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Antarctic conservation

225 Posts authored by: Conservators
2

A Guessing Game

Posted by Conservators Apr 15, 2013

Author: Stefanie

Date:  10th April 2013

Temperature:  -22.4° C

Wind Speed:  20/13 kts

Temp with wind chill: -34° C

Sunrise: 09:14

Sunset:16:31

 

I refer you to a blog written by conservator John in December 2011:

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/natureplus/community/antarctic-conservation/blog/2012/01/16/mystery-from-the-hut-of-captain-scott-at-cape-evans

John, who found an intriguing metal-sheet figurine at Cape Evans, describes the object's unusual features and asks his readers to suggest a solution to its mysterious function. The responding suggestions, which included a weather vane and tin opener, are problematic for several reasons and the mystery of the one legged figurine remains just that, a mystery.

 

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Mysterious Man: Metal sheet figurine with unknown function.

 

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Mysterious Man: Reverse side of figurine

 

The unresolved function and purpose of that curious metal figurine was recently revisited as the object came through the lab for conservation treatment. Each one of us pondered its purpose and after making no concrete conclusions, I made a card replica of the object to demonstrate the full functioning of the moveable leg and to aid tactile and visual understanding.

 

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Archaeologist Jennifer Danis ponders the function of the mysterious man.  Image taken by:  Zachary Anderson 2013

 

I presented the mystery at our Scott Base meeting and invited ideas, suggestions and resolutions from everyone. A guessing game began with some interesting results:

 

Jennifer Davis contemplates purpose of object.jpg

Jennifer uses card replica to help understand the object.  Image taken by Zachary Anderson 2013

 

Graeme, an engineer, concluded that the figurine is most likely a latch or clamp similar to one used for a chest or suitcase today. However, he also suggested that as the figurine is pressed with an especially shaped form, several shapes of the same figurine could have been cut to create a display or scene. This idea is promoted by Damian, the cook, who considers the object a puppet similar to a shadow puppet. Tim, the science technician, also thought the object a puppet, however after further consideration added that it may have been used as a measuring device. This corresponds to an idea presented by Colin, the carpenter, who suggests the object is similar to a current day pick-a-mood device, used as a tool to enable people to communicate their moods in stressful social interactions. Or perhaps this curious one legged, one armed man is as Stefan suggests, the result of Clissold's mechanical ingenuity. The case remains unsolved and the guessing game continues… 

       

        

 

   

 

 

    

 

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Graphic art in the lab

Posted by Conservators Apr 11, 2013

Author: Marie

Date: 08/04/13

Temperature: -16

Wind speed: 9 knots

Temp with wind chill: -24

Sunrise: 8:58am

Sunset: 4:49pm

 

 

Some artefacts just fascinate you. They take you back somewhere, sometime, straight away. They're appealing. The stationery we had last fortnight had this effect on me. The tray for the colours, the brush and the nib pen, just fill the area with some kind of poetic and artistic atmosphere. And I couldn't refrain from setting up this completely inaccurate reconstruction, for the picture and for the pleasure.

Painter atelier.jpg

The imaginary painter atelier in the conservation lab

 

 

Click the following link to see the real painter atelier in the hut. Historic image of Dr Wilson working on a sketch http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/library/pictures/catalogue/article/p2005.5.402/. May 19th 1911 Credit H. Ponting. SPRI ref : P2005/5/0402

 

I was also really curious about the nib pen. Could it be Scott’s one? Was it related to one of the diaries? Or maybe to some map, drawing, letters, furniture list or scientific notes? Hence, I started looking again on the historic images, and Lizzie sent me some close ups. So, I can tell now that it's probably not Scott's, neither Cherry's, nor Griff. But, it could be Gran's nib pen, even if I can't tell for sure. The exposure time was long enough for Gran to take a posture in the middle of an already written page and it seems that the handle has been slightly moving. Click the following link to see a picture of Gran holding a nib pen: http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/library/pictures/catalogue/article/p2005.5.399/ Credit H. Ponting. SPRI ref: P2005/5/0399.

 

That's probably the most interesting part of the job, going from the excitement of mystery to the pleasure of recognition. So, if someone can just tell me what's written on the page…

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Cook, my cook

Posted by Conservators Apr 4, 2013

Author: Marie

Date: 25/03/13

Temperature: - 32C

Wind speed: 15 knots

Temp with wind chill: -49C

Sunrise: 9am

Sunset: 9pm

 

 

If you have ever seen Dead Poets Society you would remember the boys shouting 'Captain, my captain'. The title of my blog is not a joke about Captain Cook, but rather an acknowledgement of the crucial role of a cook on an expedition.

 

For historic image of Thomas Clissold making pies in January 1912 see SPRI/ http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/library/pictures/

 

Shackleton, relating the Endurance's terrible journey, mentions the cook several times for his great ability to make everyones life better by combining seal fat with seal grease in the most lovely way (yes, they were badly starving).

Marie Pic 2.jpgThe cook making pies, March 2013 © AHT/Marie

 

The Terra Nova expedition cook, Thomas Clissold, was so brilliant that Scott wanted him to join the South Pole party! He was said to be the most inventive person, and he built many utensils and gadgets to make his work slightly easier (such as a mechanism to warn him when bread had risen enough in the oven). But Clissold broke a leg and stayed on Ross Island.

Marie Pic 3.jpgEnamel dish in the lab

 

Here and now, our cook Damian, is so important to everyday life, making a feast for morning tea, lunch, afternoon tea and dinner with limited supplies. He is also the main reason why we're going to the gym before dinner, as we need to fit into our clothes by the end of winter as badly as we need to eat some more chocolate cake. And to give an accurate idea of our wellness, I should add that Stef used to be a chef and Jaime is baking fresh bread on Sundays!

As I was conserving enamel dishes, covered with burnt sugar on the edges, I remembered Ponting's picture of the cook. And Damian was kind enough to make us a rhubarb pie for the occasion.

2

The Frozen Few

Posted by Conservators Apr 2, 2013

Author: Stefan

Date: 20/03/13

Temperature: -13.5C

Wind speed: 12 knotos

Temp with wind chill: -25C

Sunrise: N/A

Sunset: N/A

 

 

Not long ago we had a long weekend (two days), a rare treat on Scott Base, and we took the opportunity of getting out on a 'Fam trip'. Anything we do which could be considered dangerous has to be fully considered in every aspect … equipment, communications, health & safety, etc. Lex (our base mechanic) has a tremendous amount of experience with a multitude of heavy machinery and was able to organise a ski-doo trip out to "room with a view" (about 25km NW of Scott Base, up the Hut Point Peninsula).

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Jaime after a bumpy stint on a ski-doo © AHT/Stefan

 

Riding ski-doos is a tricky business. The flat light at this time in the season means it's difficult to see snow drifts, and as you're essentially raising your wind chill by however fast you're travelling, frost nip/bite becomes a very real threat if you're not 100% covered up. It was a brilliant day out, with great scenery and most importantly no injuries.

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Lex with the McMurdo 'Frozen Few' Chapter  © Lex

 

A great aspect to life in Antarctica is that you're surrounded by people who enjoy resurrecting important parts of their life from back home and creating them anew in the inhospitable climes of this harsh continent. A biker fraternity called 'The Frozen Few' (born on McMurdo, the US base) has decided to open up a Scott Base 'chapter'. Proudly Lex, Graeme and even AHT's very own Jaime are newly ordained 'pledges'. We're all very grateful to the guys, as without these efforts to create a diverse social life, our Antarctic experience would be much the poorer.

2

Stitching history

Posted by Conservators Mar 25, 2013

Author: Stefanie

Date: 20 March 2013

Temperature: -13.8

Wind speed: 50 / 12 knots

Temp with wind chill: -28C

Sunrise: 05:50

Sunset: 20:00

 

 

I smiled when I saw the sewing kit that we were issued with when receiving our extreme cold weather gear in Christchurch. The kit being quite basic and wrapped in fabric reminded me of a time long past, a time when each member of Scott's team was responsible for caring for and repairing their own gear and clothing.

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Mittens, from Terra Nova hut, with several historic repairs

 

Now as the last plane has left us for the winter and we must make do with whatever supplies, equipment and gear we have, that sewing kit has become a little more vital and our connection to the past habits of Scott and his men enhanced.

Mike from Field Support.jpg

Mike, from Field support, making his mark by repairing a tent

 

While conserving some items of clothing from Scott's Terra Nova Hut, I noticed the remarkable repairs made over and over again to the same areas in mittens and several socks. These repairs not only tell of how the items were used, worn and torn, but also convey how much care was taken to wonderfully patch, stitch and darn clothing. 

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Trans-Antarctic Expedition: George Marsh sewing a tent. Unknown Photographer. TAE 865:1956/1958

 

On Scott Base, we also take great care to repair, recycle and reuse as much as possible, including clothing. Field support have been repairing and maintaining the tents for years. As they continue to make these repairs they are also developing a pattern of historic stitches that is not unlike those found in the mittens most recently conserved.

1

Peace at last

Posted by Conservators Mar 20, 2013

Author: Jaime

Temperature: -15C

Wind speed: 10 knots

Sunrise: N/A

Sunset: N/A

 

 

With departure of the last flight last Saturday, we are finally alone here and after the frantic activity of recent weeks, a real sense of calm has overtaken both Scott Base and Mc Murdo.

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Ship offload at McMurdo © AHT/Jaime

 

A year's supply of fuel has been delivered, enough for both of the bases here, and the US base at the South Pole. The container ship was here for well over a week, off-loading food and equipment 24 hours a day, and finally departing loaded with unwanted waste, materials and vehicles. There has also been a huge exodus of personnel as science events depart and the additional staff needed to keep the bases running during this time, return home.

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Spot the departing plane © AHT/Jaime

 

So now, with just 145 people over at Mc Murdo and 15 here, it is all over until the end of August, when the whole process will begin again. We all gathered outside and toasted the departing plane, as it lifted off the ice in a cloud of blown snow, turned to make a farewell pass over the base and disappeared north to the real world.

2

Author: Sue

Temperature: -14 degrees

Wind Speed: 0

Temp with wind chill: -14 degrees

Sunrise: 05:50

Sunset: 20:12

 

 

Last Friday was a day like any other for us in the lab at Scott Base. A crate of frozen objects from Scott's Terra Nova hut had just thawed and I selected one for treatment. In this case, it was a wooden-backed bristle brush for grooming the expedition's ponies – ponies Scott intended to use in his 1912 dash to the South Pole. Hailing from Vladivostok, they were all white or dappled grey and numbered nineteen, but didn't fare well and were soon down to ten—Bones, Chinaman, Christopher, James Pigg, Jehu, Michael, Nobby, Snatcher, Snippets and Victor.

 

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Lawrence Oates with ponies at Terra Nova hut May 26th 1911 © H. Ponting SPRI ref: P2005/5/0459

 

Not only was the grooming brush well-worn from much use, it held a tangle of pale hairs and released a surprisingly pungent and pervasive odour of horse and manure, as if it had just been used. I commented on this to my Irish colleague, Stefanie, before our conversation turned back to our plans for St Patrick's Day celebration ... 17 March.

 

But my thoughts soon wandered to the expert horseman who was in charge of the Terra Nova expedition's ponies, a certain Captain Lawrence Oates. For Oates, 17 March, St Patrick's Day, was his birthday. And, tragically, it was also almost certainly the day he died, on his thirty-second, in Antarctica, 101 years ago. Oates is famous as the member of Scott's Polar Party who, ravaged by frostbite, scurvy, malnutrition and the effects of a war wound, self-sacrificed by walking out of the party's tent in a blizzard with the words "I'm just going outside and may be some time" in the hope it would enable the other team members—Scott, Bowers and Wilson—to survive the return journey from the Pole. Sadly it didn't … they all perished some twelve or so days later and Oates’ body was never found.

 

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Pony grooming brush from Scott's Terra Nova expedition

 

And so this 17 March, as Scott Base celebrates St Patrick's Day 2013, we also salute a true gentleman of the heroic era and a man of remarkable bravery, loyalty and gallantry … Captain Lawrence Edward Grace ('Titus') Oates (17 March 1880 – 17 March 1912).

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Author: Stefanie

Date: 6 March 2013

Temperature: -24C

Wind Speed: 30 / 12 knots

Temp with wind chill: -35C

Sunrise: 04:54

Sunset: 21:10

 

 

In preparation for the winter's extreme cold and darkness, we have moved the conservation laboratory from the summer container into the science preparation areas in the Hillary Field Center (HFC) which is inside Scott Base. This space, which is usually occupied by scientists carrying our research during the summer, is an ideal space for any conservation laboratory. It is very spacious and well equipped with good lighting, benches, chemical storage cupboards, sink and computer. This, in addition to our documentation and conservation equipment, materials and chemicals makes up our new work space. 

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Marie and Stefan in the recenetly installed winter lab

 

As the summer-winter lab transformation occurs every year at winter and back again at summer, all of the conservation lab equipment, materials and chemicals are stored in a very orderly fashion in labeled white crates. Therefore our move from the Antarctic Heritage Trust container to the science preparation area in the HFC was very swift.

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Stefan, Sue, Jaime and Marie working in the winter lab

 

As Sue and Marie packed and moved white crates from the summer container into the HFC, Stefan and I cleaned and prepared our new winter lab. Benches were layered with absorbent tissue and polyethylene sheets, the microscope was mounted, crates were allocated new homes under the benches, a photographic and documentation area was set up and chemicals stored in their designated chemical cupboards. And then in came the fume cabinet, which was kindly installed by the engineers. We are now set for the winter.

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Staying Alive

Posted by Conservators Mar 11, 2013

Author: Sue

Date: 24 February 2013

Temperature: -5 C

Wind Speed:  5 knots

Temp with wind chill: -9 C

Sunrise: 23:51

Sunset: 04:10

 

 

Anyone spending time in Antarctica needs to learn how to live and work safely and how to survive in the harsh environment … and that includes conservators! Taking part in Antarctic Field Skills training is a basic and early part of the induction process following arrival on the ice, and the five members of the AHT Winter Team headed out overnight with the other ten people who will winter-over at Scott Base this year.

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Setting up camp below Mt Erebus

 

The field skills training involved an introduction to Antarctica New Zealand's zero-harm philosophy, applying its risk assessment process, and learning the protocols surrounding the Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs which the heroic-era huts come under). And then there was understanding how to effectively use our many layers of supplied clothing, what is found in a 'survival bag' (such as a shelter and dehydrated meals) and how to use it, polar-tent pitching (using tents of much the same design as those used by the heroic-era explorers), sleep-kit construction for different conditions, stove lighting, toileting and waste management, and communications planning and procedures. All very useful and necessary skills.

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Base engineer Dave barbequing, Antarctic style

 

We were fortunate to have spectacular weather, and for those of us who are new to this, no darkness, allowing us to find our way in and out of our tents and multi-layered sleeping kits successfully! We also picked up some useful tips from old hands on barbequing Antarctic style, keeping drinks off the freeze, and frisbee-playing in deep snow, with gloves. A fun trip!

polar tents.jpg

Polar Tents

1

Sun setting, or rising

Posted by Conservators Mar 7, 2013

Author: Marie-Amande

Date: 6 March 2013

Temperature: -25C

Wind Speed: 15 knots

Temp with wind chill: -35C

Sunrise: Everlasting

Sunset: Everlasting

 

 

Antoine de Saint Exupery was a French pioneer aviator and writer who travelled worldwide and disappeared at sea in a plane crash in 1944. Due to the discovery of his identity bracelet ('gourmette') nearby in 1998, his aircraft has been located and excavated. The recovery and exhibition of these artefacts are not without connection to the work we are doing at Scott Base on artefacts from Antarctica's first explorers.

 

But the real connection for me is Saint Ex' famous novel The Little Prince. The Little Prince comes from a very very small planet, so small that he only needs to move his chair to see the sun set or rise.

 

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Sun setting, or rising

 

We are actually living on a similar tiny planet named Scott Base. The sun, which started setting on 20 February, is currently curving so low in the sky that it seems to be everlasting sunset or sunrise. We just have to change windows to see orange and gold colours floating around Black and White Islands in the morning, surrounding Mount Erebus' summit at lunch, lying on the Dry Valley Mountains after dinner, and finally hiding for a few minutes at midnight.

 

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Sun setting, or rising

 

Should I say that The Little Prince is about exploration and explorers, about leaving and missing home, about experience and knowledge? There are many more connections to make.  To understand why we should consider snow drifts behind the doors as baobabs, I invite you to read the novel or to attend my French class every Friday evening at Scott Base.

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Author: Marie-Amande

Date: 11 February 2013

Temperature: -12C

Wind speed: 12 knots

 

 

Regular readers may already know that Antarctic Heritage Trust conservators have two 'labs' (or laboratories) at Scott Base, a summer one and a winter one. The summer one is small and in a container outside the main building. Luckily, in winter, the base gets pretty empty and Scott Base staff let us enjoy a very spacious lab inside the base. We will move into the lab once all ship fuel and cargo offloads for the winter season, as they use the space as a temporary staging post. But we were all so excited to start working that we set up a temporary lab inside while two of us began work in the 'summer' lab.

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Stefanie starts work in the conservator's cage's dust cabinet

 

Adjacent to the winter lab is a storage area divided into compartments, by wire fences (each about 8sqm). Jaime, our carpenter conservator, had already planned to have his workshop in one of these 'cages', and we just followed his idea. As the summer scientists left the base, we requested the cages: one for the photography area, one to work in … and so on. We transformed the shelves into benches and, to be really clean in an area that wasn't already ours, we built up a very basic dust cabinet. With several kinds of plastic sheet we made an enclosed area with a window and access holes for our hands and the Dremel, a drill-like tool we use to mechanically remove corrosion from metal artefacts. So, here we are, hands in the cage's cage!

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Jaime has set up his workshop for the season

 

The cages are actually really convenient to isolate the different task areas. When the two people still working in the summer lab join us in the freshly installed winter lab, I'm pretty sure we'll try to keep some of our lovely cages as they are. But we'll let you know …

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Scott Base remembers ....

Posted by Conservators Feb 28, 2013

Author: Sue

Date: 24 February 2013

Temperature: -5 Degrees C

Wind Speed: None

Sunrise: 23:51

Sunset: 04:10

 

 

Last week marked the second anniversary of the devastating earthquake that struck Christchurch, claiming 185 lives and leaving much of the city in ruins. Since then more than 11,000 aftershocks have shaken the city and its people, and much of the CBD has been cleared.

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Marble statue of Captain Robert Falcon Scott following the earthquake (source: http://twitpic.com/458e6g)


Among the many monuments and buildings damaged in the 6.3-magnitude quake was the heritage-listed marble statue of Captain Robert Falcon Scott in Worcester Boulevard (a replica of Kathleen Scott's 1915 bronze statue of Scott in London's Waterloo Place). The marble statue, also sculpted by Scott's widow, Kathleen, and unveiled in 1917, toppled from its plinth and was broken in several places. It is currently on display in its broken state in Christchurch's Canterbury Museum  as part of  the major international touring exhibition Scott's Last Expedition, which tells the epic and tragic story of Scott's Terra Nova Expedition to the South Pole.

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Members of the outgoing summer team pay tribute to Christchurch with a road cone & flowers*


Christchurch, as New Zealand's gateway to Antarctica, is close to the hearts of all and home to many currently at Scott Base. On 22 February the base paid tribute to those who lost their lives and to the strength, fortitude and resilience of those who survived and are rebuilding their lives, homes and businesses. KIA KAHA Christchurch!

 

 

*Photo note: Due to their prevalence on Christchurch's street, the road cone has become an informal symbol for the earthquakes and the city's rebuild.

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All work and no play ...

Posted by Conservators Feb 21, 2013

Author: Jaime

Date: 10 February 2013

Temperature: -15C

Wind Speed: 5 knots

Temp with wind chill: -21C

Sunrise: Always

Sunset: Never

 

Since arriving Antarctica the winter team has been immersed in the intricacies of life at Scott Base, learning about new people, places and processes, and at the same time beginning our winter conservation programme. It can be a world of baffling acronyms, but eventually you do understand the true meaning of AHT having AFT briefings in the HFC.  (Antarctic Heritage Trust having Antarctic Field Training in the Hillary Field Centre).

 

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Huge crowds at the ski field © AHT/Jaime

 

Thankfully there is also time to relax and to join the season’s last trip to the Scott Base ski field, a simple rope tow emerging from the inevitable green shipping container and running up the same hillside where Scott's men learnt to ski over a century ago. It was a huge treat to be skiing with both great snow and stunning views across the vast ice shelf to the distant mountains. We made our final descent from Castle Rock and headed home in the warmth of the Hagglund with plans for our next day out. A skidoo ride possibly or a trip down a crevasse. Not literally of course.

 

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Sue plans our next excursion © AHT/Jaime

1

Matchstick Men

Posted by Conservators Feb 19, 2013

Author: Stefan

Date: 13 February 2013

Temperature: -15.6

Wind Speed: 16 knots

Temp with wind chill: -34C

Sunrise: N/A

Sunset: N/A

 

 

Although from Manchester (no, I’m not homesick yet or about to wax lyrical about the paintings of LS Lowry as the title might suggest), my focus is upon the amazing photography of Herbert Ponting (Terra Nova Expedition), and in addition the amazing brain of my fellow conservator Jaime. Back in Christchurch (before we came to the Ice) we had the chance to visit Scott’s Last Expedition http://www.canterburymuseum.com/ an exhibition featuring some fascinating artefacts; it even includes a fantastic recreation of the the Cape Evans hut. As we were strolling around Jaime drew my attention to a brilliant, but seemingly innocuous, Ponting image of the hut’s southern aspect.

 

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Monnlight photograph of the Winterquaters Hut and camp with Mount Erebus in the background.  June 13th 1911.

 

© Herbert Ponting

 

Jamie explained that in using this particular image, in a previous season on the Ice, to accurately restore elements of the hut’s exterior, he had noticed certain elements of the photograph appeared ghostly and translucent. In realising Ponting had used an incredibly long exposure (lit by the moonlight), Jamie began to pick through the image and see many happenings that both arrive and disappear in the frame. The spookiest of these transitions is a dark figure who can be tracked lighting a cigarette/pipe in the doorway, walking to the left of the shot, dropping the match, and then inhaling (illuminating an intense white line, as the figure walks to the sea ice).

 

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Matches ready for conservation. © AHT/Marie-Amande

 

This project has a funny way of marrying everything up, and with Marie-Amande currently conserving a small tin of matches, you get a very clear perception of how deeply woven in history some objects can be.

2

Author: Stefanie

Date: 11 February 2013

Temperature: -16C

Wind speed: 10 knots

Sunrise: N/A

Sunset: N/A

 

 

We are an international team of five conservators that met for the first time only a few weeks ago. Since meeting, we have had the opportunity to get to know one another while preparing for this season's conservation project and for a winter on the ice.  It is my pleasure to introduce you to the conservation team currently working in the Antarctic:

 

team in lab.jpg

Jaime, Sue, Stefan, Stefanie and Marie in the lab.

 

Sue Bassett, from Australia, is our lead conservator. Sue specialies in objects conservation and has over 25 years' experience working in management and object conservation in museum and archaeological environments.

 

Stefan Strittmatter, a metals and stone conservator from England, joins the team for his second winter on the ice. Stefan has experience in the conservation of materials in outdoor environments as well as in the conservation of artefacts from Scott's Hut at Cape Evans.

 

Jaime Ward, from Scotland, is the team's carpenter and timber conservator. Having summered over twice before on the ice, Jaime has experience in the restoration of the fabric of the historic huts at Cape Evans and Cape Royds as well as on the conservation of wooden artefacts from inside and outside the huts. 

 

Marie-Amande Coignard from France, specialises in the conservation of archaeological objects and has experience working with materials from marine environments.

 

I am Stefanie White, an objects conservator from Ireland. I am delighted to be part of the winter conservation team. Together the five of us are embarking on the conservation of over 1500 objects from Scott's Hut at Cape Evans.

team at royds.jpg

Stefanie, Marie, Jaime, Sue and Stefan at Cape Royds.

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