philippines : UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines, 2010.

502.7 MAD Q


Evaluation of native plant seeds and seeding in the east-side central Cascades ponderosa pine zone / Nan C. Vance.

Portland, OR : U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Pacific Northwest Research Station, [2010]

581.48 VAN Q


Evolution and biodiversity of the Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae) / Kent Kainulainen.

Stockholm : Department of Botany, Stockholm University, 2010.

582.4P84 KAI





Reti ir Saugomi / [Tekstas Eugenijaus Drobelio ir Mindaugo LapelÄ—s]

[Vilnius : Gamtos pasaulis], 2002

L 72Q o RET


The engaging museum : developing museums for visitor involvement / Graham Black.

London ; New York : Routledge, 2005.

L 84 o BLA


P.W. Lund og knokkelhulerne i Lagoa Santa / Birgitte Holten og Michael Sterll.

København : Statens Naturhistoriske Museum, Københavns Universitet, 2010.

L 96A o LUN





Interstratified clay minerals : origin, characterization and geochemical significance / S. Fiore, J. Cuadros, F. J. Huertas

Digilabs Publishers, 2010

553.61 INT





Crayfish conservation / D.M. Holdich,W.D. Rogers & J.P. Reader

Nottingham : University of Nottingham , 1995



European bison in Belarus / P.G. Kozlo, A.N. Bunevich

Minsk : Belaruskaia navuka, 2009



Letuchuie myshi Urala / V.N. Bol'shakov, V. P. Orlov, V. P. Snitko

Ekaterinburg : Izd-vo Akademkniga, 2005.



Ekologiia kustarnikovoÄ­ ulitki <Fruticicola fruticum> / D. V. ZeÄ­fert, I. M. Khokhutkin

Moskva : Tovarishchestvo nauchnykh izdaniÄ­ KMK , 2010.



The Library & Archives will be closed to visitors during the following times:


Friday 22nd April - Monday 25th April   (we re-open Tuesday 26th at 10.00)


Friday 29th April - Monday 2nd May     (we re-open Tuesday 3rd at 10.00)


Monday 30th May     (we re-open Tuesday 31st at 10.00)



We wish all our visitors an enjoyable holiday.



Detail of an interior terracotta panel from the Natural History Museum. Alfred Waterhouse (1830-1905) designed the Museum in the 1860's and it first opened its doors on Easter Monday 1881.

Image number: 029976


Megatherium, the skeleton of the giant sloth


It is always a pleasure when the Library has an opportunity to bring out some of the more unusual material from it's collections. We have just had a behind the scenes visit from the NHM Members, and on this occasion our largest piece of artwork was the centre of attention.

Megatherium by the artist George Johann Scharf (1788-1860) measures 2.46m x 5.7m. It was commissioned by Professor Richard Owen (1804-1892), the renowned comparative anatomist, zoologist, palaeontologist, lecturer and first superintendent of the Natural History Museum.



The giant ground sloth of South America had been known since the end of the 18th century. It existed during the Pleistocene, between 1.8 million and 11,000 years ago, and appears to have died out, not because of change in climate, but because of the actions of humans. It had long shaggy fur, foot long claws and long arms. It was huge - as big as an elephant, and was originally thought to be a quadruped. It was first described by the famous French comparative anatomist Baron Georges Cuvier in 1796, on the basis of drawings of a mounted skeleton sent to him from Madrid. This skeleton had been brought over from the Spanish colonies in South America in 1785. After that, the remains of this gigantic sloth were avidly sought after by museums all around the world.

The Natural History Museum (then part of the British Museum) purchased Megatherium material in 1845. It had been collected from Lujan, near Buenos Aires, in Argentina in 1837. Meanwhile, the Royal College of Surgeons had Megatherium bones in their collection from the bed of the Rio Salada, south of Buenos Aires.

The watercolour held in the Library collections is likely to have been produced for purely scientific purposes rather than for display. Putting down on paper a reconstruction, using the information they had at the time, would have facilitated further debate and discussion. The image is in two tones. It is believed that the sandy colour denotes those specimens that Owen had to work with at the time, and the grey areas show those parts of the animal that were missing, with therefore assumptions being made. It was originally in one piece



It was Richard Owen and Reverend Dr. William Buckland (1784-1856) who realised that it could not possibly have been a quadruped, that in fact it reared up on its massive legs, pulling down branches of trees to feed its great bulk. In 1849 plaster casts of bones from both collections were put together to form a composite skeleton. A small number of missing bones were modelled to fit: mainly ribs and vertebrae. The skeleton was mounted in the manner suggested by Owen and Buckland. The original Madrid specimen had been mounted on all fours like an elephant.

The huge cast of Megatherium is currently on display at the end of the NHM's Marine Fossil Reptiles gallery, and has been on constant display since the museum opened in 1881.


As a result of it's enormous size and delicate nature, we do not bring out this treasured piece of artwork very often. I would encourage you to become an NHM Member and to sign up for the array of events they offer.

For more information visit the Members section on the NHM website.


The Library will be closed for a stock audit.


Monday 14th - Friday 18th February 2011


We will reopen on Monday 21st February as usual.

Work for the new gallery is really gathering pace now and most recently Library staff along with one of our paper conservators have been condition reporting every piece that is to feature in the first rotation and undertaking any necessary preparatory work to ensure that the artwork can be displayed without causing any long term damage.
hinge removal small.jpg
Hinge removal
rehinging small.jpg
Re-hinging in progress
The main task that needed to be performed, particularly on the larger pieces, was the re-hinging of the artwork to their museum board mounts. For many of the drawings a “V”hinge had been used and whilst this type of hinge has the benefit of being an invisible hinge (i.e. you cannot see it from the front), in the longer term and particularly if the artwork is being displayed upright, it does have the potential to become loose because of the weight and size of the object and cause the original V-hinge to pull away from the board.
new hinges small.jpg
Completed new hinges
We therefore removed all such hinges and replaced them with “T” hinges of Japanese paper and adhered with wheat starch paste (as it is extremely important that any repairs or adjustments can be reversed without causing any damage in the future). Whilst a time consuming task, our efforts will certainly benefit the drawings and their preservation in the future.
Andrea Hart - Assistant Librarian
completed small.jpg
Completed artwork

Preparation is in full swing for a new travelling exhibition.


The Scott Exhibition opens first in Sydney's Australian National Maritime Museum in 17 June - 23 October 2011, it comes to the Natural History Museum during 14 January - 2 September 2012, then moves to the Canterbury Museum in New Zealand in 16 November 2012 - 30 June 2013.


For more information visit the NHM website


The Library is often used as the setting for interviews and this time it was the turn of Dr Max Jones Senior Lecturer at the University of Manchester. Such footage will form part of the exhibition.


615_0244_01 - reduced.jpg


The Library will be closed to visitors from 24th December 2010 - 3rd January 2011 (inclusive).


We will reopen as usual on Tuesday 4th January 2011.


May we take this opportunity to wish our readers a Happy Christmas and New Year.


We look forward to seeing you in 2011.



Erythacus rubecula, European robin by Henry Leonard Meyer (Image no. 041207)

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