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February 3, 2011
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Eva Fejer (1927-2011)

Posted by John Jackson Feb 3, 2011

Eva Fejer, X-ray crystallographer in the Museum Mineralogy Department until her retirement in 1987, sadly passed away on 11 January 2011.

 

Eva’s life was full of incident, trauma and adventure which forged her character: indomitable, yet at the same time kind and loving. Fortunately, she documented her account of her life and of working in the Museum in the current Museum Lives project. Many tributes to her and memories of her can be found on www.mindat.org

 

Eva was born at Budapest in 1927. Her father was a prominent lawyer and the family prosperous but war brought traumatic change. Her father was murdered by the Nazis and Eva was sent first as forced labour for Daimler-Benz and subsequently to Ravensbruck concentration camp. After the war she came to the UK with her mother as a refugee.

 

Eva was appointed as an experimental officer in the Mineralogy Department in 1949 and started work in the chemical laboratories under Max Hey. One of her first projects was to contribute on a solution to the Piltdown Man scandal. She later transferred to X-ray Crystallography where she worked with Williams, Bannister and Claringbull, rapidly becoming a specialist in X-ray powder diffraction and single crystal work.

 

Eva was the lead author in the description and naming of the mineral claringbullite; named after her friend and mentor Sir Frank Claringbull (Director 1968-1976). Other new minerals she helped to describe are atheneite, isomertieite, palladseite, keyite, henryite, sweetite, mattheddleite and ashoverite.

 

She translated several books, including Mineral Museums of Europe and The Studio Handbook of Minerals. She also co-authored a number of other popular books (An Instant Guide to Rocks and Minerals, A Collectors Guide to Minerals and Gemstones, Rocks and Minerals) and scientific papers. Her fluency in a number of languages meant she was always in great demand as a translator and she also organised the Museum's first-aiders.

 

In her retirement she maintained an active life: first working for the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards; then working as a volunteer driver for Charing Cross  Hospital for a number of years. She travelled widely, went on several cruises, invariably attended the birthday celebrations for her governess Ilse (now 104) in Budapest, went to school reunions in Budapest and also became a lecturer at summer schools for German schoolchildren at the Ravensbruck concentration camp where she and other Holocaust survivors recounted their terrible experiences in the hope that such atrocities are never repeated.

 

She was deeply loved by her friends and her cousins who are spread around the world. She regularly had lunch with friends in the Palaeontology Department, and always came in to the Museum for Mineralogy Department gatherings.

 

This article is taken from MinNews, the newsletter of the NHM Mineralogy Department

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Intestinal schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma mansoni, is endemic to Lake Victoria, with high prevalence of the disease in human lakeshore communities.  Schistosomiasis caused by S. mansoni and a number of other species affects over 200 million people worldwide and is classified by the World Health Organisation as a Neglected Tropical Disease, associated with poverty and limited access to public health services.

 

Schistosoma mansoni is a trematode worm, related to flukes, and is the focus of research by a number of NHM research scientists.  Understanding the life-cycle (part of which takes place in a snail vector, Biomphalaria) and evolution of the parasite is essential to enable effective disease control to be put in place.  Intestinal schistosomiasis causes a range of debilitating chronic health problems, including organ damage, which contribute to a low quality of life for those affected.

 

parasitic-worm_30542_1.jpg

A scanning electron microscope image of male and female Schistosoma mansoni

 

Although research has led to much better understanding of the life-cycle, nonhuman primates have until recently been overlooked as potential hosts of the disease, despite known susceptibility. NHM PhD student Claire Standley is lead author on a new study, with Russell Stothard and Richard Kane (Zoology) and other co-authors, that has looked at transfer of the parasite between chimps and humans.

 

They examined 39 semi-captive wild-born chimpanzees being cared for at Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria, Uganda, together with 37 staff members for S. mansoni infection. Miracidia (a life stage of the parasite) recovered from faeces were analysed for DNA to investigate cross-over between humans and chimpanzees.The island was also surveyed for Biomphalaria intermediate host snails, which were examined for infection with S. mansoni.

 

Chimpanzees were unequivocally shown to be infected with intestinal schistosomiasis. Miracidia hatched from chimpanzee faeces revealed three S. mansoni DNA profiles (haplotypes) commonly found in humans living throughout Lake Victoria, including staff on Ngamba  Island, as well as two previously undescribed haplotypes. At one site, a snail was observed shedding schistosome cercariae (another life stage of the parasite that is released into water and that enters humans through the skin).

 

The scientists concluded that the potential for transfer of intestinal schistosomiasis between humans and animals on Ngamba  Island is greater than previously thought. In addition, chimpanzees were excreting schistosome eggs that were capable of hatching into viable miracidia.  This suggests that these nonhuman primates may be capable of maintaining a local reservoir of schistosomiasis independently of humans - which in turn means that control strategies focused only on treating the parasite in humans may not be successful: account needs to be taken of possible persistence of schistosomes in animal populations.

 

 

Claire J. Standley, Lawrence Mugisha, Jaco J. Verweij, Moses Adriko, Moses Arinaitwe, Candia Rowell, Aaron Atuhaire, Martha Betson, Emma Hobbs, Christoffer R. van Tulleken, Richard A. Kane, Lisette van Lieshout, Lilly Ajarova, Narcis B. Kabatereine, J. Russell Stothard. Confirmed Infection with Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Semi-Captive Wild-Born Chimpanzees on Ngamba  Island, Uganda.Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. February 2011, 11(2): 169-176. doi:10.1089/vbz.2010.0156.