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Palaeontology Department Seminar

 

Hunting down Quaternary mammals on Eastern Mediterranean islands: surveying Crete for seven years

Dr. George Iliopoulos

Department of Geology

University of Patras

 

Thursday 9th February
Neil Chalmers Seminar Room, DC2, NHM

16:00 - 17:00

 

 

In 1745, Pococke reported the first fossil bone findings from Crete Island, discovered in the Agios Georgios Cave (Akrotiri peninsula) in Western Crete. For more than 250 years the island has been widely acknowledged as an important and popular place for the study of endemic island faunas. All these years, several workers have surveyed the island, discovering tens of fossiliferous Pleistocene localities. Until 2000, 75 mammal localities had been reported from the island. In the last 12 years 37 new localities have been discovered, raising the number of known localities to 112. The vast majority of these localities were discovered by systematic surveying on the Island by the Palaeontology group of the Natural History Museum of Crete. We employed caving and climbing techniques to access deep potholes and rocky cliffs and getting ‘extreme’ helped us discover new localities. Fossiliferous localities were discovered on southern and mountainous areas of Central Crete, where there were no previous reports. The new localities brought new findings such as the new Middle Pleistocene deer from Katharo plato and a Middle Pleistocene otter from Cape Malekas. Therefore, new localities provide new data and thus the Quaternary history of the Island needs to be reviewed and rewritten.

 

 

For additional details on attending this or other seminars see http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/seminars-events/index.html

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Palaeontology Department Seminar

 

Microbialites & environmental change at the Permian-Triassic boundary:  past & future?

Dr. Stephen Kerhsaw,

Institute for the Environment, Brunel University

 

Thursday 2nd February
Neil Chalmers Seminar Room, DC2,  NHM

16:00 - 17:00

 

 

Permian–Triassic boundary microbialites (PTBMs) are thin (0.05–15 m) carbonates formed after the end- Permian mass extinction. They comprise Renalcis-group calcimicrobes, microbially mediated micrite, presumed inorganic micrite, calcite cement, and shelly faunas. PTBMs are abundant in low-latitude shallow-marine carbonate shelves in central Tethyan continents but are rare in higher latitudes, likely inhibited by clastic supply on Pangaea margins. PTBMs occupied broadly similar environments to Late Permian reefs in Tethys, but extended into deeper waters. Late Permian reefs are also rich in microbes (and cements), so post-extinction seawater carbonate saturation was likely similar to the Late Permian. However, PTBMs lack widespread abundant inorganic carbonate cement fans, so a previous interpretation that anoxic bicarbonate-rich water upwelled to rapidly increase carbonate saturation of shallow seawater, post-extinction, is problematic. Preliminary pyrite framboid evidence shows anoxia in PTBM facies, but interbedded shelly faunas indicate oxygenated water, perhaps there was short-term pulsing of normally saturated anoxic water from the oxygen-minimum zone to surface waters. In Tethys, PTBMs show geographic variations: (i) in south China, PTBMs are mostly thrombolites in open shelf settings, largely recrystallised, with remnant structure of Renalcis-group calcimicrobes; (ii) in south Turkey, in shallow waters, stromatolites and thrombolites, lacking calcimicrobes, are interbedded, likely depth-controlled; and (iii) in the Middle East, especially Iran, stromatolites and thrombolites occur in different sites on open shelves, where controls are unclear. Thus, PTBMs were under more complex control than previously portrayed, with local facies control playing a significant role in their structure and composition.

 

 

For additional details on attending this or other seminars see http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/seminars-events/index.html

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Recent NHM Research Publications

Posted by C Lowry Jan 24, 2012

Publications for last 4 weeks (Search done on 12th January.)

 

(Search on the basis of ‘Nat SAME Hist SAME Mus* SAME Lon*
Web of Science)


BOTANY

 

Davis, A.P., TOSH, J., Ruch, N. & Fay, M.F. 2011. Growing coffee: Psilanthus (Rubiaceae) subsumed on the basis of molecular and morphological data; implications for the size, morphology, distribution and evolutionary history of Coffea. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 167(4): 357-377.  [Externally funded]

 

Fiz-Palacios, O., SCHNEIDER, H., Heinrichs, J. & Savolainen, V. 2011. Diversification of land plants: insights from a family-level phylogenetic analysis. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11.  [Core funded]


GUEIDAN, C., THUS, H. & Perez-Ortega, S. 2011. Phylogenetic position of the brown algae-associated lichenized fungus Verrucaria tavaresiae (Verrucariaceae). Bryologist, 114(3): 563-569.  [Core funded]

 

HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 2011. Biodiversity and conservation of insects and other invertebrates. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20(13): 2863-2866.  [Scientific Associate]

 

KNAPP, S., McNeill, J. & Turland, N.J. 2011. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourneuwhat does e-publication mean for you? Cladistics, 27(6): 653-656.  [Core funded]

 

Souffreau, C., Verbruggen, H., Wolfe, A.P., Vanormelingen, P., Siver, P.A., COX, E.J., Mann, D.G., Van de Vijver, B., Sabbe, K. & Vyverman, W. 2011. A time-calibrated multi-gene phylogeny of the diatom genus Pinnularia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 61(3): 866-879.  [Core funded/Scientific Associate]

 

Wei, Y.G., MONRO, A.K. & Wang, W.T. 2011. Additions to the Flora of China: seven new species of Elatostema (Urticaceae) from the karst landscapes of Guangxi and Yunnan. Phytotaxa, 29: 1-27.  [Core funded]

 

ENTOMOLOGY

 

BLACKMAN, R.L., Sorin, M. & Miyazaki, M. 2011. Sexual morphs and colour variants of Aphis (formerly Toxoptera) odinae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Japan. Zootaxa(3110): 53-60.  [Scientific Associate]

 

Castillo, C., Saaksjarvi, I.E., Bennett, A.M.R. & BROAD, G.R. 2011. First record of Acaenitinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from South America with description of a new species and a key to the world species of Arotes Gravenhorst. Zookeys(137): 77-88.  [Core funded]

 

KUHLMANN, M., Gess, F.W., Koch, F. & Gess, S.K. 2011. Southern African osmiine bees: taxonomic notes, two new species, a key to Wainia, and biological observations (Hymenoptera: Anthophila: Megachilidae). Zootaxa(3108): 1-24.  [Core funded]

 

Sorokina, V.S. & PONT, A.C. 2011. Fanniidae and Muscidae (Insecta, Diptera) associated with burrows of the Altai Mountains Marmot (Marmota baibacina baibacina Kastschenko, 1899) in Siberia, with the description of new species. Zootaxa(3118): 31-44.  [Scientific Associate]

 

MINERALOGY

 

KNIGHT, K.S. 2011. Structural and thermoelastic study of the protonic conducting perovskite SrCe(0.95)Yb(0.05)O(xi) (xi similar to 3) between 373 K and 1273 K. Journal of Electroceramics, 27(3-4): 143-153.  [Scientific Associate]

 

McKeown, N.K., Bishop, J.L., CUADROS, J., Hillier, S., Amador, E., Makarewicz, H.D., Parente, M. & Silver, E.A. 2011. Interpretation of reflectance spectra of clay mineral-silica mixtures: implications for Martian clay mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis. Clays and Clay Minerals, 59(4): 400-415.  [Core funded]

 

STEELE, R.C.J., Elliott, T., Coath, C.D. & Regelous, M. 2011. Confirmation of mass-independent Ni isotopic variability in iron meteorites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(24): 7906-7925.  [PhD student]

 

PALAEONTOLOGY

 

Hutchinson, J.R., DELMER, C., Miller, C.E., Hildebrandt, T., Pitsillides, A.A. & Boyde, A. 2011. From Flat Foot to Fat Foot: Structure, Ontogeny, Function, and Evolution of Elephant "Sixth Toes". Science, 334(6063): 1699-1703.  [Core funded]

 

Nitsch, E.K., HUMPHREY, L.T. & Hedges, R.E.M. 2011. Using Stable Isotope Analysis to Examine the Effect of Economic Change on Breastfeeding Practices in Spitalfields, London, UK. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 146(4): 619-628.  [Core funded]

 

Paterson, J.R., Garcia-Bellido, D.C., Lee, M.S.Y., Brock, G.A., Jago, J.B. & EDGECOMBE, G.D. 2011. Acute vision in the giant Cambrian predator Anomalocaris and the origin of compound eyes. Nature, 480(7376): 237-240.  [Core funded]

 

TAYLOR, P.D. & Zagorsek, K. 2011. Operculate cyclostome bryozoans (Eleidae) from the Bohemian Cretaceous. Palaeontologische Zeitschrift, 85(4): 407-432.  [Core funded]

 

Waisfeld, B.G., Vaccari, N.E., EDGECOMBE, G.D. & Chatterton, B.D.E. 2011. The upper ordovician trinucleid trilobite bancroftolithus from the Precordillera of Argentina. Journal of Paleontology, 85(6): 1160-1180.  [Core funded]

 

ZOOLOGY

 

Bohlen, J., Slechtova, V., Tan, H.H. & BRITZ, R. 2011. Phylogeny of the Southeast Asian freshwater fish genus Pangio (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 61(3): 854-865.  [Core funded]

 

Breure, A.S.H. & ABLETT, J.D. 2011. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London. Zookeys(138): 1-52.  [Core funded]

 

Fan, X.P., Lin, X.F., Al-Rasheid, K.A.S., Al-Farraj, S.A., WARREN, A. & Song, W.B. 2011. The Diversity of Scuticociliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora): a Report on Eight Marine Forms Found in Coastal Waters of China, with a Description of One New Species. Acta Protozoologica, 50(3): 219-234.  [Core funded]

 

HAYES, P.M., Wertheim, D.F., Smit, N.J., Seddon, A.M. & Davies, A.J. 2011. Three-dimensional visualisation of developmental stages of an apicomplexan fish blood parasite in its invertebrate host. Parasites & Vectors, 4.  [Core funded?]

 

HIGGS, N.D., GLOVER, A.G., Dahlgren, T.G. & Little, C.T.S. 2011. Bone-Boring Worms: Characterizing the Morphology, Rate, and Method of Bioerosion by Osedax mucofloris (Annelida, Siboglinidae). Biological Bulletin, 221(3): 307-316.  [PhD student, Core funded]

 

MORTON, B. & Dinesen, G.E. 2011. The biology and functional morphology of Modiolarca subpicta (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: Musculinae), epizoically symbiotic with Ascidiella aspersa (Urochordata: Ascidiacea), from the Kattegat, northern Jutland, Denmark. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 91(8): 1637-1649.  [Scientific Associate]

 

MORTON, B., Peharda, M. & Petric, M. 2011. Functional morphology of Rocellaria dubia (Bivalvia: Gastrochaenidae) with new interpretations of crypt formation and adventitious tube construction, and a discussion of evolution within the family. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104(4): 786-804.  [Scientific Associate]

 

Qin, Y.H., Qiu, Z.J., Shao, C., WARREN, A. & Shen, Z. 2011. Morphological Redescription and Morphogenesis of Urosoma macrostyla (Wrzesniowski, 1866) Berger, 1999 (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). Acta Protozoologica, 50(3): 163-174.  [Core funded]

 

RIDDIFORD, N. & OLSON, P.D. 2011. Wnt gene loss in flatworms. Development Genes and Evolution, 221(4): 187-197.  [Unknown & Core funded]

 

Rijsdijk, K.F., Zinke, J., de Louw, P.G.B., HUME, J.P., van der Plicht, H., Hooghiemstra, H., Meijer, H.J.M., Vonhof, H.B., Porch, N., Florens, F.B.V., Baider, C., van Geel, B., Brinkkemper, J., Vernimmen, T. & Janoo, A. 2011. Mid-Holocene (4200 kyr BP) mass mortalities in Mauritius (Mascarenes): Insular vertebrates resilient to climatic extremes but vulnerable to human impact. Holocene, 21(8): 1179-1194.  [Externally funded?]

 

Ronowicz, M., Wiodarska-Kowalczuk, M. & KUKLINSKI, P. 2011. Patterns of hydroid (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) species richness and distribution in an Arctic glaciated fjord. Polar Biology, 34(10): 1437-1445.  [Scientific Associate]

 

Xu, Y., Esaulov, A., Lin, X.F., Mazei, Y., HU, X.Z., Al-Rasheid, K.A.S. & WARREN, A. 2011. Morphological Studies on Five Trachelocercids from the Yellow Sea Coast of China, with a Description of Tracheloraphis huangi spec. nov (Ciliophora, Karyorelictea). Acta Protozoologica, 50(3): 205-218.  [Externally funded, Core funded]

 

Xu, Y., Li, J.M., Gao, F., HU, X.Z. & Al-Rasheid, K.A.S. 2011. Apotrachelocerca arenicola (Kahl, 1933) n. g., comb. n. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Trachelocercidae): Morphology and Phylogeny. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 58(6): 504-510.  [Externally funded]

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Botany Department Seminar

 

Capturing the aliens

Jane Pottas and Juliet Brody

Department of Botany, NHM

 

18 January 2012

Neil Chalmers Seminar Room, DC2, NHM.

11:30-12:30

 

Using herbarium specimens to track the arrival and spread of non-native seaweeds.


.

For additional details on attending this or other seminars see http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/seminars-events/index.html

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Palaeontology Department Seminar

 

Taking a bite out of jawed vertebrate origins

 

Dr. Matt Friedman,

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford

 

Thursday 19th January
Neil Chalmers Seminar Room, DC2, NHM

16:00-17:00

 

 

Jawed vertebrates, collectively called gnathostomes, include over 99 percent of all living species of animals with backbones. How did gnathostomes come to be, and how can we account for their astonishing evolutionary success, particularly in comparison to their jawless cousins, the agnathans? Over the past two decades, a series of fossil discoveries and novel analytical approaches have revealed important clues bearing on the evolutionary assembly of modern jawed vertebrates, but outstanding questions remain. Particularly significant is the origin of the skull architecture common to all jawed vertebrates, which differs substantially from that of any agnathan. Old fossils are beginning to yield some of their long-hidden secrets, helping to bridge some of the major gaps in our understanding of early gnathostome evolution. More insights come from the study of living fishes, which has revealed new ways of quantifying the functional and ecological significance of contrasting morphologies.

Applying these methods to ancient gnathostomes provides a fresh perspective on their initial evolutionary radiation, with important implications for understanding the shift from a world dominated by jawless fishes to one dominated by jawed vertebrates.

 

  

 

For additional details on attending this or other seminars see http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/seminars-events/index.html

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Different ideas of the relationship between the crustacea (crabs, barnacles, copepods and others) and insects have been discussed at length over the past century. The emergence of more and better DNA information is allowing the evolutionary relationships to be explored and clarified.


Ronald Jenner (Zoology) co-authored a first phylogenomic test of the recent hypothesis of a sister group relationship between hexapods (insects) and remipede crustaceans. Numerous data and testing of different interpretations led the authors to robustly find hexapods and remipedes as sister groups.


Remipede crustaceans were first described as Carboniferous fossils in the 1950s (around 310 million years old).  However, living species have been discovered since 1979, living only in underground aquifers connected to the sea. They are slow-moving with relatively basic segmented body plans, but can have specialised characteristics such as poison fangs and advanced sense of scent, important for securing prey in their unusual habitat.

 

NaturalHistoryMuseum_014472_Comp.JPG

A Remipede from Mexico

 

The paper looks at the idea of the Pancrustacea - a large group containing both crustaceans and insects.  The data support the idea that the Pancrustacea can be divided into two major groups.  In the first are the marine decapods (crabs, prawns and lobsters), barnacles and copepods.  In the second group are found the freshwater Branchiopoda (such as the familar waterflea Daphnia), the Remipedes and the insects.  This supports the insects as a part of the Pancrustacea, possibly as part of a subgroup that moved from shallow marine environments to specialist freshwater, groundwater and terrestrial habitats.

.


von Reumont, B. M., Jenner, R. A., Wills, M. A., Dell’Ampio, E., Pass, G., Ebersberger, I., Meyer, B., Koenemann, S., Iliffe, T. M., Stamatakis, A., Niehuis, O., Meusemann, K. and Misof, B. Early online. Pancrustacean phylogeny in the light of new phylogenomic data: support for Remipedia as the sister group of Hexapoda. Molecular Biology and Evolution (doi:10.1093/molbev/msr270)  Abstract

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Collection Management Seminar


Can we keep this?  Access & Benefit-Sharing: permits, problems and processes in managing collections and research.

 

Dr Chris Lyal

Department of Entomology

NHM

Thursday 26th January 2012

Flett Lecture Theatre, NHM, South Kensington

2.30pm-4.00pm

 

 

Synopsis:
In October last year the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) agreed the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS), formalising policy agreements that have been in place for nearly two decades.   The Protocol potentially affects the work of all scientific staff in the Museum, since it provides a framework for requirements in collecting and research permits, including what we can and cannot do with specimens, who we can lend them to, and what we might have to provide to the country where the specimens come from. The Museum, together with other collection-holding institutions, is developing a response that aims to protect our work and our staff, while ensuring that we can meet obligations agreed to in permits and other agreements.  Chris has been involved in negotiation on ABS and will discuss the policy, its implications for us and how the Museum might change its policies and processes.  This is an opportunity to explore how the Protocol might affect how we manage biological collections across the Museum, and suggesting how we might respond.

 

There is no booking fee and only large parties need to notify the organiser for catering purposes.

 


Tea and coffee will be available in the seminar room lobby area after the talk.

 

Suggestions for seminar speakers are always most welcome. Please contact the organiser Clare Valentine (c.valentine@nhm.ac.uk)

 

For additional details on attending this or other seminars see http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/seminars-events/index.html

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Bryozoans are widespread aquatic colonial animals living both in the sea (sea mats) and fresh waters, with an extensive marine fossil record over almost 500 million years. Collaborating research groups in the NHM Departments of Zoology and Palaeontology represent arguably the strongest concentration of bryozoan research expertise anywhere in the world.

 

NaturalHistoryMuseum_026159_IA.jpg

 

Wilbertopora woodwardi (Brydone) from the Upper Cretaceous Chalk, Hampshire

 

Andrea Waeschenbach (NERC Postdoctoral Fellow, Zoology), Paul Taylor (Palaeontology) and Tim Littlewood (Zoology) have had accepted for publication the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of bryozoans to date, using mitochondrial and ribosomal genes.

 

This has resulted in a well supported topology (the shape of the phylogenetic tree), providing unambiguous evidence for the interrelationship of the taxonomic classes.  It also provides strong evidence that several presently recognized taxonomic units at various hierarchical levels are each in fact of more than one origin in evolutionary terms - they are non-monophyletic (a monophyletic group has a single ancestor)

 

Using this topology, the work tried to establish the likely larval form and strategy of the ancestral bryozoans, but this gave ambiguous results.  It seems most likely that multiple shifts have occurred between different types of larval nutrition – dependency on yolk provided to the egg (lecithotrophy) and feeding by the bryozoan larva on phytoplankton (planktotrophy).

 

This result, combined with their long fossil record, promises bryozoans to be a suitable phylum to studying links between reproductive strategy and large scale evolutionary patterns, such as speciation rates. This paper is a significant contribution for assessing the interrelationships in a relatively neglected group that offers much promise as an evolutionary model. This work was funded by NERC (NE/E015298/1).

 

Waeschenbach, A., Taylor, P.D., Littlewood, D.T.J. (2011) A molecular phylogeny of bryozoans, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.11.011

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Zoology Department Seminar

Posted by C Lowry Jan 5, 2012

Zoology Department Seminar

 

How many species of marine symbionts are there?

Geoff Boxshall
Department of Zoology, NHM

 

Nearly a quarter of a million described species are known from the oceans and about 2000 new ones are described each year. Our knowledge of the extent of marine biodiversity is growing and we are now better able to estimate how many unknown species are out there….and what groups they belong to. However, there has been no census of marine parasites. By omitting the parasites from our calculations, it seems that we are seriously underestimating species richness in the oceans.  About 40% of the 10,000 described species of marine copepods are parasites or symbionts of host taxa ranging from sponges to mammals. The diversity of marine parasites is underestimated, even in UK waters, and in some groups of marine parasites, such as the tantulocarids and gregarines we have only begun to scratch the surface.

 

AND

 

Polychaete biodiversity in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

Adrian Glover et al.
Department of Zoology, NHM

 

The Amundsen Sea is one of the most poorly-sampled regions of the world for marine fauna. There are almost no published reports of benthic samples from this region, mainly owing to the great distance from ports and heavy sea-ice. During an oceanographic cruise in 2008 with the RRS James Clark Ross we were able to reach Pine Island Bay - a region normally characterised by year-round sea ice – and take a suite of benthic samples at depths from 500 – 1500m. We used an epibenthic sledge to sample the macrofaunal component of the diversity, and recovered just over 200,000 individuals from 36 samples. Here we report the polychaete component of the biodiversity at species level, from approximately 17,000 individuals that have been identified. Many species new to science have been recovered and are being described in accompanying taxonomic projects. At a local scale, there are significant differences in the composition of the fauna within the deep 1500m basins compared to the 500m typical shelf environment. Using published datasets, we also compare diversity on the Antarctic shelf with other comparable deep-sea and shelf data worldwide.

 

TUESDAY 10th January

Neil Chalmers Science Seminar Room (DC.LG16)
12:00 -13:00

 

 

For additional details on attending this seminar see http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/seminars-events/index.html

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Robert Prys-Jones (Zoology) is co-author on a new paper on Indian Ocean Parrot biogeography and evolution being published in Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution. It is the latest in a line of research papers deriving from Robert’s on-going Indian Ocean island research programme, and comprises a comprehensive overview of extant and extinct parrot evolution on western Indian Ocean islands. 

 

NaturalHistoryMuseum_009509_IA.jpg

Psittacula eupatria

 

Parrot diversity around the Indian Ocean is high, with many possible geological, ecological and geographical explanations.This paper examines DNA data from modern and extinct parrots and suggests that the Indian Ocean islands acted as stepping stones in  the radiation of the Old-World parrots, and that past sea-level changes may help to explain distributions and  differences in speciation. A molecular phylogeny shows complex colonisation of Africa, Asia  and the Indian Ocean islands from Australasia via multiple routes, and  of island populations ‘seeding’ continents.


A second paper develops a comprehensive phylogeny of the finches, a large and familiar bird family within which many genus-level relationships have previously been unclear, and is the first product of a co-operation with Dr Per Ericson, Director of Science at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, and is further co-authored by Dr Pamela Rasmussen (Michigan State University Museum), a Scientific Associate of the NHM. The similarity of plumage of finches, and of feeding habits, has in the past given misleading impressions of related groups.  DNA from nuclei and mitochondria give a much clearer and more reliable picture in this paper.

 

  • Kundu, S., Jones, C.G., Prys-Jones, R.P. & Groombridge, J.J. The evolution of the Indian Ocean parrots (Psittaciformes): extinction, adaptive radiation and eustacy. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, Volume 62, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 296-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.09.025
  • Zuccon, D., Prys-Jones, R.P., Rasmussen, P.C. & Ericson, P.G.P. The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae). Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.10.002
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Wild Stardust

Posted by John Jackson Dec 23, 2011

Samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust mission provided an unequalled opportunity to compare previously available extraterrestrial samples against those from a known comet. Iron sulphides are a major constituent of cometary grains commonly identified within cometary interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and Wild 2 samples.  NHM scientists Sara Russell and Anton Kearsley, and Scientific Associate Phil Bland, are key collaborators on a new examination of this unique material.

 

Chemical analyses show that Wild 2 sulphides are fundamentally different from those in IDPs. However, as Wild 2 dust was collected via impact into capture media at approximately 6.1 km s-1, it is unclear whether this is due to original variations in these materials or is due to heating and alteration during collection. The results obtained are consistent with estimated peak pressures and temperatures experienced (approximately 85 GPa, approximately 2600 K) and some may be used to predict original chemistry and estimate mineralogy - the work continues....


Wozniakiewicz P J, Ishii H A, KEARSLEY A T, Burchell M J, BLAND P A, Bradley J P, Dai Z R,   Teslich N, Collins G S, Cole M J & RUSSELL S S 2011. Investigation of iron sulfide impact crater residues: A combined analysis by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 46: 1007-1024.

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Tapeworm genomics

Posted by John Jackson Dec 22, 2011

Genome data represent the largest and most diverse set of heritable characters for comparative evolutionary studies. In collaboration with the The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, we have recently characterised and assembled the complete genome of Hymenolepis microstoma, a classical tapeworm model with over 50 years of literature supporting it.

 

Together with colleagues from the University of Würzburg, Germany, Peter Olson and Magdalena Zarowiecki have recently published the first insights into the gene content and general characteristics of tapeworm genomes based on data from Hymenolepis and the medically important genera Echinococcus and Taenia. Findings show that tapeworms have small genomes at ~150 Mb, compared to ~350 Mb in flukes and over 700 Mb in free-living planarians.

 

Their genomes are compact, containing few repetitive or mobile elements, and appear to contain a majority of common gene families, albeit they may be missing ~10% of 'core' or universal metazoan genes found in free-living animals and typically show a reduction in the number of genes per family. A number of necessary biosynthesis components are missing, such as genes required to synthesise cholesterol, and hence these essential molecules must be taken directly from the host. Data are now publicly available via the Web and promise to accelerate the pace of research in the field by eliminating the need for time consuming and costly genetic manipulations at the bench.


PD Olson, M Zarowiecki, F Kiss and K Brehm (2011). Invited review: Cestode genomics--progress and prospects for understanding basic and applied aspects of flatworm biology. Parasite Immunology [doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.2011.01319.x]

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Publications for last 4 Weeks to (Search done on 13th Dec.)

 

(Search on the basis of ‘Nat SAME Hist SAME Mus* SAME Lon*

Web of Science)

BOTANY

Eiserhardt, W.L., Rohwer, J.G., RUSSELL, S.J., YESILYURT, J.C. & SCHNEIDER, H. 2011. Evidence for radiations of cheilanthoid ferns in the Greater Cape Floristic Region. Taxon, 60(5): 1269-1283.    [Core funded]

HAWKSWORTH, D.L., Crous, P.W., Redhead, S.A., Reynolds, D.R., Samson, R.A., Seifert, K.A., Taylor, J.W., Wingfield, M.J. & Signatories 2011. The Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature. Mycotaxon, 116: 491-500.    [Scientific Associate]

KNAPP, S., McNeill, J. & Turland, N.J. 2011. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you? New Phytologist, 192(3): 569-573.    [Core funded]

KNAPP, S., McNeill, J. & Turland, N.J. 2011. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne: What does e-publication mean for you? Taxon, 60(5): 1498-1501.    [Core funded]

Ligrone, R. & DUCKETT, J.G. 2011. Morphology versus molecules in moss phylogeny: new insights (or controversies) from placental and vascular anatomy in Oedipodium griffithianum. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 296(3-4): 275-282.    [Scientific Associate]

Martin-Bravo, S., Jimenez-Mejias, P. & JARVIS, C.E. 2011. Revised lectotypification of Reseda glauca L. (Resedaceae). Taxon, 60(5): 1478-1479.    [Core funded]

Romeiras, M.M., Paulo, O.S., Duarte, M.C., Pina-Martins, F., Cotrim, M.H., CARINE, M.A. & Pais, M.S. 2011. Origin and diversification of the genus Echium (Boraginaceae) in the Cape Verde archipelago. Taxon, 60(5): 1375-1385.    [Core funded]

Selvi, F. & JARVIS, C.E. 2011. Typification of the name Cynoglossum creticum Mill. (Boraginaceae). Taxon, 60(5): 1477-1477.    [Core funded]

Van de Vijver, B., Juettner, I., Gurung, S., Sharma, C., Sharma, S., de Haan, M. & COX, E.J. 2011. The genus Cymbopleura (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyta) from high altitude freshwater habitats, Everest National Park, Nepal, with the description of two new species. Fottea, 11(2): 245-269.    [Core funded]

ENTOMOLOGY

Bagchi, R., Philipson, C.D., Slade, E.M., Hector, A., Phillips, S., Villanueva, J.F., Lewis, O.T., LYAL, C.H.C., Nilus, R., Madran, A., Scholes, J.D. & Press, M.C. 2011. Impacts of logging on density-dependent predation of dipterocarp seeds in a South East Asian rainforest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 366(1582): 3246-3255.    [Core funded]

BONAL, R., Espelta, J.M. & VOGLER, A.P. 2011. Complex selection on life-history traits and the maintenance of variation in exaggerated rostrum length in acorn weevils. Oecologia, 167(4): 1053-1061.    [PhD student (?), Core funded (jointly with IC)]

Foster, W.A., Snaddon, J.L., Turner, E.C., FAYLE, T.M., COCKERILL, T.D., Ellwood, M.D.F., BROAD, G.R., Chung, A.Y.C., EGGLETON, P., Khen, C.V. & Yusah, K.M. 2011. Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 366(1582): 3277-3291.    [Externally funded, PhD student, Core funded]

Holmes, N., Langdon, P.G., Caseldine, C., BROOKS, S.J. & Birks, H.J.B. 2011. Merging chironomid training sets: implications for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(19-20): 2793-2804.    [Core funded]

Macfadyen, S., Craze, P.G., POLASZEK, A., van Achterberg, K. & Memmott, J. 2011. Parasitoid diversity reduces the variability in pest control services across time on farms. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 278(1723): 3387-3394.    [Core funded]

Morgan, K., O'Loughlin, S.M., Chen, B., LINTON, Y.M., Thongwat, D., Somboon, P., Fong, M.Y., Butlin, R., Verity, R., Prakash, A., Htun, P.T., Hlaing, T., Nambanya, S., Socheat, D., Dinh, T.H. & Walton, C. 2011. Comparative phylogeography reveals a shared impact of pleistocene environmental change in shaping genetic diversity within nine Anopheles mosquito species across the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Molecular Ecology, 20(21): 4533-4549.    [Core funded]

Sinka, M.E., Bangs, M.J., Manguin, S., Chareonviriyaphap, T., Patil, A.P., Temperley, W.H., Gething, P.W., Elyazar, I.R.F., Kabaria, C.W., HARBACH, R.E. & Hay, S.I. 2011. Correction: The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic precis (vol 3, pg 72, 2010). Parasites & Vectors, 4: 210. [Core funded]

STEFKA, J., Hoeck, P.E.A., Keller, L.F. & SMITH, V.S. 2011. A hitchhikers guide to the Galapagos: co-phylogeography of Galapagos mockingbirds and their parasites. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11.    [Externally funded (Marie Curie), Core funded]

Wagele, H., Klussmann-Kolb, A., KUHLMANN, M., Haszprunar, G., Lindberg, D., Koch, A. & Wagele, J.W. 2011. The taxonomist - an endangered race. A practical proposal for its survival. Frontiers in Zoology, 8.    [Core funded]

WILLIAMS, D.J. 2011. Some words used in scale insect names (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea). Zootaxa(3087): 66-68.     [Scientific Associate]

WILLIAMS, P.H., An, J.D. & Huang, J.X. 2011. The bumblebees of the subgenus Subterraneobombus: integrating evidence from morphology and DNA barcodes (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163(3): 813-862.    [Core funded]

Woodcock, P., Edwards, D.P., FAYLE, T.M., Newton, R.J., Khen, C.V., Bottrell, S.H. & Hamer, K.C. 2011. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 366(1582): 3256-3264.    [Externally funded]

Zelazny, B. & WEBB, M.D. 2011. Revision of the planthopper tribe Rhotanini (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Derbidae). Zootaxa(3071): 1-+.    [Core funded]

MINERALOGY

Ferrat, M., WEISS, D.J., STREKOPYTOV, S., Dong, S.F., Chen, H.Y., NAJORKA, J., Sun, Y.B., Gupta, S., Tada, R. & Sinha, R. 2011. Improved provenance tracing of Asian dust sources using rare earth elements and selected trace elements for palaeomonsoon studies on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(21): 6374-6399. [Scientific Associate, Core funded]

KNIGHT, K.S., Marshall, W.G. & Zochowski, S.W. 2011. The low-temperature and high-pressure thermoelastic and structural properties of chalcopyrite, CuFeS(2). Canadian Mineralogist, 49(4): 1015-1034. [Scientific Associate]

Li, J., Li, Q.L., Gioia, R., Zhang, Y.L., Zhang, G., Li, X.D., SPIRO, B., Bhatia, R.S. & Jones, K.C. 2011. PBDEs in the atmosphere over the Asian marginal seas, and the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Atmospheric Environment, 45(37): 6622-6628.    [Scientific Associate]

SELTMANN, R., Konopelko, D., Biske, G., Divaev, F. & Sergeev, S. 2011. Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the context of Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Tien Shan orogenic belt. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 42(5): 821-838.    [Core funded]

WILKINSON, J.J., Crowther, H.L. & Coles, B.J. 2011. Chemical mass transfer during hydrothermal alteration of carbonates: Controls of seafloor subsidence, sedimentation and Zn-Pb mineralization in the Irish Carboniferous. Chemical Geology, 289(1-2): 55-75.     [Scientific Associate]

PALAEONTOLOGY

BARRETT, P.M., Benson, R.B.J., Rich, T.H. & Vickers-Rich, P. 2011. First spinosaurid dinosaur from Australia and the cosmopolitanism of Cretaceous dinosaur faunas. Biology Letters, 7(6): 933-936.    [Core funded]

Becking, L.E., Renema, W., SANTODOMINGO, N.K., Hoeksema, B.W., Tuti, Y. & de Voogd, N.J. 2011. Recently discovered landlocked basins in Indonesia reveal high habitat diversity in anchialine systems. Hydrobiologia, 677(1): 89-105.    [Externally funded (Marie Curie)]

BELLO, S.M., VERVENIOTOU, E., Cornish, L. & PARFITT, S.A. 2011. 3-Dimensional Microscope Analysis of Bone and Tooth Surface Modifications: Comparisons of Fossil Specimens and Replicas. Scanning, 33(5): 316-324.    [Externally funded (AHOB contract)]

Lombardi, C., Cocito, S., Gambi, M.C., Cisterna, B., Flach, F., TAYLOR, P.D., Keltie, K., Freer, A. & Cusack, M. 2011. Effects of ocean acidification on growth, organic tissue and protein profile of the Mediterranean bryozoan Myriapora truncata. Aquatic Biology, 13(3): 251-262.    [Core funded]

Morris, J.L., Edwards, D., RICHARDSON, J.B., Axe, L. & Davies, K.L. 2011. New plant taxa from the Lower Devonian (Lochkovian) of the Welsh Borderland, with a hypothesis on the relationship between hilate and trilete spore producers. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 167(1-2): 51-81.    [Scientific Associate]

ZOOLOGY

Back, J., Lee, W. & HUYS, R. 2011. A new species of Remanea Klie, 1929 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Paramesochridae) with a redescription of the type species. Journal of Natural History, 45(47-48): 2939-2964. [Core funded]

Cunha, M.R., PATERSON, G.L.J., Amaro, T., Blackbird, S., de Stigter, H.C., Ferreira, C., GLOVER, A., Hilario, A., Kiriakoulakis, K., NEAL, L., Ravara, A., Rodrigues, C.F., Tiago, A. & Billett, D.S.M. 2011. Biodiversity of macrofaunal assemblages from three Portuguese submarine canyons (NE  Atlantic). Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58(23-24): 2433-2447.    [Core funded, externally funded]

DISSANAYAKE, R. & Oshida, T. 2012. The systematics of the dusky striped squirrel, Funambulus sublineatus (Waterhouse, 1838) (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and its relationships to Layard's squirrel, Funambulus layardi Blyth, 1849. Journal of Natural History, 46(1-2): 91-116.    [?]

Fehlauer-Ale, K.H. & LITTLEWOOD, D.T.J. 2011. Molecular phylogeny of Potamotrygonocotyle (Monogenea, Monocotylidae) challenges the validity of some of its species. Zoologica Scripta, 40(6): 638-658.    [Core funded]

Green, H.K., SOUSA-FIGUEIREDO, J.C., Basanez, M.-G., Betson, M., Kabatereine, N.B., Fenwick, A. & Stothard, J.R. 2011. Anaemia in Ugandan preschool-aged children: the relative contribution of intestinal parasites and malaria. Parasitology, 138(12): 1534-1545.    [Externally funded]

Lai, J.C.Y., Mendoza, J.C.E., Guinot, D., CLARK, P.F. & Ng, P.K.L. 2011. Xanthidae MacLeay, 1838 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Xanthoidea) systematics: A multi-gene approach with support from adult and zoeal morphology. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 250(4): 407-448.    [Core funded]

LITTLEWOOD, D.T.J. 2011. Systematics as a cornerstone of parasitology: overview and preface. Parasitology, 138(13): 1633-1637.    [Core funded]

Luque, J.L., Aguiar, J.C., Vieira, F.M., GIBSON, D.I. & Santos, C.P. 2011. Checklist of Nematoda associated with the fishes of Brazil. Zootaxa(3082): 1-88.    [Scientific Associate]

Menegon, M., GOWER, D.J. & Loader, S.P. 2011. A remarkable new species of Callulina (Amphibia: Anura: Brevicipitidae) with massive, boldly coloured limb glands. Zootaxa(3095): 15-26.    [Core funded]

Miller, T.L., BRAY, R.A. & Cribb, T.H. 2011. Taxonomic approaches to and interpretation of host specificity of trematodes of fishes: lessons from the Great  Barrier Reef. Parasitology, 138(13): 1710-1722.    [Scientific Associate]

MORTON, B. 2011. The Great Barrier Reef Expedition's "Coral Corroboree", Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 10 July 1928: an historical portent. Archives of Natural History, 38(1): 88-95.    [Scientific Associate]

MORTON, B. 2011. Under mackerel skies. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(10): 2009-2010.    [Scientific Associate]

PATERSON, G.L.J., GLOVER, A.G., Cunha, M.R., NEAL, L., de Stigter, H.C., Kiriakoulakis, K., Billett, D.S.M., Wolff, G.A., Tiago, A., Ravara, A., Lamont, P. & Tyler, P. 2011. Disturbance, productivity and diversity in deep-sea canyons: A worm's eye view. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58(23-24): 2448-2460.    [Core funded, externally funded]

Quilichini, Y., Foata, J., Justine, J.L., BRAY, R.A. & Marchand, B. 2011. Spermatozoon Ultrastructure of Gyliauchen sp (Digenea: Gyliauchenidae), an Intestinal Parasite of Siganus fuscescens (Pisces: Teleostei). Biological Bulletin, 221(2): 197-205.    [Scientific Associate]

STANDLEY, C.J., Wade, C.M. & STOTHARD, J.R. 2011. A Fresh Insight into Transmission of Schistosomiasis: A Misleading Tale of Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria. PLoS ONE, 6(10).    [PhD student, Core funded]

STOTHARD, J.R., SOUSA-FIGUEIREDO, J.C., BETSON, M., GREEN, H.K., Seto, E.Y.W., Garba, A., Sacko, M., Mutapi, F., Nery, S.V., Amin, M.A., Mutumba-Nakalembe, M., Navaratnam, A., Fenwick, A., Kabatereine, N.B., Gabrielli, A.F. & Montresor, A. 2011. Closing the praziquantel treatment gap: new steps in epidemiological monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool-aged children. Parasitology, 138(12): 1593-1606.    [Core funded, Externally funded, other?]

Swiderski, Z., Bakhoum, A.J.S., Montoliu, I., Feliu, C., GIBSON, D.I. & Miquel, J. 2011. Ultrastructural study of vitellogenesis in Maritrema feliui (Digenea, Microphallidae). Parasitology Research, 109(6): 1707-1714.    [Scientific Associate]

Wastling, S.L., Picozzi, K., Wamboga, C., Von Wissmann, B., Amongi-Accup, C., Wardrop, N.A., STOTHARD, J.R., Kakembo, A. & Welburn, S.C. 2011. Latent Trypanosoma brucei gambiense foci in Uganda: a silent epidemic in children and adults? Parasitology, 138(12): 1480-1487.    [Core funded]

ZAROWIECKI, M., Loaiza, J.R. & Conn, J.E. 2011. Towards a new role for vector systematics in parasite control. Parasitology, 138(13): 1723-1729.    [Externally funded]

0

Palaeontology Seminar

 

Atapuerca under the microscope: Some applications of lithic microwear, zooarchaeology, taphomony, and conservation 


Andreu Ollé, Isabel Cáceres, Palmira Saladié, Lucía López-Polín and Antonio Rodríguez

 

Thursday 15th December
Neil Chalmers Seminar Room, DC2 - LG16
11:00-12:00

 

Pal sem 1.bmp

 

Past human behaviour can be reconstructed from the analysis of surface damage, marks and polishes on stone tools and archaeological faunal remains. Their successful interpretation relies on two key factors: the application of appropriate microscopic techniques, and the development of consistent experiments and actualistic observations.

Here we present some methodological advances and case studies using material from Atapuerca (Spain), ranging from the Lower Palaeolithic to the Bronze Age. The importance of conservation and preparation techniques will also be discussed.

 

 

 

For additional details on attending this seminar see http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/seminars-events/index.html

0

Zoology Seminar

 

The Journey to SCAN: A Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM


Aidan EMERY
Department of Zoology, NHM.

 

TUESDAY 13th December
Neil Chalmers Science Seminar Room (DC.LG16)
12:00-13:00

 


A common integrative theme bringing together research, DNA storage and collections management runs through a number of ongoing Biomedical Parasitology group activities.  Much of this is represented in the SCAN project which aims to develop a research repository at NHM using existing and new collections of schistosomiasis-related specimens.  The journey towards SCAN has passed through a number of steps and side-projects which will be reviewed, including:

 

  • Developments in ambient DNA sampling and storage;
  • DNA sampling trials from chemically-fixed museum specimens;
  • Consolidating decades of research specimens;
  • New data collection methods;
  • Working with the new molecular collections facility to develop a biorepository infrastructure.

 

 

 

For additional details on attending this seminar see http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/seminars-events/index.html

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